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Temporal range: Carboniferous – Recent[1]: 355 
Various examples of Caenogastropoda
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Cox, 1960[2]

Caenogastropoda is a

mollusks, but also includes some freshwater snails and some land snails. The subclass is the most diverse and ecologically successful of the gastropods.[3]

Caenogastropoda contains many families of

moon snails, murexes, cone snails and turrids – and constitutes about 60% of all living gastropods.[4]


The Caenogastropoda exhibit

Streptoneura (meaning twisted nerves), also known as Prosobranchia (meaning gills forward). Specifically, they are characterized by having only a single auricle in the heart
and a single pair of gill leaflets, and are equivalent to the Monotocardia or Pectinibranchia of older authors.


Penion cuvierianus jeakingsi


monophyletic.[6] This Caenogastropoda combines the older taxa Mesogastropoda and Stenoglossa from the classification by Johannes Thiele[7] and is equivalent to the revised Monotocardia as defined by Mörch
in 1865.

Caenogastropoda can be divided into two major groups, based on the anatomy of the radula:

1997 taxonomy

Ponder & Lindberg, 1997 and others since (e.g. Vega et al., 2006;[8] Harzhauser, 2004;[9] and Pina, 2002.[10]) show Caenogastropoda as a superorder, following the sense of Cox, 1960. More recently Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 revised Caenogastropoda as a clade.

2005 taxonomy

The following classification was laid out in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):[7]

2006 taxonomy

Colgan et al. (2006)[11] provided further insight into the phylogeny of Caenogastropoda.[2]

Latest views by the World Register of Marine Species

Sorbeoconcha should include [Cerithioidea + Campaniloidea + all Hypsogastropoda (i.e. the remaining Caenogastropoda)], see definition in Ponder & Lindberg, 1997: 225, not only [Cerithioidea + Campaniloidea] as suggested by the indent pattern in Bouchet & Rocroi. Neotaenioglossa Haller, 1892 suggested in Ruud Bank’s draft for Fauna Europaea is not retained because it would need severe emendation to remove Pyramidellids, Cerithioids, etc. included in its original definition, and therefore would be too far from Haller's concept if it were to fit the concept of Sorbeoconcha. Although cladistically sound, the taxon Sorbeoconcha is skipped in the classification scheme because (1) ten years after its publication, the name still sounds unfamiliar to most and (2) it is not very helpful in the classification because it includes the bulk of Caenogastropoda (only keeping out small stem groups Abyssochrysidae, Provannidae, and the architaenioglossate taxa). This is not final, opinions are welcome.[12]

Taxonomy as provided by WoRMS in 2021[13]


  1. .
  2. ^ a b Cox L. R. (1960). In: Moore R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part I., Mollusca 1, Gastropoda. The Geological Society of America, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. xxiii + 351 pp., page 311.
  3. ^ "Digital Atlas of Ancient Life".
  4. ..
  5. ^ Caenogastropoda, Paleobiology
  6. .
  7. ^ .
  8. ^ F. J. Vega et al. 2006. El Espinal, a new plattenkalk facies locality from the Lower Cretaceous Sierra Madre Formation, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 23(3):323-333
  9. ^ Harzhauser M. (2004). "Oligocene gastropod faunas for the Eastern Mediterranean (Mesohellenic Trough/Greece and Esfahan-Sirjan Basin/Central Iran)". Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 248: 93-181.
  10. ^ A.Pina -Caenogastropoda
  11. PMID 17127080
  12. ^ Gofas, S. (2013). Sorbeoconcha. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2013-06-28
  13. ^ WoRMS (2021). Caenogastropoda. Accessed at: on 2021-07-26

External links