Aegithalidae

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Bushtit
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Bushtits
Aegithalos caudatus side-on.jpg
Long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus
Song of the American bushtit,
Psaltriparus minimus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Sylvioidea
Family: Aegithalidae
Reichenbach, 1850
Genera

Aegithalos Hermann 1804

Psaltriparus
Townsend, 1837
Leptopoecile
Severtsov
, 1873

The bushtits or long-tailed tits, are a

genera, all but one of which are found in Eurasia. Bushtits are active birds, moving almost constantly while they forage for insects in shrubs and trees. During non-breeding season, birds live in flocks of up to 50 individuals. Several bushtit species display cooperative breeding behavior, also called helpers at the nest
.

Distribution and habitat

All the Aegithalidae are forest birds, particularly forest edge and

Himalayas, and all are found in Eurasia except the American bushtit, which is native to western North America. The long-tailed tit has the most widespread distribution of any species of Aegithalidae, occurring across Eurasia from Britain to Japan. Two species, in contrast, have tiny distributions, the Burmese bushtit, which is entirely restricted to two mountains in Burma, and the pygmy bushtit, which is restricted to the mountains of western Java. The species in this family are generally not migratory, although the long-tailed tit is prone to dispersing in the northern edges of its range (particularly in Siberia). Many mountainous species move to lower ground during the winter.[1]

Description

They are small birds, measuring 9 to 14 cm (3.5–5.5 in) in length, including the relatively long tail, and weighing just 4.5 to 9 g (0.16–0.32 oz). Their plumage is typically dull grey or brown, although some species have white markings and the long-tailed tit has some pinkish colour.[2] In contrast to the rest of the family the two Leptopoecile tit-warblers are quite brightly coloured, having violet and blue plumage. The crested tit-warbler is the only member of the family to have a crest. The bills in this family are tiny, short and conical in shape. The wings are short and rounded and the legs are relatively long.

Behaviour

Birds in this family live in flocks ranging from 4 to over 50 individuals.[3][4] Flocks form as soon as one breeding season finishes and last until the next one begins. They maintain contact by contact calls that vary among species; their songs are quiet or nonexistent.[2][4] Other species of birds, such as tits or warblers, will occasionally join the flock to forage.[3]

Diet and feeding

Bushtits are insectivorous, primarily eating insects and other invertebrates

shrub layer or canopy, and seldom visits the ground. Prey is generally gleaned from branches, leaves and buds. Less frequently, prey is taken in the air. While foraging, this agile family may hang upside down on branches (although this behaviour is not thought to occur in the tit-warblers) and even manipulate branches and leaves in order to locate hidden food.[1]

Breeding

The family generally has a monogamous breeding system; however, there is some evidence that the American bushtit may be frequently polyandrous and occasionally polygynandrous or polygynous.[7][4] Pairs may be aided by helpers, where a related or unrelated individual (or more than one) helps the established pair raise the young. This has been recorded in at least four of the species; further research is required to see if the behavior carries over to other members of the family.[1][3][7][4] Aegithalids make domed or hanging, bag-like nests of woven cobwebs and lichen, which they line with feathers. Many nests are constructed in trees with thick foliage, making them difficult for predators to find.[5] However, the American bushtit often places nests such that it is entirely exposed. [4]The clutch comprises 5 to 10 white eggs, which in many of the species have red speckles. Adults incubate the eggs for 13 to 14 days; young stay in the nest for 16 to 18 days. In at least four of the species (the long-tailed tit, the black-throated bushtit, and silver-throated bushtit), only the female incubates.[2][3] Young chicks are fed exclusively on insects and spiders.[1]

Taxonomy

Aegithaloidea

Phylloscopidae
– leaf warblers (80 species)

Hyliidae – hylias (2 species)

Aegithalidae – bushtits (13 species)

Erythrocercidae
– flycatchers (3 species)

Scotocercidae
– streaked scrub warbler

Cettiidae – bush warblers and allies (32 species)

Cladogram showing the family relationships based on a study by Carl Oliveros and colleagues published in 2019.
International Ornithological Committee (IOC).[9]

The family Aegithalidae (as a subfamily Aegithalinae) was introduced by the German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1850.[10][11] The name comes from the Ancient Greek word aigithalos for a tit. Aristotle recognised three species: the long-tailed tit, the great tit, and the Eurasian blue tit.[12]

The pygmy bushtit is placed in this family because it moves around in flocks and its nests resemble the long-tailed tits', but information about it is so scanty that the placement is only provisional.[2] The Burmese bushtit is sometimes treated as conspecific with the black-browed bushtit.[1] The American bushtit was once thought to belong to the chickadee family, but it has distinctive behavioral habits, especially when it comes to nesting.[6]

There are 13 species in 3 genera.[13][14][15]

Image Genus Living species
White-browed Tit Warbler male at Panamic, Nubra Valley, Ladakh, India.jpg
Leptopoecile Severtzov, 1873
American Bushtit 9890vv.jpg
Psaltriparus Bonaparte, 1850
Black-throated bushtit at Godawari.jpg
Aegithalos Hermann, 1804

References

  1. ^ .
  2. ^ .
  3. ^ .
  4. ^ a b c d e Sloane, S.A. 2001.  Bushtit.  In Birds of North America,  A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, F. Gill, Eds. Philadelphia:  American Ornithologists Union.
  5. ^ .
  6. ^ a b c Kaufman, K. (1996). Lives of North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin: Boston.
  7. ^
    JSTOR 4088855
    .
  8. .
  9. . International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  10. ^ Reichenbach, Ludwig (1850). Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Vögel (in German). Vol. Apt. II Band I. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte. Plate LXII.
  11. .
  12. ^ Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (eds.). "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  13. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Bushtits, leaf warblers, reed warblers". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  14. . Retrieved 2022-01-29.
  15. .

External links