Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
City of Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove (Europe)
|Coordinates: 50°49′40″N 0°09′10″W / 50.82778°N 0.15278°W|
UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
BN (1, 2, 3, 41)
|ONS code||00ML (ONS)|
Brighton and Hove (
The city, along with Worthing and Littlehampton in West Sussex, make up the second most-populous built-up area of South East England, after South Hampshire. In 2014, Brighton and Hove City Council and other nearby councils formed the Greater Brighton City Region local enterprise partnership area.
It can be considered both a coastal and a downland city benefiting from both the sea and the chalk hill grasslands that it is nestled in.
Nevertheless, the proposal of a merger proved controversial, particularly in Hove. Hove Borough Council opposed the move on the grounds that Brighton would dominate affairs in the city, and the commission acknowledged that residents of Hove "have significant negative feelings towards Brighton" and greater identification towards
Twenty years earlier, as part of the Queen's Silver Jubilee celebrations, Brighton had been shortlisted as a candidate for city status, though eventually lost out to larger Derby. Following unification of the towns, Brighton and Hove applied for city status again as part of the Millennium City Status Competition, and was subsequently granted city status on 31 January 2001. As a result, the borough council became a city council.
Although the city now operates as a single entity, locals generally still consider Brighton and Hove to be separate settlements with different identities. Hove is largely residential and has its own distinct seafront and established town centre located around George Street, while Brighton has a higher profile as the country's most popular seaside resort, a significant digital economy, and hosts several festivals of national prominence. Recognition of the city's twin identities is evident from the continued popularity of the local saying "Hove, actually", a phrase which long predates unification.
Some organisations such as the local football club,
In 2014, Brighton and Hove formed the Greater Brighton City Region with neighbouring local authorities.
The City of Brighton and Hove consists of many districts, a stretch of coast and some downland areas. Just to the south of Brighton and Hove in the English Channel is the Rampion Wind Farm, which provides renewable energy to the country.
Brighton has been the most populous settlement in Sussex since at least the 17th century, and a town hall and evidence of citizen's control over town affairs predates 1580.
The Brighton Corporation Act of 1927 added the settlements of Ovingdean and Rottingdean, as well as western parts of Falmer, Patcham and West Blatchington. These reforms expanded the Brighton the north and west dramatically. Between 1920 and 1950 housing estates were developed in Woodingdean, Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, and Whitehawk increasing the population of the town substantially. As a result, the number of wards had by now increased to 19. The rest of Falmer, Coldean and the parish of Stanmer were added to Brighton by the Brighton Extension Act 1951, completing the northward extension of the town. A final expansion of the town's boundaries was approved in 1968, incorporating reclaimed land from the sea for the Brighton Marina project.
Brighton was split into two parliamentary constituencies in 1950. The first,
A small parish at the end of the 18th century, Hove began to expand in the early 19th century alongside the westward development of Brighton, and in 1832 became incorporated into
Portslade, Portslade Village, and Mile Oak
To the west of Brighton and Hove is Portslade. The area has three distinct centres with different histories and include Portslade-by-Sea, Portslade Village and Mile Oak. Each is quite different in character.
Portslade-by-Sea is quite an industrial port with a busy canal area that opens up to the River Adur and the English Channel. It has a long history of human settlement and the name came from the Roman port, Novus Portus.
Portslade Village has kept more of its antiquity and retains many elements of the downland village it once was. Many of the buildings have their original flint walls, and there are some early manor house ruins, tree lined parks, a landmark church and former convent.
Mile Oak is a newer development. Until the 1920s it was only a small group of farm buildings with surrounding corn fields, sheep downs and market gardens. After such time, suburban housing started to be built and considerable further developments happened in the 1960s with the construction of bungalows and other private housing. In the 1990s, after the construction of the A27 road, Mile Oak's access to the Downs was largely blocked, stopping the spread of development.
To the north of Mile Oak, on the other side of the A27 are a number of downland areas that are still in the Brighton and Hove jurisdiction. These include the ancient chalk grassland slopes of Cockroost Hill, Cockroost Bottom and Mount Zion. They are all special areas with some remarkable wildlife survivals, including rare downland flowers, orchids, butterflies and other insects. There is a lot of history on the slopes including a large 4000 year old Bronze Age settlement, a possible 'henge' (as in Stonehenge), now lost under the A27 bypass, and evidence of Iron Age and Romano-British field systems. To the north of the city boundary is the Fulking Parish. The final stretch of the Monarch's Way passes through Mile Oak and Porstlade. It is a 625-mile (1,006 km) long-distance footpath that runs from Worcester to Shoreham.
Aldrington, Hangleton and West Blatchington
Aldrington sits between Portslade-by-Sea to its west and Hove to its east. For centuries Aldrington was largely countryside with very few people living there for the majority of the Middle Ages, but it is now a residential area.
Like Aldrington, West Blatchingham, was once primarily down and sheep grazing area, but is now built up. West Blatchington manor had various lords over the centuries, but unlike Adrington and Hangleton, it was always associated to lords in the east such Lewes, Falmer, and Patcham. It is now known for its windmill and secondary school. To the east of West Blatchington is Westdene.
Hangleton is to the north of Aldrington and sits between Portslade Village and West Blatchington. The manors of Hangleton and Aldrington formed part of the Fishersgate Half Hundred, together with the neighbouring manor of Portslade, The lords of the Hangleton manor from 1291 to 1446 were the de Poynings, a Sussex gentry family that gave their name to the present parish of Poynings.
Hangeton was a medieval downland village in the 13th century and by the early 14th century had a population of approximately two hundred people. After such time, the village was abandoned for around six hundred years. It started to grow again in the 1950s with other areas of Brighton and is now popular for its views of the sea and green spaces.
Hangleton and West Blatchingham downland
To the north of the A27 are two golf courses, the West Hove and Brighton and Hove Golf courses. The two are divided by the Old Dyke Railway Trail which follows part of the route taken by the old Dyke Railway Branch Line. The line opened in September 1887 and took people from Hove to the popular downland beauty spot of Devil's Dyke. When the railway closed in December 1938, the line lay unused until the Dyke Railway Trail was created in 1988. There are a number of ways through Hangleton to a bridge over the A27 bypass where the trail begins, but the original route took you from Aldrington railway station and above the Hove cemetery. Much of the trail across the Downs is on a hard surface.
There are many archaic Down pastures in the area. To the west is
To the east is Round Hill where there are many signs of the past from different periods of human history. There are several old
Westdene, Withdean, and Patcham
Patcham, Westdene, and Withdean are divided by the London Road. Of the three, Patcham (TQ 301 090), has much the longest history of human settlement and retains much from its agricultural past. It was one of the bigger settlements in Sussex at the time of Domesday book, with 10 shepherds and six slaves and a medieval Archbishop of Canterbury came from the village. The area still has many old flint cottages, big allotment sites and winding twittens. There is Patcham Place and Park. The best cluster of buildings comprise its Norman church (which has kept part of its medieval wall paintings) and the old buildings of Patcham Court Farm, with a 17th-century flint farmhouse and dovecot.
The areas of Withdean and Westdene were historically farmland but have been developed, mainly in the 1920s and 1930s, with a mix of detached, semi-detached and mid-rise flats. The Withdean manor was originally the property of the great Cluniac Priory of St. Pancras at Lewes, until 1537. This was then given to Anne of Cleves in 1541 by Henry VIII. The manor was demolished in 1936. Westdene sits to the north of Brighton, east of West Blatchington and north of Withdean.
Withdean Park is to the east of the London Road, and is home to the national collection of
To the west of the A23 and north of Westdene and the A27 is Waterhall (TQ 284 087), and its lost 18th century farm is now the site of football and rugby pitches. The Waterhall Golf Course has just been given over to a version of rewilding which involves the restoration of species-rich chalk grassland
To the north is Varncombe Hill, which borders the
To the east of Waterhall is Sweet Hill. The Hill has a flowery bank on its western slope (TQ 286 091), a bushy
In July 2021 the Sussex-based 'Landscapes of Freedom' group, together with Nick Hayes and Guy Shrubsole of the 'Right to Roam' network, organised a mass trespass in protest against the lack of public access to this valley and its management for game bird shooting, which has badly affected its chalk grassland wildlife. Over 300 people walked from Waterhall, Brighton, to Pangdean Bottom in protest. The public are actively discouraged from walking in the area and scrub has been allowed to grow on the pristine downland, whilst other parts have been ploughed out.
To the north of the city boundary in this area is the Pycombe parish.
The Downland to the north of Patcham leads up to Ditchling Beacon and the western end of the Clayton to Offham Escarpment. Tegdown Hill is the next hill to the west of the downland Ditchling Road. A remarkable "ring barrow" survives (TQ 313 101) on its brow, together with the slight mounds of two other bowl barrows. Tegdown ring barrow has been described as "probably the best of this type in the county". It consists of a circular bank with a ditch and a flattish interior. It lies just south of a big dried up dew pond. From Tegdown you can see the three Iron Age camps of Hollingbury Castle, Ditchling Beacon, and the Devil's Dyke. To the north of the city boundary is the long Ditchling parish.
The Mid Sussex track of the Sussex Border Path starts at the A27 roundabout and the eastern track takes you up Ewebottom Hiil leaving Scare Hill to its west, passing the Chattri to the east and on to Holt Hill and the Pyecombe parish. The western track takes you to Waterhall across the A23.
Those walking from
To the south of the A27 and on the western edge of Patcham is
The Chattri (TQ 304 110) is a place of memorial and a destination for walks. It can be accessed from the Sussex Border Path to its west or by scrambling through the thickets of Deep Bottom. It is a solemn place where the bodies of First World War Indian Sikh and Hindu soldiers who died from wounds whilst being nursed at the Brighton Pavilion "passed through the fire", for this was their "ghat", or place of cremation. Its white Sicilian marble dome is in good condition, but the surrounding memorial garden is often unkept.
Hollingbury and Hollingdean
What is now considered to be
Hollingdean is in the combe east of Ditchling Road and rising up to the north facing slope to Roedale allotments, the golf course and
Hollingbury Castle, Hollingbury Woods, and Wild Park
There is an oasis of undeveloped green space at the peak of the Down between
To the south is Hollingbury Golf Course, the Roedale allotments and Hollingbury Park (TQ 314 075). The park was originally part of the Golf Course. Its Edwardian pavilion was the original (circa 1908) Clubhouse. East of the Park is the two-century-old Hollingbury Woods, now full of the rotting carcasses of
To the west of Moulsecoombe is Wild Park (TQ 327 080). The park is a valley/coombe which runs down from Hollingbury Castle and was opened in 1925. In the 1850s the valley, then known as Hollingbury Coombe, was one of the most famous of Sussex sites for lepidopterists (butterfly and moth experts), but
Coldean, Moulsecoomb, and Bevendean
Coldean, Moulsecoomb, and Bevendean are suburbs developed by Brighton Corporation in the 1950s necessitated by the acute housing shortage in the area after World War II. The districts are all in beautiful downland areas.
Coldean occupies a deep valley on the historic boundary of
Bevendean is in a valley nestled between Bevendean Down and Heath Hill.
Moulsecoomb is on the other side of the Lewes Road and backs on to Falmer Hill, and is home to the University of Brighton's Moulsecoomb campus and Moulsecoomb Place. North of Moulsecoomb is the Falmer train station, University of Brighton's Falmer campus, and Falmer Stadium.
Stanmer village and Stanmer park
In this area to the north east of Coldean are two further valleys. The first is occupied by Stanmer village (TQ 33 09), a village with much historical value. The upper village street has eighteen flint cottages, with colourful gardens. The church was reconstructed in 1838, but the date of the original church can be guessed by the two huge and knotty yews in the churchyard. Next to the church is a pond, which although often unkempt, is probably the reason why Stanmer is so called as 'stan mere' is likely to derive from the Saxon 'stony pool'.:312 Between the church and the barn is a Tudor well 252 feet deep and a wooden donkey wheel, like that at Saddlescombe, contained within a flint well-house. The well was in use until mains water was installed in 1900.
Stanmer woods were transformed in the 18th century after the Pelhams, later Earls of Chichester, had bought it. They planted a circle of woods along the hill-tops surrounding the dry valley in which the village lay and more shaws and clumps were scattered within. In 2007 the City Council took the initiative after the recent retirement of the Park's farming tenant and opened up all the closed woods and pasture fields to public access. The paths, gates and benches the council made are all popular with Brighton residents and beyond.
The largest plantation is called the Great Wood (TQ 335 090) and has acquired many of the plants of ancient woodland, some by planting and some have made their own way there. Under the council's control there has been much imaginative new planting too, "The trees are laid out alphabetically, with Acer and
The next valley is occupied by the University of Sussex, which opened in 1961. In 2021, it is the place of study of over 16,000 students. The Brighton and Hove City border is surrounded by the large Falmer parish in this area.
Bevendean Down and Falmer Hill
On the southern side of Bevendean is Heath Hill which runs up to Warren Road and two horse pasture smallholdings, Southdown Riding Stables (TQ 335 058) and Inglesíde Stables to the east. Neither receive any agro-chemicals and consequently have gathered rich wildlife in the past half century. Swallows and swifts, bats and dung beetles, rooks and woodpecker and the hornet robberfly all survive on the rich supply of insects attracted by the pony dung. Both the farmsteads of Southdown's and Ingleside Stables are targeted for housing development within Brighton and Hove City Council's draft City Plan Part 2. The loss of these two farmsteads, which organise the grazing of these nature-rich pastures, would put them at risk.
Falmer Hill (TQ 365 076) gives great views across to Hollingbury Castle and Stanmer Park and the higher Downs beyond. The Hill's top remained unploughed till the last World War. It had a cluster of about ten probably Saxon barrows and a couple of round barrows. Nothing remains now except white smears of chalk and flint on the ploughed earth, where the barrows were. To the west of the Hill is City boundary which borders the Kingston near Lewes parish.
Kemptown, Whitehawk and Roedean
Kemp Town is a district to east of Brighton. It was designed by
To the north of Kemp Town is Whitehawk, a district of Brighton that has been built since 1931. On the saddle between
Whitehawk Hill, Sheepcote Valley, and East Brighton Golf Course
Whitehawk Hill's lower slopes have large allotment sites, and there is a transmitting station on its top. To the north of the hilltop is the neolithic Whitehawk Camp.
To the east of Whitehawk is Sheepcote Valley (TQ 341 045). Here over 90 hectares (220 acres) are open to the public. In the 1870s there was a rifle range for volunteer soldiers sited here. The park was acquired in 1913 and laid out with plants and sports pitches in 1925. The northern part of the Valley served for many years as a municipal rubbish dump. When that purpose was completed, however, a kilometre and more of the upper Valley was terraced with six giant steps, which have now softened further with the cover of grass and low scrub. Now many birds breed in the area and many more pass through and stop extended periods on migration. Uncommon bird species are often seen there, such as rare warblers, wryneck, and redstarts. Sheepcote's lower valley has a caravan park where the first municipal site in the country was opened in 1938. There are playing fields embraced by the valley slopes and a café in East Brighton Park.
To its east is East Brighton Golf Course (TQ 346 042) with extensive roughs, scrub thickets, and woodland. In winter,
Woodingdean, Ovingdean, and Rottingdean
Ovingdean (TQ 355 035) is east of Brighton and slightly set back from the sea. It is a historic settlement that has existed since at least the Iron Age
about 600 BC. In ancient documents, the area is described as "Ofamn-inge-denu" or "the valley of the enclosure of Ofa's people". The Domesday book of 1086 records that the manor of 'hovingedene'. At that time the population of Ovingdean was about 90 people who included the lord of the manor and his family.
By 2020 there were nearer 1,200 inhabitants and many new buildings, but the old core of Ovingdean still exists and many flint walls, old cottages, barns (converted) and gentry houses have been retained. The Norman church of St Wulfran's is the oldest surviving building in the village and has lots of surviving early details. North of the church the stonewalled paddock is full of humps and hollows that mark where a Saxon thane had his manor house. To the south of the village in front of the sea is one of Blind Veterans UK's rehabilitation centres. On the beach is a cafe and beach for rock pooling at low tide.
Rottingdean is east of Ovingdean and has more history still. The first settled inhabitants of Rottingdean were the Neolithic people, arriving around 2500 BC. It later became famed for sea faring activities and primarily a centre for smuggling. Rottingdean is its own parish despite being with the Brighton and Hove boundary.
Woodingdean is north of Ovingdean and east of the Brighton Racecourse. It was extensively developed during the 1950s and 1960s when most of the roads in the north-eastern and southern ends of the village were built. The name Woodingdean came from Woodendean (i.e. wooded valley) Farm which was situated in the south end of what is now Ovingdean. This farm existed from before 1714 until 1979. Perhaps the earliest farming settlement to be identified in the area was situated in Wick Bottom. It was here that the Wick Farm, later Warren Farm was situated.
East Brighton Downland and undercliff path
To the west of the Falmer Road from Woodingdean is Happy Valley (TQ 357 047), a bushy, cattle-grazed slope with old Down pasture herbs, bits of gorse, and thorn. Further south is Mount Pleasant (TQ 354 045). The west slope looks over Wick Bottom and is a small triangle of rich chalk grassland. It's rough and derelict, but special wildlife clings on. There's big swarms of
Just east of Woodingdean, is the Bostle barrow field (TQ 371 054). There is a cluster of at least twenty-seven small low grassy mounds, which are probably Saxon, and three larger, probably
East a little further there is one of the most special natural sites in the Brighton area,
The Brighton and Hove boundary
From west to east the administrative boundary of Brighton and Hove begins on the coast at Gate 4 of Shoreham Port. It crosses the
Continuing east, the border runs north of the Chattri and Standean Farm, before crossing Ditchling Road at the Upper Lodges and running along the northerly limits of Stanmer Park and Stanmer Village. At this point, the border turns south and runs to the eastern edge of the University of Sussex campus, re-crossing the A27 along The Drove and passing east of Falmer Stadium. It continues along The Drove and Falmer Road to Woodingdean. Running north of Woodingdean, the border then heads southeast through Balsdean before adjoining to a footpath which enters Saltdean at the top of Longridge Avenue. The border runs down Longridge Avenue to the junction with Lynwood Road, where it turns south over houses and back across the A259 before returning the coastline at the eastern end of Saltdean Beach.
As a unitary authority,
The council was under
Three constituencies cover Brighton and Hove in the
|Brunswick and Adelaide||11,475||Preston Park||15,263|
|Central Hove||9,831||Queens Park||16,284|
|Hangleton and Knoll||14,848||South Portslade||9,836|
|Hanover and Elm Grove||17,673||St Peter's and North Laine||20,670|
|Hollingdean and Stamner||18,121||Westbourne||10,360|
|Moulsecoombe and Bevendean||18,772||Withdean||15,196|
Economy and demography
The economy of the city is service-based with a strong emphasis on creative, digital and electronic technologies. Tourism and entertainment are important sectors for the city, which has many hotels and amusements, as well as
The first census of Brighton was in 1801.
The resident population of Brighton and Hove at the 2011 census was 273,369 persons, 50% male and 50% female.
The 2011 census found the ethnic composition of Brighton and Hove to be 89.1% white (80.5% white British, 1.4% white Irish, 7.1% other white), 4.1% Asian (1.1% Chinese, 1.1% Indian, 0.5% Bangladeshi, 1.2% other Asian), 3.8% mixed race (1.5% mixed black/white, 1.2% mixed white/Asian, 1.0% other mix), 1.5% black, and 0.8% Arab.
The 2011 census found the religious composition to be 42.90% Christian, 42.42% nonreligious, 2.23% Muslim, 1.00% Buddhist, and 0.98% Jewish. 1.66% were adherents of some other religion, while 8.81% did not state their religion.
In the 2001 census, Brighton and Hove had the highest percentage of citizens indicating their religion as Jedi among all principal areas of England and Wales.
|White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller||–||–||–||–||198||197||0.1%|
Asian or Asian British: Total
|Asian or Asian British: Indian||1,241||2,106||2,996||3,633||1.3%|
|Asian or Asian British: Pakistani||283||540||649||929||0.3%|
|Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi||465||975||1,367||1,729||0.6%|
|Asian or Asian British: Chinese||965||1,305||2,999||3,065||1.1%|
|Asian or Asian British: Other Asian||891||918||3,267||3,861||1.4%|
|Black or Black British: Total||1,343||0.6%||1,992||0.8%||4,188||1.5%||5,458||2%|
|Black or Black British: African||562||1,380||2,893||3,949||1.4%|
|Black or Black British: Caribbean||323||468||879||988||0.4%|
|Black or Black British: Other Black||458||144||416||521||0.2%|
|Mixed or British Mixed: Total||–||–||4,799||1.9%||10,408||3.8%||13,228||4.7%|
|Mixed: White and Black Caribbean||–||–||834||2,182||2,410||0.9%|
|Mixed: White and Black African||–||–||961||2,019||2,334||0.8%|
|Mixed: White and Asian||–||–||1,582||3,351||4,198||1.5%|
|Mixed: Other Mixed||–||–||1,422||2,856||4,286||1.5%|
|Other: Any other ethnic group||2,017||1%||1,600||0.6%||1,799||0.6%||5,580||2.0%|
|Holds religious beliefs||158,849||64.1||133,326||48.8||104,377||37.7|
|Religion not stated||22,013||8.9||24,089||8.8||19,760||7.1|
Freedom of the City
The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Brighton and Hove.
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (July 2021)
- The Royal Sussex Regiment: 27 October 1944. (Borough of Brighton).
- The Royal Sussex Regiment: 1958. (Borough of Hove).
- The Queen's Regiment: 31 December 1966. (Borough of Brighton).
- The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment: 1996.
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- ^ Doherty-Cove, Jody. "'Final stand' to save green land from development". The Argus. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
- ^ OCLC 495468780.
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- ^ Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for England, Scotland and Wales (Table 6)
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