Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Developer(s)CUBRID Corp.
Initial releaseNovember 20, 2008 (2008-11-20)
Stable release
11.0 / January 2021; 3 years ago (2021-01)[1]
LicenseApache License for Server Engine and BSD license for APIs and GUI tools


OLTP. The name CUBRID is a combination of the two words cube and bridge, cube standing for a space for data and bridge standing for data bridge.[citation needed

License policy

CUBRID has a separate license for its server engine and its interfaces. The server engine adopts the

Berkeley Software Distribution license in which there is no obligation of opening derivative works. The reason of adopting two separate license systems is to provide complete freedom to Independent software vendors (ISV) to develop and distribute CUBRID-based applications.[2]


The feature that distinguishes CUBRID database from other relational database systems is its 3-tier client-server architecture which consists of the database server, the connection broker and the application layer.

Database server

The database server is the component of the CUBRID database management system which is responsible for storage operations and statement execution. A CUBRID database server instance can mount and use a single database, making inter-database queries impossible. However, more than one instance can run on a machine.

Unlike other solutions, the database server does not compile queries itself, but executes queries precompiled in a custom access specification language.[citation needed]

Connection broker

The CUBRID connection broker's main roles are:

  • management of client application connections
  • caching and relaying information (e.g. query results)
  • query syntax analysis, optimization and execution plan generation

Also, a local object pool enables some parts of the execution to be deferred from the database server (e.g. tuple insertion and deletion, DDL statements), thus lowering the database server load.

Since the connection broker is not bound to the same machine as the database server, CUBRID can take advantage of the hardware resources of several machines while processing queries on a single database.

Application layer

Applications can use one of the available

to connect to a CUBRID connection broker.


High Availability

CUBRID High Availability provides load-balanced, fault-tolerant and continuous service availability through its shared-nothing clustering, automated fail-over and manual fail-back mechanisms.

CUBRID's 3-tier architecture allows native support for High-Availability with two-level auto failover: the broker failover and server failover.[3]

Broker failover

When connecting to a broker via a client API, users can specify, in the connection URL, a list of alternative hosts where brokers are listening for incoming requests. In case of a hardware, network, operating system or software failure on one of the hosts, the underlying client API automatically fails over to the next host that a user has provided.

Server failover

The High Availability environment can be built with 1:N master-slave server nodes. Each slave node communicates with the master via CUBRID Heartbeat protocol. When a master node is unresponsive, the first of the slave nodes will get promoted to a master role. Replication between nodes can be achieved in one of two modes: synchronous and asynchronous.

Administrators can specify a list of server hosts each broker can connect to and, in the event of a failure of the master node, another will be used.

Scalability and Maintainability


CUBRID supports online, offline and incremental backup.


API-level load balancing

Because a connection broker can be configured in four different modes (read-write, read-only, slave-only, preferred host read only), the list of alternative hosts which a user has provided via the connection URL can be used as a method to balance the load. When Load Balancing is used, the client API will randomly choose a host among those specified in the connection URL except the one which was used to connect to last time. If the chosen host is not available, the selection will continue until all the hosts are determined as unavailable. In such case, the driver will report an error.

Query plan caching


literal constants share the same cache entry.[4]



CUBRID has support for

indexes, both single-column and multi-column. The following types of indexes can be created:

  • Indexes and reversed indexes
  • Unique indexes and reverse unique indexes
  • Function-based indexes
  • Filtered indexes


query optimizer
can use indexes to produce faster execution plans using methods such as:

Table partitioning

CUBRID supports horizontal partitioning by range, hash and value lists, with a maximum of 1024 partitions per table. Partitions can be accessed independently and support most operations that are valid on a normal table.

As of version 9.0, CUBRID implements execution-time partition


SQL support

CUBRID implements a large subset of the ANSI SQL:1999 standard, extended with features from later SQL standards and custom features.[citation needed]

Window functions

CUBRID provides support for window functions as defined in the SQL:2003 standard. The implemented functions are ROW_NUMBER, COUNT, MIN, MAX, SUM, AVG, STDDEV_POP, STDDEV_SAMP, VAR_POP, VAR_SAMP, RANK, DENSE_RANK, LEAD, LAG and NTILE.

Hierarchical queries

syntax are supported in CUBRID. A number of specialized pseudocolumns and operators are provided for controlling the behavior of the query execution.

Built in click-counter

CUBRID optimizes the common scenario in web applications where database fields need to be incremented on certain events (e.g. page views). In contrast to the usual approach of using a SELECT/UPDATE statement combination, CUBRID can increment fields from within the SELECT statement execution, bypassing some expensive compiling, execution and locking overhead associated with an UPDATE statement.[5]

Java stored procedures

The only stored procedure language supported in CUBRID is Java, requiring a Java virtual machine to be installed on the system.[6] The virtual machine is started and managed by the server and is used for code execution.

Stored procedure code that requires database access must use the

driver, either using the parent transaction or issuing a new one.

Regular expression

In addition to the LIKE operator, CUBRID provides the REGEXP operator for

case sensitive scenarios. An optional alias of REGEXP is RLIKE.[7]

In the prior version of CUBRID 11, CUBRID does not support REGEXP on Unicode strings.[citation needed]

From the CUBRID 11, CUBRID adds the following regular expression functions and supports them on Unicode strings.[8]


Data types

A variety of data types are supported by CUBRID:

  • For numeric values:
    • integer numerics: SMALLINT (16 bit), INTEGER (32 bit), BIGINT (64 bit)
    • floating point
      numerics: FLOAT (32 bit), DOUBLE (64 bit)
    • arbitrary precision
      numerics: NUMERIC
    • monetary values: MONETARY (
      double precision
      floating point)
  • For string values:
    • fixed-length character and bit strings: CHAR, BIT
    • variable-length character and bit strings: CHAR VARYING, BIT VARYING
  • For date and time values:
    • date values: DATE
    • time values: TIME
    • date and time values: DATETIME, TIMESTAMP (internally stored as a
      Unix timestamp
  • For collections: SET, MULTISET, LIST
  • User defined enumerations: ENUM
  • For large objects: BLOB, CLOB
  • For JavaScript Object Notation: JSON

Supported platforms

CUBRID is available for Microsoft Windows and Linux (most distributions), for 32- and 64-bit architectures.


Command line

CUBRID comes with a built-in command-line interface named csql that can be used to execute SQL statements on the CUBRID server.[9] The tool can be used in one of two modes:

  • CS (client/server) mode, which can connect to local or remote CUBRID servers
  • SA (stand alone) mode, used mainly for administration purposes, which mounts a local database by emulating a server instance

CUBRID's csql also implements some internal commands related to schema information, plan generation, debugging, transaction control, query timing and more.


CUBRID provides a number of language-specific

OLEDB, ADO.NET, Ruby driver, Python driver, Node.js driver and Perl


Several graphical user interface tools have been developed for CUBRID:

  • CUBRID Manager
    BSD license
    on macOS and Linux.
  • CUBRID Admin is an administration tool distributed under the
    BSD license
    on Windows.
  • SQLGate is a query browser tool developed by CHEQUER on Windows.
  • CUBRID Migration Toolkit[12] is a tool which allows data migration from Oracle, MS-SQL, MySQL and previous versions of CUBRID databases to the latest CUBRID database server.

Release history

Version Release date Beta release date Additions
11.0 January 2021 Security : TDE(Transparent Data Encryption) and others.[13]
10.2 December 2019 New data type: JSON(JavaScript Object Notation) and others.[14]
10.1 July 2017 Includes useful SQL extensions: CTE(Common Table Expressions) and others.[15]
10.0 February 2016 Provides snapshot isolations based on MVCC protocol. Includes many SQL extensions and functions/operators.
9.3 May, 2014 New SQL features, Support schema lock, support various SHOW syntax, Performance Improvement.
9.2 September, 2013 SQL profiling, New SQL supports, Several improvements
9.1 March, 2013 New SQL functions and index hint, Performance improvements and optimizations.
9.0 October, 2012 Internationalization support, function index, filter index, index skip scan, MERGE statement, window functions.
8.4.3 November 20, 2012
Database sharding
, API level load balancing, built-in web manager with monitoring support
8.4.1 February 24, 2012 February 1, 2012 Important performance optimizations, SQL extensions, REGEXP operator.
8.4.0 July 1, 2011 May 12, 2011 High Availability improvements, CUBRID C API improvements, notable performance optimizations, covering index[16][17]
3.1 December 31, 2010 November 12, 2010
BLOB and CLOB support, High Availability monitoring support, drivers (JDBC, ODBC and CUBRID C API) improvements[18]
3.0 October 4, 2010 July 19, 2010 SQL extensions, High Availability improvements[19][20]
2.2 April 30, 2010 High Availability improvements, CUBRID C API improvements, some performance improvements[21]
2.1 December, 2009
2.0 August, 2009
1.4 March, 2009
1.3 February, 2009
1.2 January, 2009
1.1 November, 2008 CUBRID became an open source project
1.0 October, 2008 First stable release


Some applications and websites that have added CUBRID support or are powered by CUBRID:

See also


  1. ^ "CUBRID Release". GitHub. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  2. ^ "CUBRID License".
  3. ^ "CUBRIDHA". 22 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
  4. ^ "Shared Query Plan Caching in CUBRID". Archived from the original on 22 June 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  5. ^ "CUBRID Manual - CUBRID Click Counter". Archived from the original on 14 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  6. ^ "CUBRID Java Stored Procedures". Archived from the original on 14 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  7. ^ "CUBRID Manual - REGEXP/RLIKE Conditional Expressions". Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  8. ^ "CUBRID 11 Manual - Regular Expressions Functions and Operators".
  9. ^ "How to use CSQL utilities". Archived from the original on 14 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  10. ^ "CUBRID APIs Wiki". Archived from the original on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  11. ^ "CUBRID Manager". Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  12. ^ "CUBRID Migration Toolkit". Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  13. ^ "CUBRID 11.0 has been released". 27 January 2021. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  14. ^ "CUBRID 10.2 has been released". 20 March 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  15. ^ "CUBRID 10.1 is released". 20 March 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  16. ^ "CUBRID 8.4.0 has arrived w/ x2 faster database engine!". Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-05-17.
  17. ^ "CUBRID 8.4.0 GA is now available for download". Archived from the original on 2011-08-25. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
  18. ^ "CUBRID 3.1 Stable is now available!". Archived from the original on 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2011-01-03.
  19. ^ "CUBRID 3.0 Stable has arrived!". Archived from the original on 2010-10-08. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  20. ^ "New CUBRID 2008 R3.0 Beta has been released". Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
  21. ^ "New Version Release - CUBRID 2008 R2.2". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
  22. ^ "How to simulate MySQL INSERT statement extensions". Lukas Eder. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  23. ^ "SOFA Statistics". 2012-11-20. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  24. ^ "SIDU Incredibly Simple Intuitive Web Based SQL Client". SIDU. 2012-05-25. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  25. ^ "ART Simple Yet Effective Open Source Reporting Tool". 2012-06-10. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  26. ^ "Run Your Own Whois Server With JWhoisServer". Klaus Zerwes. 2012-07-06. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  27. ^ "Cubrid Query Builder". Retrieved 2015-03-20.
  28. ^ "RedBeanPHP Super Easy to Use PHP ORM". Archived from the original on 2013-03-29. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
  29. ^ "DBeaver 4.2.5". Retrieved 2020-05-27.

External links

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