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1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1875th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 875th year of the 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1875, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 1 – The Midland Railway of England abolishes the Second Class passenger category, leaving First Class and Third Class. Other British railway companies follow Midland's lead during the rest of the year (Third Class is renamed Second Class in 1956).
- January 5 – The Palais Garnier, one of the most famous opera houses in the world, is inaugurated as the home of the Paris Opera.
- January 12 – Guangxu becomes the 11th Qing dynasty Emperor of China at the age of 3, in succession to his cousin.
- Alfonso XII of Spain (Queen Isabella II's son) arrives in Spain to restore the monarchy during the Third Carlist War.
- January 24 – Camille Saint-Saëns' orchestral Danse macabre receives its première.
- February 3 – Third Carlist War: Battle of Lácar – Carlist commander Torcuato Mendíri secures a brilliant victory, when he surprises and routs a Government force under General Enrique Bargés at Lácar, east of Estella, nearly capturing newly crowned King Alfonso XII. The Carlists take several pieces of artillery, more than 2,000 rifles, and 300 prisoners. 800 men of both sides are killed (mostly government troops).
- February 18 – The Mason County War begins, as a German-American mob breaks into a prison, and lynches cattle rustlers in central Texas.
- February 24 – The SS Gothenburg sinks off Australia's east coast with the loss of approximately 102 lives, including a number of high-profile civil servants and dignitaries.
- Yavapai (Wipukyipai) and Tonto Apache (Dil Zhéé) tribes are forced by the United States Cavalry, under command of Brigadier General George Crook, to walk at gunpoint from Arizona's Verde Valley, to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, 180 miles to the southeast. The two tribes are not allowed to return to the Verde Valley until 1900.
- March 1 – The United States Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits racial discrimination in public accommodations and jury duty.
- March 3
- cardinalin the United States.
- April – 'Albert's swarm' of Rocky Mountain locusts begins to devastate the western United States.
- April 10 – The Arya Samaj is founded in Mumbai by Swami Dayananda Saraswati.
- May 7
- May 17 – Aristides wins the first Kentucky Derby.
- May 20 – The Metre Convention is signed in Paris, France.
- June – The record-setting American clipper Flying Cloud of 1851 is burned for scrap metal.
- Jarvis Field in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- June 18 – The Dublin whiskey fire in Ireland leaves 13 people dead and causes more than €6 million worth of damage.
- June 29 – The Artisans' and Labourers' Dwellings Improvement Act 1875 is passed in the United Kingdom, to permit slum clearance.
- Summer – Third Carlist War in Spain: Two government armies under General Quesada and Martínez Campos start encroaching on Carlist territory. Both they and their Carlist opponent (Mendiri) drive opposing sympathisers from their homes, and burn crops in areas they can not hold. Several Carlist generals (Dorregaray, Savalls, and others) are unjustly put on trial for disloyalty. Mendiri is also removed from his command, and replaced by the Count of Caserta. Despite having 48 infantry battalions, 3 cavalry regiments, 2 engineer battalions, and 100 pieces of artillery at his disposal, Caserta is heavily outnumbered by the government forces opposing him.
- General Postal Unionis established.
- July 1–7 – Third Carlist War: Battle of Treviño – Advancing on the key city of Vitoria, in Navarre, Spanish Republican commander General Jenardo de Quesada sends General Tello to attack the Carlist lines just to the southwest, at Treviño. The newly appointed Carlist commander General José Pérula is heavily defeated and withdraws, and soon afterwards Quesada enters Vitoria in triumph.
- July 9 – Asia's first stock exchange is established as The Native Share & Stock Brokers Association (the modern-day Bombay Stock Exchange).
- July 11 – Tanaka Manufacturing, a telecommunications factory in Ginza, Tokyo, a predecessor of Toshiba, a Japanese electromechanics giant, is founded.
- July 28 – Joe Borden throws the first no-hitter in baseball history versus Mike Golden and the Chicago White Stockings in his third start as a replacement for Cherokee Fisher as a member of the Philadelphia White Stockings
- August 6 – Hibernian F.C. is founded by Irishmen in Edinburgh, Scotland.
- August 25 – Captain Matthew Webb becomes the first person to swim the English Channel.
- Irish-American anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires", in Pennsylvania.
- Yohannes IV defeats an army led by Werner Munzinger.
- September 11 – Egypt adopts the Gregorian calendar, having previously used the Alexandrian calendar.
- September 24 – The 1864 play Heath Cobblers by Aleksis Kivi is premiered for the first time in Oulu, Finland.
- September 27 – American merchant sailing ship Ellen Southard is wrecked off Liverpool in England; 12 crew and life-boatmen are lost.
- October – The Ottoman state declares partial bankruptcy, and places its finances in the hands of European creditors. It is also suffering widespread nationalist rebellions resulting in Russian intervention and Great Power tensions.
- October 16 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.
- October 25 – The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts, with Hans von Bülow as soloist.
- October 30 – The Theosophical Society is founded in New York by Helena Blavatsky, H. S. Olcott, W. Q. Judge, and others.
- November 5 – Blackburn Rovers F.C. is founded in England by two old-boys of Shrewsbury School following a meeting at the Leger Hotel, Blackburn.
- November 9 – American Indian Wars: In Washington, D.C., Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins issues a report stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States (the Battle of the Little Bighorn is fought in Montana the next year).
- November 16 – Battle of Gundat: Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV defeats another Egyptian army.
- Kyōto, Japan.
- Boss Tweedescapes from prison and flees to Spain.
- December 6
- December 9 – The Massachusetts Rifle Association, America's oldest active gun club, is formed.
- December 20 – The ICRM is renamed the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
- December 25 – The first Edinburgh derby in Association football is played: Heart of Midlothian F.C. wins 1–0 against Hibernian F.C.
- Convent Scandal: During the winter in Montreal,
- At Wimbledon, Henry Cavendish Jones convinces the All England Croquet Club to replace a croquet lawn with a lawn tennis court.
- The opening of Flushing High School, the oldest public high school in New York City.
- January 3 – Alexandros Diomidis, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1950)
- January 5 – J. Stuart Blackton, American film producer (d. 1941)
- January 6 – Leslie Green, English architect (d. 1908)
- January 7 – Thomas Hicks, English-born American marathon runner (d. 1952)
- January 9 – Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, American sculptor, socialite (d. 1942)
- January 11 – Reinhold Glière, Russian composer (d. 1956)
- January 14
- January 15
- January 22 – D. W. Griffith, American film director (The Birth of a Nation) (d. 1948)
- February 1 – Eddie Polo, Austrian-American actor (d. 1961)
- February 2 – Fritz Kreisler, Austrian violinist (d. 1962)
- February 4 – Ludwig Prandtl, German physicist (d. 1953)
- February 7 – Erkki Melartin, Finnish composer (d. 1937)
- February 8 – Valentine O'Hara, Irish author, authority on Russia and the Baltic states (d. 1941)
- February 21 – Jeanne Calment, French supercentenarian, world's longest lived person (d. 1997)
- February 26 – Emma Dunn, British-born stage, screen actress (d. 1966)
- March 4 – Mihály Károlyi, Prime Minister and President of Hungary (d. 1955)
- March 7 – Maurice Ravel, French composer (d. 1937)
- March 8 – Kenkichi Ueda, Japanese general (d. 1962)
- March 9 – Juan de Dios Martínez, 23rd President of Ecuador (d. 1955)
- March 19 – Zhang Zuolin, Chinese bandit, soldier, and warlord (d. 1928)
- March 26 – Syngman Rhee, President of South Korea (d. 1965)
- March 28 – Helen Westley, American stage, film actress (d. 1942)
- April 1 – Edgar Wallace, English author (d. 1932)
- April 2 – Walter Chrysler, American automobile pioneer (d. 1940)
- April 4
- April 5 – Mistinguett, French singer (d. 1956)
- April 8 – King Albert I of Belgium (d. 1934)
- April 15 – James J. Jeffries, American boxer (d. 1953)
- April 18 – Abd-ru-shin, German author (d. 1941)
- May 2 – Owen Roberts, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1955)
- May 6 – William D. Leahy, American admiral (d. 1959)
- May 11 – Harriet Quimby, American pilot (d. 1912)
- May 12
- May 23 – Alfred P. Sloan, American automobile industrialist (d. 1966)
- June 4 – Albert E. Smith, English stage magician, film director and producer (d. 1958)
- June 6
- June 9 – Henry Hallett Dale, English pharmacologist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1968)
- June 12 – Sam De Grasse, Canadian actor (d. 1953)
- June 15 – Herman Smith-Johannsen, Norwegian supercentenarian (d. 1987)
- Diedrich Westermann, German linguist (d. 1956)
- June 28 – Henri Lebesgue, French mathematician (d. 1941)
- July 3
- July 10
- July 25 – Jim Corbett, Anglo-Indian hunter, conservationist and author (d. 1955)
- July 26
- August 8 – Arthur Bernardes, 12th President of Brazil (d. 1955)
- August 10 – Florrie Forde, Australian-born music hall singer (d. 1940)
- August 15 – Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, English composer (d. 1912)
- August 16 – Juho Sunila, Prime Minister of Finland (d. 1936)
- August 21 – Winnifred Eaton, Canadian author (d. 1954)
- August 26 – John Buchan, Scottish-Canadian novelist, historian and politician, 15th Governor General of Canada (d. 1940)
- August 27 – Katharine McCormick, American suffragist (d. 1967)
- August 29 – Leonardo De Lorenzo, Italian flautist (d. 1962)
- August 31 – Rosa Lemberg, Namibian-born Finnish American teacher, singer and choral conductor (d. 1959)
- September 1 – Edgar Rice Burroughs, American author (d. 1950)
- September 3 – Ferdinand Porsche, Austrian automotive engineer (d. 1951)
- J. C. Penney (d. 1971)
- September 18 – Tomás Burgos, Chilean philanthropist (d. 1945)
- September 20 – Matthias Erzberger, German politician (assassinated 1921)
- September 22 – Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Lithuanian composer (d. 1911)
- October – George Ranetti, Romanian poet, publicist (d. 1928)
- October 1 – Eugeen Van Mieghem, Belgian painter (d. 1930)
- October 12 – Aleister Crowley, British occultist (d. 1947)
- October 23 – Gilbert N. Lewis, American chemist (d. 1946)
- October 31 – Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian political leader ("Iron Man of India") (d. 1950)
- November 8 – Qiu Jin, Chinese revolutionary, writer and feminist (executed 1907)
- November 14 – Gregorio del Pilar, Filipino general (k. in action 1899)
- November 17 – Birger Eriksen, Norwegian military officer, sinker of the Blücher (d. 1958)
- November 30 – Otto Strandman, 1st Prime Minister of Estonia (d. 1941)
- December 4 – Rainer Maria Rilke, Austrian poet (d. 1926)
- December 5 – Arthur Currie, Canadian general (d. 1933)
- December 6 – Evelyn Underhill, British writer (d. 1941)
- December 11 – Yehuda Leib Maimon, Bassarabian-born Israeli rabbi, government minister (d. 1962)
- December 12 – Gerd von Rundstedt, German field marshal (d. 1953)
- December 15 – Emilio Jacinto, Filipino poet, revolutionary (d. 1899)
- December 19 – Mileva Marić, Albert Einstein's first wife (d. 1948)
- December 24 – Otto Ender, 8th Chancellor of Austria (d. 1960)
- December 25 – Theodor Innitzer, Austrian Catholic cardinal (d. 1955)
- January 12 – Tongzhi Emperor, 8th emperor of Qing dynasty (b. 1856)
- January 20 – Jean-François Millet, French painter (b. 1814)
- January 23 – Charles Kingsley, English writer (b. 1819)
- February 5 – Birgitte Andersen, Danish actress and ballet dancer (b.1791)
- February 7 – Edmund Spangler, American stagehand at Ford's Theatre (b. 1825)
- February 22
- March 1 – Tristan Corbière, French poet (b. 1845)
- April 4 – Karl Mauch, German explorer (b. 1837)
- April 17 – Marija Milutinović Punktatorka, Serbian lawyer (b. 1810)
- April 25 – the 12th Dalai Lama (b. 1857)
- May 20 – Amalia of Oldenburg, Greek queen (b. 1818)
- Eliphas Lévi, French occult author, magician (b. 1810)
- June 2 – Józef Kremer, Polish philosopher (b. 1806)
- June 3 – Georges Bizet, French composer (b. 1838)
- June 4 – Eduard Mörike, German poet (b. 1804)
- June 25 – Antoine-Louis Barye, French sculptor (b. 1796)
- June 29 – Ferdinand I of Austria, Emperor of Austria (b. 1793)
- July 8 – Francis Preston Blair Jr., American politician, Civil War officer (b. 1821)
- July 29 – Paschal Beverly Randolph, American occultist (b. 1825)
- July 30 – George Pickett, American Confederate general (b. 1825)
- July 31 – Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States (b. 1808)
- August 4 – Hans Christian Andersen, Danish writer (b. 1805)
- August 6 – Gabriel García Moreno, President of Ecuador (b. 1821)
- August 10 – Karl Andree, German geographer (b. 1808)
- Confederate States Senator (1864-1865) (b. 1804)
- August 12 – János Kardos, Hungarian Slovenes evangelic priest, teacher and writer (b. 1801)
- August 16 – Prince Karl Theodor of Bavaria, Bavarian field marshal (b. 1795)
- August 17 – Wilhelm Bleek, German linguist (b. 1827)
- August 25 – Charles Auguste Frossard, French general (b. 1807)
- August 27 – William Chapman Ralston, American banker and financier (b. 1826)
- September 12 – Chauncey Wright, American philosopher and mathematician (b. 1830)
- September 22 – Charles Bianconi, Italian-Irish entrepreneur (b. 1786)
- October 10 – Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Russian writer (b. 1817)
- October 12 – Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, French sculptor, painter (b. 1827)
- October 15 – Chief Lone Horn, Native American Chief (b. 1790)
- October 19 – Sir Charles Cowper, Australian politician, Premier of New South Wales (b. 1807)
- October 24 – Jacques Paul Migne, French priest, theologian, and publisher (b. 1800)
- November 14 – Werner Munzinger, Swiss adventurer (b. 1832)
- November 21 – Orris S. Ferry, American Civil War general and politician (b. 1823)
- William Backhouse Astor, Sr., American businessman (b. 1792)
- November 27 – Richard Christopher Carrington, English astronomer (b. 1826)
- November 29 – Maximilian Piotrowski, Polish painter, Kunstakademie Königsberg professor (b. 1813)
- December 13 – Théonie Rivière Mignot, American restauranter and businesswoman (b. 1819)
- December 25 – Young Tom Morris, Scottish golfer (b. 1851)
- Gold, Martin (2012). Forbidden Citizens: Chinese Exclusion and the U.S. Congress: A Legislative History. TheCapitol.Net. p. 525.
- Muse, Erike A. (2015). "Page Act (1875)". In Ling, Huping; Austin, Allan W. (eds.). Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis.
- Smith, Ronald A. (1988). Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics. New York: Oxford University Press.
- ja:田中久重/田中製造所の設立と晩年 (Japanese language edition) Retribute date 4 December 2018.
- "The Origins of Hibernian - Part 1". Hibernian FC: The Official Website. August 11, 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Aleksis Kivi". Naytelmat.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved September 24, 2023.
- "The Early Years 1875-1904" (PDF). When Football Was Football. Haynes. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
- "1875–1884: The early years". Blackburn Rovers F.C. July 2, 2007. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- "The Purpose of the Foundation of Doshisha University | About Doshisha | Doshisha University". www.doshisha.ac.jp. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
- This inspires Gerard Manley Hopkins' poem The Wreck of the Deutschland, not published until 1918.
- "Disasters – Names". Durham Mining Museum. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- History of Medicine Days Archived 2004-06-15 at the Wayback Machine, p. 132.
- Leitzinger, Antero (June 22, 2011). "Clay, Rosa Emilia (1875 - 1959)". Finnish Literature Society (in Finnish). Retrieved June 27, 2023.
- "Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875)". National Records of Scotland. May 31, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
Further reading and year books
- 1875 Annual Cyclopedia (1876) highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" for year 1875; massive compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage; 801pp