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Astatine, 85At
Pronunciation/ˈæstətn, -tɪn/ (ASS-tə-teen, -⁠tin)
Appearanceunknown, probably metallic
Mass number[210]
Astatine in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Ancient Greek ἄστατος (ástatos) 'unstable'
DiscoveryDale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè (1940)
Isotopes of astatine
Main isotopes[5] Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
209At synth 5.41 h
210At synth 8.1 h β+ 210Po
211At synth 7.21 h ε
 Category: Astatine
| references

Astatine is a

naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, occurring only as the decay product of various heavier elements. All of astatine's isotopes are short-lived; the most stable is astatine-210, with a half-life
of 8.1 hours. Consequently, a solid sample of the element has never been seen, because any macroscopic specimen would be immediately vaporized by the heat of its radioactivity.

The bulk properties of astatine are not known with certainty. Many of them have been estimated from its position on the

anionic species of astatine are known and most of its compounds resemble those of iodine, but it also sometimes displays metallic characteristics and shows some similarities to silver

The first synthesis of astatine was in 1940 by

Emilio G. Segrè at the University of California, Berkeley. They named it from the Ancient Greek ἄστατος (astatos) 'unstable'. Four isotopes of astatine were subsequently found to be naturally occurring, although much less than one gram is present at any given time in the Earth's crust. Neither the most stable isotope, astatine-210, nor the medically useful astatine-211 occur naturally; they are usually produced by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles


Astatine is an extremely radioactive element; all its isotopes have half-lives of 8.1 hours or less, decaying into other astatine isotopes, bismuth, polonium, or radon. Most of its isotopes are very unstable, with half-lives of seconds or less. Of the first 101 elements in the periodic table, only francium is less stable, and all the astatine isotopes more stable than the longest-lived francium isotopes are in any case synthetic and do not occur in nature.[6]

The bulk properties of astatine are not known with any certainty.

nonmetal or a metalloid;[10][11] metal formation has also been predicted.[4][12]


Most of the physical properties of astatine have been estimated (by interpolation or extrapolation), using theoretically or empirically derived methods.[13] For example, halogens get darker with increasing atomic weight – fluorine is nearly colorless, chlorine is yellow-green, bromine is red-brown, and iodine is dark gray/violet. Astatine is sometimes described as probably being a black solid (assuming it follows this trend), or as having a metallic appearance (if it is a metalloid or a metal).[14][15][16]

Astatine sublimes less readily than does iodine, having a lower

middle ultraviolet region has lines at 224.401 and 216.225 nm, suggestive of 6p to 7s transitions.[18][19]

The structure of solid astatine is unknown.

superconductor, like the similar high-pressure phase of iodine.[4] Metallic astatine is expected to have a density of 8.91–8.95 g/cm3.[1]

Evidence for (or against) the existence of diatomic astatine (At2) is sparse and inconclusive.

heat of vaporization (∆Hvap) 54.39 kJ/mol.[35] Many values have been predicted for the melting and boiling points of astatine, but only for At2.[36]


The chemistry of astatine is "clouded by the extremely low concentrations at which astatine experiments have been conducted, and the possibility of reactions with impurities, walls and filters, or radioactivity by-products, and other unwanted nano-scale interactions".

monatomic cation in aqueous solution.[40][43]

Astatine has an

Allred–Rochow scale (1.9) being less than that of hydrogen (2.2).[48][c] However, official IUPAC stoichiometric nomenclature is based on an idealized convention of determining the relative electronegativities of the elements by the mere virtue of their position within the periodic table. According to this convention, astatine is handled as though it is more electronegative than hydrogen, irrespective of its true electronegativity. The electron affinity of astatine, at 233 kJ mol−1, is 21% less than that of iodine.[50] In comparison, the value of Cl (349) is 6.4% higher than F (328); Br (325) is 6.9% less than Cl; and I (295) is 9.2% less than Br. The marked reduction for At was predicted as being due to spin–orbit interactions.[38] The first ionization energy of astatine is about 899 kJ mol−1, which continues the trend of decreasing first ionization energies down the halogen group (fluorine, 1681; chlorine, 1251; bromine, 1140; iodine, 1008).[3]


Less reactive than iodine, astatine is the least reactive of the halogens;[51] the chemical properties of tennessine, the next-heavier group 17 element, have not yet been investigated, however.[52] Astatine compounds have been synthesized in nano-scale amounts and studied as intensively as possible before their radioactive disintegration. The reactions involved have been typically tested with dilute solutions of astatine mixed with larger amounts of iodine. Acting as a carrier, the iodine ensures there is sufficient material for laboratory techniques (such as filtration and precipitation) to work.[53][54][d] Like iodine, astatine has been shown to adopt odd-numbered oxidation states ranging from −1 to +7.[57]

Only a few compounds with metals have been reported, in the form of states of sodium,[9] palladium, silver, thallium, and lead.[58] Some characteristic properties of silver and sodium astatide, and the other hypothetical alkali and alkaline earth astatides, have been estimated by extrapolation from other metal halides.[59]

Hydrogen astatide space-filling model

The formation of an astatine compound with hydrogen – usually referred to as

oxidized; acidification by dilute nitric acid gives the At0 or At+ forms, and the subsequent addition of silver(I) may only partially, at best, precipitate astatine as silver(I) astatide (AgAt). Iodine, in contrast, is not oxidized, and precipitates readily as silver(I) iodide.[8][61]

Astatine is known to bind to

dative covalent bonds separately link the astatine(I) centre with each of the pyridine rings via their nitrogen atoms.[63]

With oxygen, there is evidence of the species AtO and AtO+ in aqueous solution, formed by the reaction of astatine with an oxidant such as elemental bromine or (in the last case) by

dichromate; this is based on the observation that, in acidic solutions, monovalent or intermediate positive states of astatine coprecipitate with the insoluble salts of metal cations such as silver(I) iodate or thallium(I) dichromate.[65][72]

Astatine may form bonds to the other chalcogens; these include S7At+ and At(CSN)2 with sulfur, a coordination selenourea compound with selenium, and an astatine–tellurium colloid with tellurium.[73]

Structure of astatine monoiodide, one of the astatine interhalogens and the heaviest known diatomic interhalogen.

Astatine is known to react with its lighter homologs iodine,

interhalogen compounds with formulas AtI, AtBr, and AtCl.[55] The first two compounds may also be produced in water – astatine reacts with iodine/iodide solution to form AtI, whereas AtBr requires (aside from astatine) an iodine/iodine monobromide/bromide solution. The excess of iodides or bromides may lead to AtBr2 and AtI2 ions,[55] or in a chloride solution, they may produce species like AtCl2 or AtBrCl via equilibrium reactions with the chlorides.[56] Oxidation of the element with dichromate (in nitric acid solution) showed that adding chloride turned the astatine into a molecule likely to be either AtCl or AtOCl. Similarly, AtOCl2 or AtCl2 may be produced.[55] The polyhalides PdAtI2, CsAtI2, TlAtI2,[74][75][76] and PbAtI[77] are known or presumed to have been precipitated. In a plasma ion source mass spectrometer, the ions [AtI]+, [AtBr]+, and [AtCl]+ have been formed by introducing lighter halogen vapors into a helium-filled cell containing astatine, supporting the existence of stable neutral molecules in the plasma ion state.[55] No astatine fluorides have been discovered yet. Their absence has been speculatively attributed to the extreme reactivity of such compounds, including the reaction of an initially formed fluoride with the walls of the glass container to form a non-volatile product.[e] Thus, although the synthesis of an astatine fluoride is thought to be possible, it may require a liquid halogen fluoride solvent, as has already been used for the characterization of radon fluoride.[55][71]


Dmitri Mendeleev's table of 1871, with an empty space at the eka-iodine position

In 1869, when Dmitri Mendeleev published his periodic table, the space under iodine was empty; after Niels Bohr established the physical basis of the classification of chemical elements, it was suggested that the fifth halogen belonged there. Before its officially recognized discovery, it was called "eka-iodine" (from Sanskrit eka – "one") to imply it was one space under iodine (in the same manner as eka-silicon, eka-boron, and others).[81] Scientists tried to find it in nature; given its extreme rarity, these attempts resulted in several false discoveries.[82]

The first claimed discovery of eka-iodine was made by

radium series.[87] The properties he reported for dakin do not correspond to those of astatine,[87] and astatine's radioactivity would have prevented him from handling it in the quantities he claimed.[88] Moreover, astatine is not found in the thorium series, and the true identity of dakin is not known.[87]

In 1936, the team of Romanian physicist Horia Hulubei and French physicist Yvette Cauchois claimed to have discovered element 85 by observing its X-ray emission lines. In 1939, they published another paper which supported and extended previous data. In 1944, Hulubei published a summary of data he had obtained up to that time, claiming it was supported by the work of other researchers. He chose the name "dor", presumably from the Romanian for "longing" [for peace], as World War II had started five years earlier. As Hulubei was writing in French, a language which does not accommodate the "ine" suffix, dor would likely have been rendered in English as "dorine", had it been adopted. In 1947, Hulubei's claim was effectively rejected by the Austrian chemist Friedrich Paneth, who would later chair the IUPAC committee responsible for recognition of new elements. Even though Hulubei's samples did contain astatine-218, his means to detect it were too weak, by current standards, to enable correct identification; moreover, he could not perform chemical tests on the element.[88] He had also been involved in an earlier false claim as to the discovery of element 87 (francium) and this is thought to have caused other researchers to downplay his work.[89]

A greyscale photo of the upper body of a man
Emilio Segrè, one of the discoverers of the main-group element astatine

In 1940, the Swiss chemist Walter Minder announced the discovery of element 85 as the beta decay product of radium A (polonium-218), choosing the name "helvetium" (from Helvetia, the Latin name of Switzerland). Berta Karlik and Traude Bernert were unsuccessful in reproducing his experiments, and subsequently attributed Minder's results to contamination of his radon stream (radon-222 is the parent isotope of polonium-218).[90][f] In 1942, Minder, in collaboration with the English scientist Alice Leigh-Smith, announced the discovery of another isotope of element 85, presumed to be the product of thorium A (polonium-216) beta decay. They named this substance "anglo-helvetium",[91] but Karlik and Bernert were again unable to reproduce these results.[53]

Later in 1940, Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, and Emilio Segrè isolated the element at the University of California, Berkeley. Instead of searching for the element in nature, the scientists created it by bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles in a cyclotron (particle accelerator) to produce, after emission of two neutrons, astatine-211.[92] The discoverers, however, did not immediately suggest a name for the element. The reason for this was that at the time, an element created synthetically in "invisible quantities" that had not yet been discovered in nature was not seen as a completely valid one; in addition, chemists were reluctant to recognize radioactive isotopes as legitimately as stable ones.[93] In 1943, astatine was found as a product of two naturally occurring decay chains by Berta Karlik and Traude Bernert, first in the so-called uranium series, and then in the actinium series.[94][95] (Since then, astatine was also found in a third decay chain, the neptunium series.[96]) Friedrich Paneth in 1946 called to finally recognize synthetic elements, quoting, among other reasons, recent confirmation of their natural occurrence, and proposed that the discoverers of the newly discovered unnamed elements name these elements. In early 1947, Nature published the discoverers' suggestions; a letter from Corson, MacKenzie, and Segrè suggested the name "astatine"[93] coming from the Ancient Greek αστατος (astatos) meaning 'unstable', because of its propensity for radioactive decay, with the ending "-ine", found in the names of the four previously discovered halogens. The name was also chosen to continue the tradition of the four stable halogens, where the name referred to a property of the element.[97]

Corson and his colleagues classified astatine as a metal on the basis of its analytical chemistry.[98] Subsequent investigators reported iodine-like,[99][100] cationic,[101][102] or amphoteric behavior.[103][104] In a 2003 retrospective, Corson wrote that "some of the properties [of astatine] are similar to iodine … it also exhibits metallic properties, more like its metallic neighbors Po and Bi."[97]


Alpha decay characteristics for sample astatine isotopes[g]
Half-life[6] Probability
of alpha
207 −13.243 MeV 1.80 h 8.6% 20.9 h
208 −12.491 MeV 1.63 h 0.55% 12.3 d
209 −12.880 MeV 5.41 h 4.1% 5.5 d
210 −11.972 MeV 8.1 h 0.175% 193 d
211 −11.647 MeV 7.21 h 41.8% 17.2 h
212 −8.621 MeV 0.31 s ≈100% 0.31 s
213 −6.579 MeV 125 ns 100% 125 ns
214 −3.380 MeV 558 ns 100% 558 ns
219 10.397 MeV 56 s 97% 58 s
220 14.350 MeV 3.71 min 8% 46.4 min
221[h] 16.810 MeV 2.3 min experimentally
alpha stable

There are 41 known isotopes of astatine, with mass numbers of 188 and 190–229.[105][106] Theoretical modeling suggests that about 37 more isotopes could exist.[105] No stable or long-lived astatine isotope has been observed, nor is one expected to exist.[107]


beta-stable, as it has the lowest mass of all isobars with A = 215.[6] A beta decay mode has been found for all other astatine isotopes except for astatine-213, astatine-214, and astatine-216m.[6] Astatine-210 and lighter isotopes exhibit beta plus decay (positron emission), astatine-216 and heavier isotopes exhibit beta minus decay, and astatine-212 decays via both modes, while astatine-211 undergoes electron capture.[6]

The most stable isotope is astatine-210, which has a half-life of 8.1 hours. The primary decay mode is beta plus, to the relatively long-lived (in comparison to astatine isotopes) alpha emitter polonium-210. In total, only five isotopes have half-lives exceeding one hour (astatine-207 to -211). The least stable ground state isotope is astatine-213, with a half-life of 125 nanoseconds. It undergoes alpha decay to the extremely long-lived bismuth-209.[6]

Astatine has 24 known nuclear isomers, which are nuclei with one or more nucleons (protons or neutrons) in an excited state. A nuclear isomer may also be called a "meta-state", meaning the system has more internal energy than the "ground state" (the state with the lowest possible internal energy), making the former likely to decay into the latter. There may be more than one isomer for each isotope. The most stable of these nuclear isomers is astatine-202m1,[j] which has a half-life of about 3 minutes, longer than those of all the ground states bar those of isotopes 203–211 and 220. The least stable is astatine-214m1; its half-life of 265 nanoseconds is shorter than those of all ground states except that of astatine-213.[6][105]

Natural occurrence

a sequence of differently colored balls, each containing a two-letter symbol and some numbers
Neptunium series, showing the decay products, including astatine-217, formed from neptunium-237

Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element.[k] The total amount of astatine in the Earth's crust (quoted mass 2.36 × 1025 grams)[109] is estimated by some to be less than one gram at any given time.[8] Other sources estimate the amount of ephemeral astatine, present on earth at any given moment, to be up to one ounce[110] (about 28 grams).

Any astatine present at the formation of the Earth has long since disappeared; the four naturally occurring isotopes (astatine-215, -217, -218 and -219)

neptunium-237. The landmass of North and South America combined, to a depth of 16 kilometers (10 miles), contains only about one trillion astatine-215 atoms at any given time (around 3.5 × 10−10 grams).[112] Astatine-217 is produced via the radioactive decay of neptunium-237. Primordial remnants of the latter isotope—due to its relatively short half-life of 2.14 million years—are no longer present on Earth. However, trace amounts occur naturally as a product of transmutation reactions in uranium ores.[113] Astatine-218 was the first astatine isotope discovered in nature.[114] Astatine-219, with a half-life of 56 seconds, is the longest lived of the naturally occurring isotopes.[6]

Isotopes of astatine are sometimes not listed as naturally occurring because of misconceptions[103] that there are no such isotopes,[115] or discrepancies in the literature. Astatine-216 has been counted as a naturally occurring isotope but reports of its observation[116] (which were described as doubtful) have not been confirmed.[117]



Possible reactions after bombarding bismuth-209 with alpha particles
Reaction[l] Energy of alpha particle
+ 4
+ 2 1
26 MeV[53]
+ 4
+ 3 1
40 MeV[53]
+ 4
+ 4 1
60 MeV[118]

Astatine was first produced by bombarding bismuth-209 with energetic alpha particles, and this is still the major route used to create the relatively long-lived isotopes astatine-209 through astatine-211. Astatine is only produced in minuscule quantities, with modern techniques allowing production runs of up to 6.6 

nanograms or 2.47 × 1014 atoms). Synthesis of greater quantities of astatine using this method is constrained by the limited availability of suitable cyclotrons and the prospect of melting the target.[119][120][m] Solvent radiolysis due to the cumulative effect of astatine decay[122] is a related problem. With cryogenic technology, microgram quantities of astatine might be able to be generated via proton irradiation of thorium or uranium to yield radon-211, in turn decaying to astatine-211. Contamination with astatine-210 is expected to be a drawback of this method.[123]

The most important isotope is astatine-211, the only one in commercial use. To produce the bismuth target, the metal is

chemically neutral nitrogen atmosphere,[125] and is cooled with water to prevent premature astatine vaporization.[124] In a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron,[126] alpha particles are collided with the bismuth. Even though only one bismuth isotope is used (bismuth-209), the reaction may occur in three possible ways, producing astatine-209, astatine-210, or astatine-211. In order to eliminate undesired nuclides, the maximum energy of the particle accelerator is set to a value (optimally 29.17 MeV)[127] above that for the reaction producing astatine-211 (to produce the desired isotope) and below the one producing astatine-210 (to avoid producing other astatine isotopes).[124]

Separation methods

Since astatine is the main product of the synthesis, after its formation it must only be separated from the target and any significant contaminants. Several methods are available, "but they generally follow one of two approaches—dry distillation or [wet] acid treatment of the target followed by solvent extraction." The methods summarized below are modern adaptations of older procedures, as reviewed by Kugler and Keller.[128][n] Pre-1985 techniques more often addressed the elimination of co-produced toxic polonium; this requirement is now mitigated by capping the energy of the cyclotron irradiation beam.[119]


The astatine-containing cyclotron target is heated to a temperature of around 650 °C. The astatine

volatilizes and is condensed in (typically) a cold trap. Higher temperatures of up to around 850 °C may increase the yield, at the risk of bismuth contamination from concurrent volatilization. Redistilling the condensate may be required to minimize the presence of bismuth[130] (as bismuth can interfere with astatine labeling reactions). The astatine is recovered from the trap using one or more low concentration solvents such as sodium hydroxide, methanol or chloroform. Astatine yields of up to around 80% may be achieved. Dry separation is the method most commonly used to produce a chemically useful form of astatine.[120][131]


The irradiated bismuth (or sometimes

bismuth nitrate to enable liquid–liquid extraction).[132][133] Wet methods involve "multiple radioactivity handling steps" and have not been considered well suited for isolating larger quantities of astatine. However, wet extraction methods are being examined for use in production of larger quantities of astatine-211, as it is thought that wet extraction methods can provide more consistency.[133] They can enable the production of astatine in a specific oxidation state and may have greater applicability in experimental radiochemistry.[119]

Uses and precautions

Several 211At-containing molecules and their experimental uses[134]
Agent Applications
[211At]astatine-tellurium colloids Compartmental tumors
6-[211At]astato-2-methyl-1,4-naphtaquinol diphosphate Adenocarcinomas
211At-labeled methylene blue Melanomas
Meta-[211At]astatobenzyl guanidine Neuroendocrine tumors
5-[211At]astato-2'-deoxyuridine Various
211At-labeled biotin conjugates Various pretargeting
211At-labeled octreotide Somatostatin receptor
211At-labeled monoclonal antibodies and fragments Various
Bone metastases

Newly formed astatine-211 is the subject of ongoing research in nuclear medicine.[134] It must be used quickly as it decays with a half-life of 7.2 hours; this is long enough to permit multistep labeling strategies. Astatine-211 has potential for targeted alpha-particle therapy, since it decays either via emission of an alpha particle (to bismuth-207),[135] or via electron capture (to an extremely short-lived nuclide, polonium-211, which undergoes further alpha decay), very quickly reaching its stable granddaughter lead-207. Polonium X-rays emitted as a result of the electron capture branch, in the range of 77–92 keV, enable the tracking of astatine in animals and patients.[134] Although astatine-210 has a slightly longer half-life, it is wholly unsuitable because it usually undergoes beta plus decay to the extremely toxic polonium-210.[136]

The principal medicinal difference between astatine-211 and iodine-131 (a radioactive iodine isotope also used in medicine) is that iodine-131 emits high-energy beta particles, and astatine does not. Beta particles have much greater penetrating power through tissues than do the much heavier alpha particles. An average alpha particle released by astatine-211 can travel up to 70 µm through surrounding tissues; an average-energy beta particle emitted by iodine-131 can travel nearly 30 times as far, to about 2 mm.[124] The short half-life and limited penetrating power of alpha radiation through tissues offers advantages in situations where the "tumor burden is low and/or malignant cell populations are located in close proximity to essential normal tissues."[119] Significant morbidity in cell culture models of human cancers has been achieved with from one to ten astatine-211 atoms bound per cell.[137]

Astatine ... [is] miserable to make and hell to work with.[138]

P Durbin, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years, 1995

Several obstacles have been encountered in the development of astatine-based

radiopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment. World War II delayed research for close to a decade. Results of early experiments indicated that a cancer-selective carrier would need to be developed and it was not until the 1970s that monoclonal antibodies became available for this purpose. Unlike iodine, astatine shows a tendency to dehalogenate from molecular carriers such as these, particularly at sp3 carbon sites[o] (less so from sp2 sites). Given the toxicity of astatine accumulated and retained in the body, this emphasized the need to ensure it remained attached to its host molecule. While astatine carriers that are slowly metabolized can be assessed for their efficacy, more rapidly metabolized carriers remain a significant obstacle to the evaluation of astatine in nuclear medicine. Mitigating the effects of astatine-induced radiolysis of labeling chemistry and carrier molecules is another area requiring further development. A practical application for astatine as a cancer treatment would potentially be suitable for a "staggering" number of patients; production of astatine in the quantities that would be required remains an issue.[123][139][p]

Animal studies show that astatine, similarly to iodine—although to a lesser extent, perhaps because of its slightly more metallic nature

thyroid gland. Unlike iodine, astatine also shows a tendency to be taken up by the lungs and spleen, possibly because of in-body oxidation of At to At+.[42] If administered in the form of a radiocolloid it tends to concentrate in the liver. Experiments in rats and monkeys suggest that astatine-211 causes much greater damage to the thyroid gland than does iodine-131, with repetitive injection of the nuclide resulting in necrosis and cell dysplasia within the gland.[140] Early research suggested that injection of astatine into female rodents caused morphological changes in breast tissue;[141] this conclusion remained controversial for many years. General agreement was later reached that this was likely caused by the effect of breast tissue irradiation combined with hormonal changes due to irradiation of the ovaries.[138] Trace amounts of astatine can be handled safely in fume hoods if they are well-aerated; biological uptake of the element must be avoided.[142]

See also


  1. ^ This half-vaporization period grows to 16 hours if it is instead put on a gold or platinum surface; this may be caused by poorly understood interactions between astatine and these noble metals.[17]
  2. ^ It is also possible that this is sorption on a cathode.[39]
  3. ^ The algorithm used to generate the Allred-Rochow scale fails in the case of hydrogen, providing a value that is close to that of oxygen (3.5). Hydrogen is instead assigned a value of 2.2. Despite this shortcoming, the Allred-Rochow scale has achieved a relatively high degree of acceptance.[49]
  4. ^ Iodine can act as a carrier despite it reacting with astatine in water because these reactions require iodide (I), not (only) I2.[55][56]
  5. ^ An initial attempt to fluoridate astatine using chlorine trifluoride resulted in formation of a product which became stuck to the glass. Chlorine monofluoride, chlorine, and tetrafluorosilane were formed. The authors called the effect "puzzling", admitting they had expected formation of a volatile fluoride.[78] Ten years later, the compound was predicted to be non-volatile, out of line with the lighter halogens but similar to radon fluoride;[79] by this time, the latter had been shown to be ionic.[80]
  6. ^ In other words, some other substance was undergoing beta decay (to a different end element), not polonium-218.
  7. ^ In the table, under the words "mass excess", the energy equivalents are given rather than the real mass excesses; "mass excess daughter" stands for the energy equivalent of the mass excess sum of the daughter of the isotope and the alpha particle; "alpha decay half-life" refers to the half-life if decay modes other than alpha are omitted.
  8. ^ The value for mass excess of astatine-221 is calculated rather than measured.
  9. ^ This means that, if decay modes other than alpha are omitted, then astatine-210 has an alpha decay half-life of 4,628.6 hours (128.9 days) and astatine-211 has one of only 17.2 hours (0.7 days). Therefore, astatine-211 is very much less stable toward alpha decay than astatine-210.
  10. ^ "m1" means that this state of the isotope is the next possible one above – with an energy greater than – the ground state. "m2" and similar designations refer to further higher energy states. The number may be dropped if there is only one well-established meta state, such as astatine-216m. Other designation techniques are sometimes used.
  11. ^ Emsley[9] states that this title has been lost to berkelium, "a few atoms of which can be produced in very-highly concentrated uranium-bearing deposits"; however, his assertion is not corroborated by any primary source.
  12. ^ A nuclide is commonly denoted by a symbol of the chemical element this nuclide belongs to, preceded by a non-spaced superscript mass number and a subscript atomic number of the nuclide located directly under the mass number. (Neutrons may be considered as nuclei with the atomic mass of 1 and the atomic charge of 0, with the symbol being n.) With the atomic number omitted, it is also sometimes used as a designation of an isotope of an element in isotope-related chemistry.
  13. ^ See however Nagatsu et al.[121] who encapsulate the bismuth target in a thin aluminium foil and place it in a niobium holder capable of holding molten bismuth.
  14. ^ See also Lavrukhina and Pozdnyakov.[129]
  15. ^ In other words, where carbon's one s atomic orbital and three p orbitals hybridize to give four new orbitals shaped as intermediates between the original s and p orbitals.
  16. ^ "Unfortunately, the conundrum confronting the … field is that commercial supply of 211At awaits the demonstration of clinical efficacy; however, the demonstration of clinical efficacy requires a reliable supply of 211At."[119]


  1. ^ .
  2. .
  3. ^ .
  4. ^ .
  5. .
  6. ^ .
  7. ^ Greenwood & Earnshaw 2002, p. 795.
  8. ^ .
  9. ^ .
  10. .
  11. .
  12. .
  13. ^ Maddock, A. G. (1956). "Astatine". Supplement to Mellor's Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Supplement II, Part 1, (F, Cl, Br, I, At). Longmans, Green & Co. (Ltd.). pp. 1064–1079.
  14. ^ Garrett, A. B.; Richardson, J. B.; Kiefer, A. S. (1961). Chemistry: A First Course in Modern Chemistry. Ginn. p. 313.
  15. ^ Seaborg, G. T. (2015). "Transuranium element". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  16. .
  17. ^ Lavrukhina & Pozdnyakov 1970, p. 251.
  18. .
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