Arizona

Coordinates: 35°N 112°W / 35°N 112°W / 35; -112 (State of Arizona)
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Arizona
State of Arizona
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
Map of the United States with Arizona highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehood
Arizonan[9]
Language
 • Official languageEnglish
 • Spoken languageAs of 2010
  • English 74.1%
  • Spanish 19.5%
  • Navajo 1.9%
  • Other 4.5%
MDT)
USPS abbreviation
AZ
ISO 3166 codeUS-AZ
Traditional abbreviationAriz.
Latitude31°20′ N to 37° N
Longitude109°03′ W to 114°49′ W
Websiteaz.gov

Arizona (

Baja California
to the south and southwest.

Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.

national parks, and national monuments
.

Arizona's population and economy have grown dramatically since the 1950s because of inward migration, and the state is now a major hub of the Sun Belt. Cities such as Phoenix and Tucson have developed large, sprawling suburban areas. Many large companies, such as PetSmart and Circle K,[12] have headquarters in the state, and Arizona is home to major universities, including the University of Arizona and Arizona State University. The state is known for a history of conservative politicians such as Barry Goldwater and John McCain, though it has become a swing state since the 1990s.

Arizona is home to a diverse population. About one-quarter of the state

.

Etymology

The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the

O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning 'small spring'. Initially this term was applied by Spanish colonists only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora.[15][16][17][18] To the European settlers, the O'odham pronunciation sounded like Arissona.[19] The area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.[11]

Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona 'the good oak', as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.[20][21][22] A native-born Mexican of Basque ancestry established the ranchería (small rural settlement) of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora. It became notable after a significant discovery of silver there around 1737.[23]

The misconception that the state's name purportedly originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona 'Arid Zone' is considered a case of folk etymology.[19]

History

For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to many ancient Native American civilizations. Hohokam, Mogollon, and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among those that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived and attract thousands of tourists each year.

La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau, depicts Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540–1542 expedition. García López de Cárdenas can be seen overlooking the Grand Canyon
.

In 1539,

Cíbola.[24] Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar.[25]

Society of Jesus ("Jesuits"), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775.[26]

When Mexico achieved its independence from the

Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California ("Upper California").[27] Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo
settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of later European-American migrants from the United States.

During the

Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912.[28] The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of $15 million in compensation (equivalent to $507,346,153.85 in 2022) be paid to the Republic of Mexico.[29] In 1853, the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.[30]

What is now the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the

Territory of New Mexico from 1850 until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona.[31] This newly established territory was formally organized by the federal government of the Confederate States on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona,[32] marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona". The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men, horses, and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Arizona has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass
(1862).

The Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory, in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863.[33] These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona.[34] The capital was later moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory.[35]

Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory,

Pima people of the Gila River Valley
. It was probably considered – and rejected – for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona".)

Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were in a part of the former New Mexico Territory
.

During the nineteenth century, a series of gold and silver rushes occurred in the territory, the best known being the 1870s stampede to the silver bonanzas of

ghost towns across the territory, but copper mining continued to prosper with the territory producing more copper than any other state by 1907, which earned Arizona the nickname "the Copper State" at the time of statehood.[40][41] During the first years of statehood the industry experienced growing pains and labor disputes with the Bisbee Deportation of 1917 the result of a copper miners' strike.[42]

20th century to present

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, many Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona. The Mexicans won the first battle and the Americans won the latter.

After Mexican federal troops fired on U.S. soldiers, the American garrison launched an assault into

Yaqui Indians
who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico.

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.[43]

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression.[44] But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West". Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).[45] [46]

Arizona was the site of German prisoner of war camps during World War II and

Aleutian Islands Campaign in June 1942), from 1942 to 1945, persons of Japanese descent were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses. The camps were abolished after World War II.[48]

The Phoenix-area German P.O.W. site was purchased after the war by the

Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled in these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.[49]

Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World War II. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, of the

Harrison and Austin v. Laveen, to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor.[50]

Arizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II, aided by the widespread use of

Arizona Secretary of State
's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter.

In the 1960s,

snowbirds
.

In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office.[51] In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley. Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.

In the 21st century, Arizona has frequently garnered national attention for its efforts to quell illegal immigration into the state. In 2004, voters passed Proposition 200, requiring proof of citizenship to register to vote. The Supreme Court of the United States struck this restriction down in 2013.[52] In 2010, Arizona enacted SB 1070 which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, but the Supreme Court also invalidated parts of this law in Arizona v. United States in 2012.[53]

On January 8, 2011, a gunman shot congresswoman Gabby Giffords and 18 others at a gathering in Tucson. Giffords was critically wounded. The incident sparked national attention regarding incendiary political rhetoric.[54]

Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.

Geography

Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the

state trust land and Native American reservations. There are 24 National Park Service maintained sites in Arizona, including the three national parks of Grand Canyon National Park, Saguaro National Park, and the Petrified Forest National Park.[55]

Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence. Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau (see Arizona Mountains forests).

Like other states of the

ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.[58]

The Mogollon Rim (/ ˌmoʊ gəˈyoʊn /), a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history until 2011.

Located in northern Arizona, the

Seven Natural Wonders of the World and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park – one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth
's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow.[59] A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile (1.6 kilometers) wide and 570 feet (170 m) deep.

Arizona is one of two U.S. states, along with Hawaii, that does not observe

Daylight Saving Time, though the large Navajo Nation
in the state's northeastern region does.

Adjacent states

Climate

Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.[60]

About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 °F (32 to 49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.

Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.[61]

Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 ft (760 m). The swings can be as large as 83 °F (46 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm),

Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes
to occur in Arizona.

Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts.[65]

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).[66]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona[67]
Location July (°F) July (°C) December (°F) December (°C)
Phoenix 106/83 41/28 66/45 19/7
Tucson 100/74 38/23 65/39 18/4
Yuma 107/82 42/28 68/46 20/8
Flagstaff 81/51 27/11 42/17 6/−8
Prescott 89/60 32/16 51/23 11/−5
Kingman 98/66 37/19 56/32 13/0

Cities and towns

View of suburban development in Scottsdale
, 2006

Phoenix, in Maricopa County, is Arizona's capital and largest city. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (Arizona's third largest city), Chandler (Arizona's fourth largest city), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.7 million.[68] The average high temperature in July, 106 °F (41 °C), is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal.

Tucson, with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city. Located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix, it was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 °F (18 °C). Saguaro National Park, just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains, is the site of the world's largest collection of Saguaro cacti.

The

Yavapai County
area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns is the state's third largest metropolitan area. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C).

Metropolitan Statistical Area
has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.

Flagstaff, in Coconino County, is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contains Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east–west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.

Lake Havasu City, in Mohave County, known as "Arizona's playground", was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu City has a population of about 57,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963.[69] It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.[70]

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Arizona
Source:[71]
Rank
Name
County
Pop.
Rank
Name
County
Pop.
1 Phoenix Maricopa 1,624,569 11 Goodyear Maricopa 101,733
2 Tucson Pima 543,242 12 Buckeye Maricopa 101,315
3 Mesa Maricopa 509,475 13 Yuma Yuma 97,093
4 Chandler Maricopa 279,458 14 Avondale Maricopa 90,564
5 Gilbert Maricopa 273,136 15 Flagstaff Coconino 76,989
6 Glendale Maricopa 249,630 16 Queen Creek Maricopa / Pinal 66,346
7 Scottsdale Maricopa 242,753 17 Maricopa Pinal 62,720
8 Peoria Maricopa 194,917 18 Lake Havasu City Mohave 58,284
9 Tempe Maricopa 184,118 19 Casa Grande Pinal 57,699
10 Surprise Maricopa 149,191 20 Marana Pima 54,895

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18606,482
18709,65849.0%
188040,440318.7%
189088,243118.2%
1900122,93139.3%
1910204,35466.2%
1920334,16263.5%
1930435,57330.3%
1940499,26114.6%
1950749,58750.1%
19601,302,16173.7%
19701,770,90036.0%
19802,718,21553.5%
19903,665,22834.8%
20005,130,63240.0%
20106,392,01724.6%
20207,151,50211.9%
2022 (est.)7,359,1972.9%
Sources: 1910–2020[72]
Note that early censuses
may not include
Native Americans in Arizona

2022[73]

The

2010 United States census.[72]

Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.[74] The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white".[75][76] Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply.[77] As of 2011, 61% of Arizona's children under age one belonged to racial groups of color. [78]

The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).[79] As of July 2018, the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.9 million.

According to the 2010 United States census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 8% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S.[80][b]

Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7 million) and Tucson (1.0 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population.

According to HUD's 2022 Annual Homeless Assessment Report, there were an estimated 13,553 homeless people in Arizona.[81][82]

Race and ethnicity

Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census
Race and ethnicity[83] Alone Total
White (non-Hispanic)
53.4% 53.4
 
56.8% 56.8
 
Hispanic or Latino[c] 30.7% 30.7
 
African American (non-Hispanic) 4.4% 4.4
 
5.5% 5.5
 
Native American (non-Hispanic) 3.7% 3.7
 
4.9% 4.9
 
Asian 3.5% 3.5
 
4.5% 4.5
 
Pacific Islander 0.2% 0.2
 
0.4% 0.4
 
Other 0.4% 0.4
 
1.2% 1.2
 
Historical racial demographics
Racial composition 1970[84] 1990[84] 2000[85] 2010[86]
White
(non-Hispanic)
74.3% 71.7% 63.8% 57.8%
Native (non-Hispanic) 5.4% 5.6% 5.0% 4.6%
Black
(non-Hispanic)
- - - 4.1%
Asian
- - - 2.8%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
- 0.2%
Other race
- - - 11.6%
Two or more races
- 3.4%

Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2019, were:[87]

  1. English
    (58%)
  2. African (12%)
  3. German
    (9%)
  4. Asian
    (7%)
  5. Irish
    (7%)

Languages

Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Arizona
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[88]
Spanish 21%
Navajo 2%
German <1%
Chinese (including Mandarin) <1%
Tagalog <1%
Vietnamese <1%
Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona
)
<1%
French <1%
Arabic
<1%
Apache
<1%
Korean <1%
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley

As of 2010[update], 73% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age five and older spoke only English at home, while 21% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 2% (85,602)

mother language other than English.[88]

Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as more than 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo,[89] and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005.[89] Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.[90]

Religion

The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac
, founded in 1700

Religious self-identification, per Public Religion Research Institute's 2022 American Values Survey[91]

  Protestantism (32%)
  Catholicism (24%)
  Mormonism (6%)
  Unaffilated (31%)
  Judaism (2%)
  New Age (1%)
  Other (3%)

The 2010 U.S. Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study by ARDA reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic Church had the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 392,918 members reported and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestant churches, reporting 281,105 adherents. The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 811 congregations) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations).[92] This census accounted for about 2.4 million of Arizona's 6.4 million residents in 2010.

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:[93][94]

Religion 2010 population 2000 population
Unclaimed[95][96] 4,012,089
Catholic Church
930,001 974,884
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 410,263 251,974
Non-denominational Christianity 281,105 63,885[d]
Southern Baptist Convention 126,830 138,516
Assemblies of God 123,713 82,802
United Methodist Church 54,977 53,232
Christian Churches and Churches of Christ
48,386 33,162
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 42,944 69,393
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod 26,322 24,977
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
26,078 33,554
Episcopal Church (United States) 24,853 31,104
Seventh-day Adventist Church 20,924 11,513
Church of the Nazarene 16,991 18,143
Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ 14,350 0
Churches of Christ 14,151 14,471

Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010 with more than 32,000 adherents, followed by Judaism with more than 20,000 and Buddhism with more than 19,000.[93][97][98]

By the publication of the Public Religion Research Institute's 2020 study, 68% of the population identified as Christian.[99] At the Pew Research Center's 2014 study, 67% of Arizona was Christian.[100] Among the irreligious population from 2014 to 2020 per both studies, they have decreased from 27% of the population to 24% of self-identified irreligious or agnostic Arizonans. Additionally, a third separate study by the Association of Religion Data Archives in 2020 determined Christianity as the dominant religion in the state, with Catholics numbering 1,522,410 adherents and non-denominational Christians increasing to 402,842 Arizonan Christians.[101]

Economy

The 2020 total

gross state product was $373 billion. The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse, although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors.[102]

The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a

median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean.[103] Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate
(tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

Employment

The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with more than 39,000 employees (2016). As of August 2020, the state's unemployment rate was 5.9%.[105]

The largest employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2020, Nonfarm Employment):[105]

Sector Employees
Trade, transportation, and utilities 553,300
Education and health services 459,400
Government 430,400
Professional and business services 419,200
Leisure and hospitality 269,400
Financial activities 231,900
Manufacturing 170,900
Construction 169,900
Other services 95,600
Information 46,100
Mining and logging 13,300
State symbols of Arizona
Arizona quarter dollar coin
Released in 2008
Lists of United States state symbols

Largest employers

According to The Arizona Republic, the largest private employers in the state as of 2019 were:[106]

Rank Company Employees Industry
1 Banner Health 44,718
Healthcare
2 Walmart Stores, Inc. 34,071
Discount retailer
3 Kroger Co. 20,530 Grocery stores
4 Wells Fargo & Co. 16,161 Financial services
5
Albertsons Inc.
14,500 Grocery stores, retail drugstores
6 McDonald's Corp. 13,000
Food service
7 CVS Health 12,100
Healthcare
8
Raytheon Co.
12,000
Defense
9 HonorHealth 11,919
Healthcare
10 Dignity Health 10,562
Healthcare
11
Intel Corp.
10,400
Semiconductor manufacturing
12 Home Depot Inc. 10,200 Retail home improvement
13 (tie) JP Morgan Chase & Co. 10,000 Financial services
American Airlines 10,000 Airline
15 Tenet Healthcare 9,483
Healthcare
16 Bank of America Corp. 9,200 Financial services
17 Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. 8,759 Mining
18
Bashas' Supermarkets
8,519 Grocery stores
19
Amazon.com
8,500
Online Shopping
20 Target Corp. 8,400
Discount retailer
21 Honeywell International Inc. 7,792
Aerospace manufacturing
22 Circle K Corp. 7,478 Convenience stores
23
Mayo Foundation
7,436
Healthcare
24 State Farm 7,200 Insurance
25
UnitedHealthcare
7,194
Healthcare

Taxation

Tax is collected by the Arizona Department of Revenue.[107]

Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.59%, 2.88%, 3.36%, 4.24% and 4.54%.[108] The state transaction privilege tax is 5.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.

In 2020, Arizona voters approved Proposition 208 to create an additional income tax bracket of 8% for incomes over $250,000 (single filers) and $500,000 (joint filers).[109] The Goldwater Institute filed a lawsuit challenging it, but it was rejected by Maricopa County Arizona Superior Court judge John Hannah Jr.[110][111]

The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.

All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.[citation needed]

Single Tax rate Joint Tax rate
0 – $10,000 2.59% 0 – $20,000 2.59%
$10,000 – $25,000 2.88% $20,001 – $50,000 2.88%
$25,000 – $50,000 3.36% $50,001 – $100,000 3.36%
$50,000 – $150,001 4.24% $100,000 – $300,001 4.24%
$150,001 + 4.54% $300,001 + 4.54%

Agriculture

Multiple crops are grown in Arizona, including

Federal

The whitefly

Q biotype (from the Mediterranean) was first found here, also on poinsettia.[114]

The Colorado Potato Beetle (

Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is either native or an early introduction here.[115] Unusually, the population here commonly feeds on Silverleaf Nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium), which is usually a less attractive host for this beetle.[115] The CPB is an occasional pest of tomato.[115]

Transportation

Entering Arizona on I-10 from New Mexico

Highways

Interstate highways

I-8 | I-10 | Future I-11 | I-15 | I-17 | I-19 | I-40

U.S. routes

US 180 | US 191

Main Interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north–south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east–west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of

Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail, was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe.[117]

In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.[118]

Benson. Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the rerouting of the Sunset Limited, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa. As of 2021, Amtrak has proposed to restore rail service between Phoenix and Tucson.[119]

Law and government

Capitol complex

The capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900) when the area was a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.[120]

The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. The site also includes many monuments and memorials, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments.

State legislative branch

The

bicameral and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.[121]

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can be extended only by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The majority party is the

Democratic Party picked up several legislative seats in recent elections, bringing both chambers one seat away from being equally divided as of 2021.[122]

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is common for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

State executive branch

State of Arizona
elected officials
Governor
Katie Hobbs (D)
Secretary of State Adrian Fontes (D)
Attorney General Kris Mayes (D)
State Treasurer Kimberly Yee (R)
Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Horne (R)
State Mine Inspector Paul Marsh (R)
Corporation Commissioner
Speaker of the House

Ben Toma (R)

President of the Senate

Warren Petersen (R)

Arizona's executive branch is headed by a

governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that has no governor's mansion. During their term, the governors reside within their private residence, with executive offices housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The governor of Arizona is Katie Hobbs
(D).

Governor Jan Brewer assumed office in 2009 after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the Senate.[123] Arizona has had four female governors, more than any other state.

Other elected executive officials include the

State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector, and a five-member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to four terms).[124]

Arizona is one of five states that do not have a lieutenant governor. The elected secretary of state is first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. If appointed, the Secretary of State is not eligible and the next governor is selected from the next eligible official in the line of succession, including the attorney general, state treasurer, and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have succeeded to Arizona's governorship.

State judicial branch

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona, consisting of a chief justice, a vice chief justice, and five associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission and must be sustained in office by election after the first two years following their appointment. Subsequent sustaining elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but nearly all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals first. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).

The Arizona Court of Appeals, subdivided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of nineteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of nine judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.

Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.

Counties

Cochise County
Courthouse in Bisbee

Arizona is divided into 15 counties, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km2) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km2).

Arizona counties
County name County seat Founded 2020 population[125] Percent of total Area (sq mi) Percent of total
Apache St. Johns February 24, 1879 66,021 0.9% 11,218 9.8%
Cochise Bisbee February 1, 1881 125,447 1.8% 6,219 5.5%
Coconino Flagstaff February 18, 1891 145,101 2.0% 18,661 16.4%
Gila Globe February 8, 1881 53,272 0.7% 4,796 4.2%
Graham Safford March 10, 1881 38,533 0.5% 4,641 4.1%
Greenlee Clifton March 10, 1909 9,563 0.1% 1,848 1.6%
La Paz Parker January 1, 1983 16,557 0.2% 4,513 4.0%
Maricopa Phoenix February 14, 1871 4,420,568 61.8% 9,224 8.1%
Mohave Kingman November 9, 1864 213,267 3.0% 13,470 11.8%
Navajo Holbrook March 21, 1895 106,717 1.5% 9,959 8.7%
Pima Tucson November 9, 1864 1,043,433 14.6% 9,189 8.1%
Pinal Florence February 1, 1875 425,264 6.0% 5,374 4.7%
Santa Cruz Nogales March 15, 1899 47,669 0.7% 1,238 1.1%
Yavapai Prescott November 9, 1864 236,209 3.3% 8,128 7.1%
Yuma Yuma November 9, 1864 203,881 2.9% 5,519 4.8%
Totals: 15 7,151,502 113,997

Federal representation

Arizona's two United States Senators are Kyrsten Sinema (I) and Mark Kelly (D).

Arizona's United States Representatives are

Raul Grijalva (D-7), Debbie Lesko (R-8), and Paul Gosar (R-9). Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on the 2010 United States census
.

Political culture

Voter registration as of April 2023[126]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Republican 1,441,026 34.57%
Other 1,430,950 34.33%
Democratic 1,263,056 30.30%
Libertarian 33,367 0.80%
No Labels 17 0.00%
Total 4,168,416 100.00%

From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the

Democratic Party. During this time, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928 – all three were national Republican
landslides.

In 1924, Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations. Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship".

Department of the Interior, and the American Civil Liberties Union all filed amicus curiae (friends of the court) briefs in the case. The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state; at the time, they comprised about 11% of the population.[50] That year, a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico when challenged by another Indian veteran in court. These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting.[127][50]

Arizona voted Republican in every presidential election from 1952 to 1992, with Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan winning the state by particularly large margins. During this forty-year span, it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once.

United States presidential election results for Arizona[128]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 1,661,686 48.91% 1,672,143 49.22% 63,559 1.87%
2016 1,252,401 48.08% 1,161,167 44.58% 191,089 7.34%
2012 1,233,654 53.48% 1,025,232 44.45% 47,673 2.07%
2008 1,230,111 53.39% 1,034,707 44.91% 39,020 1.69%
2004 1,104,294 54.77% 893,524 44.32% 18,284 0.91%
2000 781,652 50.95% 685,341 44.67% 67,120 4.38%
1996 622,073 44.29% 653,288 46.52% 129,044 9.19%
1992 572,086 38.47% 543,050 36.52% 371,870 25.01%
1988 702,541 59.95% 454,029 38.74% 15,303 1.31%
1984 681,416 66.42% 333,854 32.54% 10,627 1.04%
1980 529,688 60.61% 246,843 28.24% 97,414 11.15%
1976 418,642 56.37% 295,602 39.80% 28,475 3.83%
1972 402,812 61.64% 198,540 30.38% 52,153 7.98%
1968 266,721 54.78% 170,514 35.02% 49,701 10.21%
1964 242,535 50.45% 237,753 49.45% 482 0.10%
1960 221,241 55.52% 176,781 44.36% 469 0.12%
1956 176,990 60.99% 112,880 38.90% 303 0.10%
1952 152,042 58.35% 108,528 41.65% 0 0.00%
1948 77,597 43.82% 95,251 53.79% 4,217 2.38%
1944 56,287 40.90% 80,926 58.80% 421 0.31%
1940 54,030 36.01% 95,267 63.49% 742 0.49%
1936 33,433 26.93% 86,722 69.85% 4,008 3.23%
1932 36,104 30.53% 79,264 67.03% 2,883 2.44%
1928 52,533 57.57% 38,537 42.23% 184 0.20%
1924 30,516 41.26% 26,235 35.47% 17,210 23.27%
1920 37,016 55.61% 29,546 44.39% 0 0.00%
1916 20,524 35.37% 33,170 57.17% 4,327 7.46%
1912 3,021 12.74% 10,324 43.52% 10,377 43.74%

Democrat

Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, lost the state by fewer than 5,000 votes to Arizona Senator and native Barry Goldwater. (This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year.) Democrat Bill Clinton ended this streak in 1996, when he won Arizona by a little over two percentage points (Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona's electoral votes in 1992). From 2000 until 2016, the majority of the state continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins. In the 2020 United States presidential election, Joe Biden again broke the streak by becoming the first Democratic presidential candidate to win Arizona since 1996.[129]

Since the mid 20th century, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became reliably Republican areas from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats", or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections. Two of the last six governors have been Democrats.

On March 4, 2008, Senator John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first major party presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.

Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties,

Pima
 – home to Phoenix and Tucson, respectively. The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.

Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. Before Joe Biden won Maricopa County in 2020, it had voted Republican in every presidential election since 1952. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state without his 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, aided by his 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.

In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.

Arizona rejected a

Proposition 102, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman. It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states.[131]

In 2010, Arizona adopted

United States Supreme Court struck down portions of the Arizona law, which required all immigrants to carry immigration papers at all times, in Arizona v. United States.[133]

The

teachers in other states, including Arizona, to take similar action.[134]

Arizona retains the

death penalty. There is currently a gubernatorial Hold on executions. Authorized methods of execution include the Gas chamber.[135]

Same-sex marriage and civil unions

In 2006, Arizona became the first state in the United States to reject a proposition,

Prop 107, that would have banned same-sex marriage and civil unions.[136] However, in 2008, Arizona voters approved of Prop 102, a constitutional amendment that prohibited same-sex marriage but not other unions.[137] Prior to same-sex marriage being legal, the City of Bisbee became the first jurisdiction in Arizona to approve of civil unions.[138] The state's Attorney General at the time, Tom Horne, threatened to sue, but rescinded the threat once Bisbee amended the ordinance; Bisbee approved of civil unions in 2013.[139] The municipalities of Clarkdale, Cottonwood, Jerome, Sedona, and Tucson also passed civil unions.[140]

A November 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found 44% of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 45% opposed it and 12% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found 72% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 40% supporting same-sex marriage, 32% supporting civil unions, 27% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure. Arizona Proposition 102, known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment, appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4, 2008 ballot in Arizona, where it was approved: 56–43%. It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.[141]

On October 17, 2014, Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne announced his office would no longer object to same-sex marriage, in response to a U.S. District Court Ruling on Arizona Proposition 102. On that day, each county's Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same-sex marriage licenses, and Arizona became the 31st state to legalize same-sex marriage.[142]

The 2023 American Values Atlas by Public Religion Research Institute found that an overwhelming majority of residents support same-sex marriage.[143]

Education

Elementary and secondary education

Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education and the Arizona Department of Education. A state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.[144]

Higher education

The University of Arizona (the Mall) in Tucson
Arizona State University (a biodesign building) in Tempe

Arizona is served by three public universities: The University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University. These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.

Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.[145]

Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott and Prescott College are Arizona's only non-profit four-year private colleges.[146]

Arizona has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and

community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide board of directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts.[147]
The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.

Public universities in Arizona

Private colleges and universities in Arizona

Community colleges

Art and culture

Visual arts and museums

Phoenix Art Museum, on the historic Central Avenue Corridor in Phoenix, is the Southwest's largest collection of visual art from across the world. The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design. With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the museum's partnership with the Center for Creative Photography; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms.[149]

Arizona is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works. The

Hopi kachina dolls
, and an exhibit on the 19th-century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum has about 250,000 visitors a year.

Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.[150]

Film

View of Monument Valley from John Ford
's Point

Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, based on a reported alien abduction in the town of Snowflake, was set in Snowflake. It was filmed in the Oregon towns of Oakland, Roseburg, and Sutherlin.

The 1974 film

Dodge Theatre. Some of Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho
was shot in Phoenix, the ostensible home town of the main character.

Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include

Cops, and America's Most Wanted. The TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix. Twilight
had passages set in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the film.

Music

Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many

By The Time I Get To Phoenix
".

"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay. Arizona is mentioned by the hit song "Take It Easy", written by Jackson Browne and Glenn Frey and performed by the Eagles. Arizona is also mentioned in the Beatles' song "Get Back", credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney; McCartney sings: "JoJo left his home in Tucson, Arizona, for some California grass." "Carefree Highway", released in 1974 by Gordon Lightfoot, takes its name from Arizona State Route 74 north of Phoenix.[151]

Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The

The Meat Puppets, The Maine, The Summer Set, and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer
.

Arizona also has many singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist

DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's better known musicians is shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan, the lead singer of the bands Tool, A Perfect Circle, and Puscifer, calls the town of Cornville
home.

Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley and Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.

Arizona is also known for its

Eyes Set To Kill, blessthefall, The Word Alive, The Dead Rabbitts, and Abigail Williams. The band Soulfly calls Phoenix home and Megadeth
lived in Phoenix for about a decade. Beginning in and around 2009, Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground, (ala' Kyuss in 1990s California) led by bands like Wolves of Winter, Asimov, and Dead Canyon.

American composer Elliott Carter composed his first String Quartet (1950–51) while on sabbatical (from New York) in Arizona. The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire.[citation needed]

Sports

Club Sport League Championships
Arizona Cardinals American football National Football League 2 (1925, 1947)
Arizona Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball 1 (2001)
Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball Association 0
Arizona Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League 0
Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball Association 3 (2007, 2009, 2014)
Phoenix Rising FC
Soccer
USL Championship 0
Tucson Roadrunners Ice hockey American Hockey League 0
Arizona Rattlers Indoor football Indoor Football League 6 (1994, 1997, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017)

Four Super Bowls have been held in Arizona, including Super Bowl LVII which was held at State Farm Stadium on February 12, 2023.[152]

Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the

Ritz-Carlton Golf Club in Marana.[153]

Auto racing is another sport known in the state.

Firebird International Raceway near Chandler is home to drag racing and other motorsport events.[154]

College sports

College sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The

Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football,[156]
is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools.

Arizona also hosts several college football bowl games. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, is now held at State Farm Stadium in Glendale. The Fiesta Bowl is part of the new College Football Playoff (CFP). University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 and 2011 BCS National Championship Games.

HoHoKam Park

State Farm Stadium hosted the Final Four of the NCAA Division I men's basketball tournament in 2017 and is scheduled to host it again in 2024.[157]

Baseball

Arizona is a popular location for

Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try. Thus, the Cactus League was born.[158]

On March 9, 1995, Arizona was awarded a franchise to begin to play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League.

Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles, one National League Championship pennant, and the 2001 World Series.[159]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  2. ^ second to Nevada with 9% in 2010
  3. ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry.
  4. ^ In 2000, this designation was broken into two groups: Independent, Non-Charismatic Churches (34,130 adherents) and Independent, Charismatic Churches (29,755 adherents)

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Further reading

External links

Preceded by List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Admitted on February 14, 1912 (48th)
Succeeded by
35°N 112°W / 35°N 112°W / 35; -112 (State of Arizona)