Canada

Coordinates: 60°N 110°W / 60°N 110°W / 60; -110
Page semi-protected
Listen to this article
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

60°N 110°W / 60°N 110°W / 60; -110
Canada
Motto: 
A projection of North America with Canada highlighted in green
CapitalOttawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667
Largest cityToronto
Official languages
Demonym(s)Canadian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
Mary Simon
Justin Trudeau
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Commons
Independence 
July 1, 1867
December 11, 1931
April 17, 1982
Area
• Total area
9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) (2nd)
• Water (%)
11.76 (2015)[2]
• Total land area
9,093,507 km2 (3,511,023 sq mi)
Population
• 2023 Q1 estimate
Neutral increase 39,566,248[3] (37th)
• 2021 census
36,991,981[4]
• Density
4.2/km2 (10.9/sq mi) (236th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.385 trillion[5] (15th)
• Per capita
Increase $60,177[5] (28th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $2.090 trillion[5] (9th)
• Per capita
Decrease $52,722[5] (18th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 30.3[6]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.936[7]
very high · 15th
CurrencyCanadian dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zoneUTC−3.5 to −8
• Summer (DST)
UTC−2.5 to −7
Date formatyyyy-mm-dd (AD)[8]
Driving sideright
Calling code+1
Internet TLD.ca

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, making it the world's second-largest country by total area, with the world's longest coastline. Its border with the United States is the world's longest international land border. The country is characterized by a wide range of both meteorologic and geological regions. It is sparsely inhabited, with the vast majority residing south of the 55th parallel in urban areas. Canada's capital is Ottawa and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Indigenous peoples have continuously inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster, 1931, and culminating in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Canada is a parliamentary liberal democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country's head of government is the prime minister, who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons and is "called upon" by the governor general, representing the monarch of Canada, the ceremonial head of state. The country is a Commonwealth realm and is officially bilingual (English and French) in the federal jurisdiction. It is very highly ranked in international measurements of government transparency, quality of life, economic competitiveness, innovation and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its history, economy, and culture.

A

Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has had a significant influence on its global image. Canada is part of multiple major international and intergovernmental institutions
.

Etymology

While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the

Saint Lawrence River as Canada.[10]

From the 16th to the early 18th century, "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River.[11] In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada. These two colonies were collectively named the Canadas until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841.[12]

Upon

Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth".[14] The government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using Dominion in the statutes of Canada in 1951.[15][16][17]

The Canada Act 1982, which brought the constitution of Canada fully under Canadian control, referred only to Canada. Later that year, the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.[18] The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion.[19]

History

Indigenous peoples

Métis,[20] the last being of mixed descent who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations people married European settlers and subsequently developed their own identity.[20]

The

Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada.[23] The characteristics of Indigenous societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks.[24][25] Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.[26]

The

Indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000[27] and two million,[28] with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada's Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.[29] As a consequence of European colonization, the Indigenous population declined by forty to eighty percent and several First Nations, such as the Beothuk, disappeared.[30] The decline is attributed to several causes, including the transfer of European diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox, to which they had no natural immunity,[27][31] conflicts over the fur trade, conflicts with the colonial authorities and settlers, and the loss of Indigenous lands to settlers and the subsequent collapse of several nations' self-sufficiency.[32][33]

Although not without conflict,

European colonization

Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), New France
(blue), and Spain (orange; California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)

It is believed that the first European to explore the east coast of Canada was

Portuguese establish seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast.[50] In general, early settlements during the Age of Discovery appear to have been short-lived due to a combination of the harsh climate, problems with navigating trade routes and competing outputs in Scandinavia.[51][52]

In 1583, Sir

Mississippi watershed to Louisiana.[55] The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade.[56]

The English established additional settlements in

Treaty of Utrecht and Canada and most of New France came under British rule in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.[60]

British North America

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established First Nation treaty rights, created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia.[18] St John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769.[61] To avert conflict in Quebec, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley.[62] More importantly, the Quebec Act afforded Quebec special autonomy and rights of self-administration at a time when the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly agitating against British rule.[63] It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there, staving off the growth of an independence movement in contrast to the Thirteen Colonies.[64] The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution.[18]

After the successful American War of Independence, the

Loyalists, the settlers who had fought against American independence. Many moved to Canada, particularly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories. New Brunswick was in turn split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes, which led to the incorporation of Saint John, New Brunswick, as Canada's first city.[66] To accommodate the influx of English-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.[67]

The Canadas were the main front in the

Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances.[70] Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 percent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891.[27]

The desire for

Rebellions of 1837.[71] The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture.[18] The Act of Union 1840 merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada and responsible government was established for all provinces of British North America east of Lake Superior by 1855.[72] The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).[73] The Anglo-Russian Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1825) established the border along the Pacific coast, but, even after the US Alaska Purchase of 1867, disputes continued about the exact demarcation of the Alaska–Yukon and Alaska–BC border.[74]

Confederation and expansion

Following three constitutional conferences, the British North America Act, 1867 officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.[75][76] Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.[77] British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had been united in 1866) joined the confederation in 1871 on the promise of a transcontinental railway extending to Victoria in the province within 10 years,[78] while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.[79] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, Parliament created the Yukon Territory. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.[79] Between 1871 and 1896, almost one quarter of the Canadian population emigrated south to the US.[80]

To open the West and encourage European immigration, the Government of Canada sponsored the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), passed the Dominion Lands Act to regulate settlement and established the North-West Mounted Police to assert authority over the territory.[81][82] This period of westward expansion and nation building resulted in the displacement of many Indigenous peoples of the Canadian Prairies to "Indian reserves",[83] clearing the way for ethnic European block settlements.[84] This caused the collapse of the Plains Bison in western Canada and the introduction of European cattle farms and wheat fields dominating the land.[85] The Indigenous peoples saw widespread famine and disease due to the loss of the bison and their traditional hunting lands.[86] The federal government did provide emergency relief, on condition of the Indigenous peoples moving to the reserves.[87] During this time, Canada introduced the Indian Act extending its control over the First Nations to education, government and legal rights.[88]

Early 20th century

1918
The same poster in English, with subtle differences in text. "They serve France—How can I serve Canada? Buy Victory Bonds".

Because Britain still maintained control of Canada's foreign affairs under the British North America Act, 1867, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into the First World War.[89] Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps, which played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war.[90] Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded.[91] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet's proposal to augment the military's dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from French-speaking Quebecers.[92] The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party.[92] In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain,[90] and the Statute of Westminster, 1931, affirmed Canada's independence.[93]

The Great Depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country.[94] In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s.[95] On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective September 10, 1939, by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. The delay underscored Canada's independence.[90]

The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Canadians served in the armed forces during the

Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany.[97]

The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union.[90] Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.[98]

Contemporary era

The financial crisis of the Great Depression led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a Crown colony ruled by a British governor.[99] After two referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.[100]

Canada's post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new

Canada Student Loans; though, provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.[104]

Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the Canada Act 1982, the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[105][106][107] Canada had established complete sovereignty as an independent country under its own monarchy.[108][109] In 1999, Nunavut became Canada's third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.[110]

At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a secular nationalist movement.[111] The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970,[112] and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990.[113] This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West.[114][115] A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent.[116] In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and the Clarity Act was passed by Parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.[113]

In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of

UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.[121] Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001 but declined to join the United States–led invasion of Iraq in 2003.[122]

In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the

Canadian Indian residential schools.[126] Administered by various Christian churches and funded by the Canadian government from 1828 to 1997, these boarding schools attempted to assimilate Indigenous children into Euro-Canadian culture.[39]

Geography

By total area (including its waters), Canada is the

Kingdom of Denmark) to the northeast, on Hans Island,[132] and a maritime boundary with France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon to the southeast.[133] Canada is also home to the world's northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.[134]

Canada can be divided into seven physiographic regions: the

Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian region, the Western Cordillera, Hudson Bay Lowlands, and the Arctic Archipelago.[135] Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in northern Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the relatively flat Canadian Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture.[129] The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River (in the southeast) where the lowlands host much of Canada's economic output.[129] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 of which are larger than 100 km2 (39 sq mi)—containing much of the world's fresh water.[136][137] There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains, and the Arctic Cordillera.[138] Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.[139]

Climate

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.[140] In non-coastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).[141]

Much of Northern Canada is covered by ice and permafrost. The future of the permafrost is uncertain because the Arctic has been warming at three times the global average as a result of climate change in Canada.[142] Canada's annual average temperature over land has risen by 1.7 °C (3.1 °F), with changes ranging from 1.1 to 2.3 °C (2.0 to 4.1 °F) in various regions, since 1948.[129] The rate of warming has been higher across the North and in the Prairies.[143] In the southern regions of Canada, air pollution from both Canada and the United States—caused by metal smelting, burning coal to power utilities, and vehicle emissions—has resulted in acid rain, which has severely impacted waterways, forest growth, and agricultural productivity in Canada.[144]

Biodiversity

Canada is divided into 15 terrestrial and five marine ecozones.[145] These ecozones encompass over 80,000 classified species of Canadian wildlife, with an equal number yet to be formally recognized or discovered.[146] Although Canada has a low percentage of endemic species compared to other countries,[147] due to human activities, invasive species, and environmental issues in the country, there are currently more than 800 species at risk of being lost.[148] About 65 percent of Canada's resident species are considered "Secure".[149] Over half of Canada's landscape is intact and relatively free of human development.[150] The boreal forest of Canada is considered to be the largest intact forest on Earth, with approximately 3,000,000 km2 (1,200,000 sq mi) undisturbed by roads, cities or industry.[151] Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions,[152] with 42 percent of its land area covered by forests (approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land).[153]

Approximately 12.1 percent of the nation's landmass and freshwater are

seabirds.[160] Canada's 18 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves cover a total area of 235,000 square kilometres (91,000 sq mi).[161]

Government and politics

Canada is described as a "

full democracy",[162] with a tradition of liberalism,[163] and an egalitarian,[164] moderate political ideology.[165] An emphasis on social justice has been a distinguishing element of Canada's political culture.[166][167] Peace, order, and good government, alongside an Implied Bill of Rights, are founding principles of the Canadian government.[168][169]

At the federal level, Canada has been dominated by two relatively

far-left politics have never been a prominent force in Canadian society.[182][183][184]

Canada has a

judicial branches.[185][186][187][188] The reigning monarch is also monarch of 14 other Commonwealth countries (though, all are sovereign of one another[189]) and each of Canada's 10 provinces. To carry out most of their federal royal duties in Canada, the monarch appoints a representative, the governor general, on the advice of the prime minister.[190][191]

The monarchy is the source of sovereignty and authority in Canada.[188][192][193] However, while the governor general or monarch may exercise their power without ministerial advice in certain rare crisis situations,[192] the use of the executive powers (or royal prerogative) is otherwise always directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the prime minister,[194] the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the individual who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a majority of members in the House of Commons.[195] The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies.[192] The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the leader of the Official Opposition and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[196]

The House of Commons chamber
The House of Commons in its temporary location, the West Block

The

parliamentary supremacy, this was later, with the enactment of the Constitution Act, 1982, all but completely superseded by the American notion of the supremacy of the law.[197]

Each of the 338

confidence vote in the House.[198][199] The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75.[200]

unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons.[193] Canada's three territories also have legislatures; but, these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces.[201] The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts.[202]

The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country.[203] The minister of finance and minister of innovation, science, and industry use the Statistics Canada agency for financial planning and economic policy development.[204] The Bank of Canada is the sole authority authorized to issue currency in the form of Canadian bank notes.[205] The bank does not issue Canadian coins; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint.[206]

Law

The constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country and consists of written text and unwritten conventions.[207] The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act, 1867 prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments.[208] The Statute of Westminster, 1931, granted full autonomy, and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to Britain, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[209] The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government; though, a notwithstanding clause allows Parliament and the provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years.[210]

Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court, final arbiter, and has been led since December 18, 2017, by Richard Wagner, the Chief Justice of Canada.[211] The governor general appoints the court's nine members on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice.[212] All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions.[213]

Common law prevails everywhere, except in Quebec, where civil law predominates.[214] Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada.[215] Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces.[216] In most rural and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.[217]

Canadian Aboriginal law provides certain constitutionally recognized rights to land and traditional practices for Indigenous groups in Canada.[218] Various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and many Indigenous peoples.[219] Most notably, a series of 11 treaties, known as the Numbered Treaties, were signed between the Indigenous peoples and the reigning monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921.[220] These treaties are agreements between the Canadian Crown-in-Council, with the duty to consult and accommodate.[221] The role of Aboriginal law and the rights they support were reaffirmed by section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982.[219] These rights may include provision of services, such as healthcare through the Indian Health Transfer Policy, and exemption from taxation.[222]

Foreign relations and military

Canada is recognized as a

Canada's peacekeeping role during the 20th century has played a major role in its global image.[226][227] The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises.[228]

Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and has membership in the

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[223] Canada is also a member of various other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs.[229] Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976.[230] Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd Summit of the Americas in 2001.[231] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).[232]

Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner.[233][234] Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy.[235] For example, it maintains full relations with Cuba and declined to participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[236]

Canada maintains historic ties to the

Dutch liberation during World War II.[97]

Canada's earlier strong attachment to the British Empire and, later, the Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the

North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), in cooperation with the United States, to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.[241]

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future prime minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.[242] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept.[243] Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989,[90] and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia affair.[244]

In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the US stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force.[245] In August 2007, Canada's territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.[246]

The unified

military intervention against ISIL.[252]

Provinces and territories

Labelled map of Canada detailing its provinces and territories
Political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories

Canada is a federation composed of 10

federal territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together).[253] Provinces and territories have responsibility for social programs such as healthcare, education, and welfare,[254] as well as administration of justice (but not criminal law). Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, a rarity among other federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas such as health and child care; the provinces can opt out of these cost-share programs but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.[255]

The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their sovereignty from the Crown[256] and power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada[257] and the commissioners represent the King in his federal Council,[258] rather than the monarch directly. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act, 1867, are divided between the federal government and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively[259] and any changes to that arrangement require a constitutional amendment, while changes to the roles and powers of the territories may be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada.[260]

Economy

The Toronto financial district is the second-largest financial centre in North America, the seventh-largest globally in employment and the heart of Canada's finance industry.[261]

Canada has a

trade deficit in goods of $22 billion and a trade deficit in services of $25 billion.[266] The Toronto Stock Exchange is the ninth-largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined market capitalization of over US$2 trillion.[267]

Canada has a strong

disposable income per capita is "well above" the OECD average.[275] Canada ranks among the lowest of the most developed countries for housing affordability[276][277] and foreign direct investment.[278][277]

Since the early 20th century, the growth of

Canada's manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one.[279] Like many other developed countries, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country's workforce.[280] Among developed countries, Canada has an unusually important primary sector, of which the forestry and petroleum industries are the most prominent components.[281] Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustained by nearby mines or sources of timber.[282]

  Canada

Canada's economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since

Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994 (later replaced by the Canada–United States–Mexico Agreement).[287] As of 2023, Canada is a signatory to 15 free trade agreements with 51 different countries.[288]

Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.

canola, and other grains.[293] The country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, platinoids, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal, lead, copper, molybdenum, cobalt, and cadmium.[294][295] Canada has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.[296] The fishing industry is also a key contributor to the economy.[297]

Science and technology

In 2020, Canada spent approximately $41.9 billion on domestic

scientific journals, according to the Nature Index,[300] and is home to the headquarters of a number of global technology firms.[301] Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percent of its total population.[302]

Canadarm2
.

Canada's developments in science and technology include the creation of the modern alkaline battery,[303] the discovery of insulin,[304] the development of the polio vaccine,[305] and discoveries about the interior structure of the atomic nucleus.[306] Other major Canadian scientific contributions include the artificial cardiac pacemaker, mapping the visual cortex,[307][308] the development of the electron microscope,[309][310] plate tectonics, deep learning, multi-touch technology, and the identification of the first black hole, Cygnus X-1.[311] Canada has a long history of discovery in genetics, which include stem cells, site-directed mutagenesis, T-cell receptor, and the identification of the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis, and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases.[308][312]

The

Canadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA's Space Shuttle.[315] Since the 1960s, Canada's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS, and MOST.[316] Canada has also produced one of the world's most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket's introduction in 1961.[317]

Demographics

Two-colour map of Windsor area with towns along the St. Lawrence river
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada and spans 1,200 km (750 mi).[318]

The

family reunification.[322][323] A record number of 405,000 immigrants were admitted to Canada in 2021.[324] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas in the country, such as Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.[325] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees, accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements; it resettled more than 28,000 in 2018.[326][327]

Canada's population density, at 4.2 inhabitants per square kilometre (11/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world.[319] Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north and approximately 95 percent of the population is found south of the 55th parallel north.[328] About 80 percent of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the border with the contiguous United States.[329] The most densely populated part of the country, accounting for nearly 50 percent, is the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.[318][328]

The majority of Canadians (81.1 percent) live in family households, 12.1 percent report living alone, and those living with other relatives or unrelated persons reported at 6.8 percent.[330] Fifty-one percent of households are couples with or without children, 8.7 percent are single-parent households, 2.9 percent are multigenerational households, and 29.3 percent are single-person households.[330]

 
Largest metropolitan areas in Canada
Rank
Name
Province
Pop.
Rank
Name
Province
Pop.
1 Toronto Ontario 6,202,225 11 London Ontario 543,551
2 Montreal Quebec 4,291,732 12 Halifax Nova Scotia 465,703
3 Vancouver British Columbia 2,642,825 13 St. Catharines–Niagara Ontario 433,604
4 Ottawa–Gatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,488,307 14 Windsor Ontario 422,630
5 Calgary Alberta 1,481,806 15 Oshawa Ontario 415,311
6 Edmonton Alberta 1,418,118 16 Victoria British Columbia 397,237
7 Quebec City Quebec 839,311 17 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 317,480
8 Winnipeg Manitoba 834,678 18 Regina Saskatchewan 249,217
9 Hamilton Ontario 785,184 19 Sherbrooke Quebec 227,398
10 Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo Ontario 575,847 20 Kelowna British Columbia 222,162

Health

Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.[331][332] It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984[333] and is universal.[334] Universal access to publicly funded health services "is often considered by Canadians as a fundamental value that ensures national healthcare insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country."[335] Around 30 percent of Canadians' healthcare is paid for through the private sector.[336] This mostly pays for services not covered or partially covered by Medicare, such as prescription drugs, dentistry and optometry.[336] Approximately 65 to 75 percent of Canadians have some form of supplementary health insurance related to the aforementioned reasons; many receive it through their employers or access secondary social service programs related to extended coverage for families receiving social assistance or vulnerable demographics, such as seniors, minors, and those with disabilities.[337][336]

In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing an increase in healthcare expenditures due to a

respiratory diseases, and diabetes—account for 65 percent of deaths in Canada.[343][344]

In 2021, the

developed countries ranked Canada second-to-last.[349] Identified weaknesses were comparatively higher infant mortality rate, the prevalence of chronic conditions, long wait times, poor availability of after-hours care, and a lack of prescription drugs and dental coverage.[349] An increasing problem in Canada's health system is a lack of healthcare professionals.[350]

Education

The University of Toronto campus
University College, seen through the main gate and up King's College Road, at Canada's largest post-secondary institution, the University of Toronto

Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.[351] Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province.[352][353] Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Education in both English and French is available in most places across Canada.[354] Canada has a large number of universities, almost all of which are publicly funded.[355] Established in 1663, Université Laval is the oldest post-secondary institution in Canada.[356] The largest university is the University of Toronto with over 85,000 students.[357] Four universities are regularly ranked among the top 100 world-wide, namely University of Toronto, University of British Columbia, McGill University, and McMaster University, with a total of 18 universities ranked in the top 500 worldwide.[358]

According to a 2019 report by the OECD, Canada is one of the most educated countries in the world;[359] the country ranks first worldwide in the percentage of adults having tertiary education, with over 56 percent of Canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree.[359] Canada spends about 5.3 percent of its GDP on education.[360] The country invests heavily in tertiary education (more than US$20,000 per student).[361] As of 2014, 89 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percent.[362]

The mandatory education age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,[363] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent.[339] Just over 60,000 children are homeschooled in the country as of 2016. The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading,[364][365] ranking the overall knowledge and skills of Canadian 15-year-olds as the sixth-best in the world, although these scores have been declining in recent years. Canada is a well-performing OECD country in reading literacy, mathematics, and science, with the average student scoring 523.7, compared with the OECD average of 493 in 2015.[366][367]

Ethnicity

A map showing the largest ethnic or cultural origins in Canada by census division in 2021:

According to the

Oceanian (0.3 percent), and other (6 percent).[368][369] Over 60 percent of Canadians reported a single origin, and 36 percent of Canadians reported having multiple ethnic origins, thus the overall total is greater than 100 percent.[368]

The country's ten largest self-reported specific ethnic or cultural origins in 2021 were Canadian[d] (accounting for 15.6 percent of the population), followed by English (14.7 percent), Irish (12.1 percent), Scottish (12.1 percent), French (11.0 percent), German (8.1 percent), Chinese (4.7 percent), Italian (4.3 percent), Indian (3.7 percent), and Ukrainian (3.5 percent).[373]

Of the 36.3 million people enumerated in 2021, approximately 25.4 million reported being "White", representing 69.8 percent of the population.[374] The Indigenous population representing 5 percent or 1.8 million individuals, grew by 9.4 percent compared to the non-Indigenous population, which grew by 5.3 percent from 2016 to 2021.[374] One out of every four Canadians or 26.5 percent of the population belonged to a non-White and non-Indigenous visible minority,[375][e] the largest of which in 2021 were South Asian (2.6 million people; 7.1 percent), Chinese (1.7 million; 4.7 percent), and Black (1.5 million; 4.3 percent).[377]

Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent.[378] In 1961, about 300,000 people, less than two percent of Canada's population, were members of visible minority groups.[379] The 2021 census indicated that 8.3 million people, or almost one-quarter (23.0 percent) of the population, reported themselves as being or having been a landed immigrant or permanent resident in Canada—above the 1921 census previous record of 22.3 percent.[380] In 2021, India, China, and the Philippines were the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada.[381]

Languages

A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with

mother tongue. Some of the most common non-official first languages include Mandarin (679,255 first-language speakers), Punjabi (666,585), Cantonese (553,380), Spanish (538,870), Arabic (508,410), Tagalog (461,150), Italian (319,505), and German (272,865).[383] Canada's federal government practises official bilingualism, which is applied by the commissioner of official languages in consonance with section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the federal Official Languages Act. English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.[384]

The 1977

Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec.[386] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population.[387] There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.[388]

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official.[389] There are 11 Indigenous language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects.[390] Several Indigenous languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.[391] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut and is one of three official languages in the territory.[392]

Additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages, some of which are Indigenous.[393] American Sign Language (ASL) is used across the country due to the prevalence of ASL in primary and secondary schools.[394] Due to its historical relation to the francophone culture, Quebec Sign Language (LSQ) is used primarily in Quebec, although there are sizeable Francophone communities in New Brunswick, Ontario, and Manitoba.[395]

Religion

Religion in Canada (2021 census)[396]

  
Indigenous
(0.2%)

Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs.

Defender of the Faith, Canada has no official church and the government is officially committed to religious pluralism.[399] Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.[400]

The "

2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:

(a) freedom of conscience and religion;
(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication;
(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and
(d) freedom of association

The practice of religion is generally considered a private matter throughout society and the state.[402] Rates of religious adherence have steadily decreased from the 1970s to the 2020s.[398] With Christianity in decline after having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life,[403] Canada has become a post-Christian, secular state.[404][405][406][407] The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives,[398][408] but still believe in God.[409]

According to the 2021 census,

Indigenous spirituality (0.2 percent).[411] Canada has the second-largest national Sikh population, behind India.[412][413]

Culture

Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli, in Toronto

Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities and policies that promote a "just society" are constitutionally protected.[414][415][416] Since the 1960s, Canada has emphasized equality and inclusiveness for all its people.[417][418][419] The official state policy of multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's significant accomplishments[420] and a key distinguishing element of Canadian identity.[421][422] In Quebec, cultural identity is strong and there is a French Canadian culture that is distinct from English Canadian culture.[423] As a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic of regional ethnic subcultures.[424][425]

Canada's approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective

National park system, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[430][431]

Historically, Canada has been influenced by

music, Indigenous peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity.[432] During the 20th century, Canadians with African, Caribbean, and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture.[433] Canadian humour is an integral part of the Canadian identity and is reflected in its folklore, literature, music, art, and media. The primary characteristics of Canadian humour are irony, parody, and satire.[434]

Symbols

Fleur de lis: French; thistle: Scottish; shamrock: Irish; and leek: Welsh
.

Themes of nature, pioneers, trappers, and traders played an important part in the early development of Canadian symbolism.

those of the Untied Kingdom, with French and distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British version.[440]

Other prominent symbols include the national motto, "

50¢ piece, and the beaver on the nickel.[444] The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf.[445] An image of the previous monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, appears on $20 bank notes and the obverse of all current Canadian coins.[444]

Literature

Canadian literature is often divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively.[446] The earliest Canadian narratives were of travel and exploration.[447] This progressed into three major themes that can be found within historical Canadian literature: nature, frontier life, and Canada's position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison mentality.[448] In recent decades, Canada's literature has been strongly influenced by immigrants from around the world.[449] Since the 1980s, Canada's ethnic and cultural diversity has been openly reflected in its literature.[450] By the 1990s, Canadian literature was viewed as some of the world's best.[450]

Numerous

L. M. Montgomery produced a series of children's novels beginning in 1908 with Anne of Green Gables.[455]

Media

Canada's media is

Broadcasting Act declares "the system should serve to safeguard, enrich, and strengthen the cultural, political, social, and economic fabric of Canada".[458] Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output—particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines—is often overshadowed by imports from the United States.[459] As a result, the preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[460]

Non-news media content in Canada, including film and television, is influenced both by local creators as well as by imports from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and France.[464] In an effort to reduce the amount of foreign-made media, government interventions in television broadcasting can include both regulation of content and public financing.[465] Canadian tax laws limit foreign competition in magazine advertising.[466]

Visual arts

Oil on canvas painting of a tree dominating its rocky landscape during a sunset
The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada
.

Art in Canada is marked by thousands of years of habitation by its indigenous peoples.[467] Historically, the Catholic Church was the primary patron of art in New France and early Canada, especially Quebec,[468] and, in later times, artists have combined British, French, Indigenous, and American artistic traditions, at times embracing European styles while working to promote nationalism.[469] The nature of Canadian art reflects these diverse origins, as artists have taken their traditions and adapted these influences to reflect the reality of their lives in Canada.[470]

The Canadian government has played a role in the development of Canadian culture through the department of

Canada Council for the Arts (established in 1957), the national public arts funder, helping artists, art galleries and periodicals, and thus contributing to the development of Canada's cultural works.[472] Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.[473]

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures, such as painter Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven.[474] The latter were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists—Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley—were responsible for articulating the group's ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston and commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the group in 1926.[475] Associated with the group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.[476]

Music

Original publication of "O Canada
", 1908

Canadian music reflects a

Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.[483] The Canadian Music Hall of Fame, established in 1976, honours Canadian musicians for their lifetime achievements.[484]

St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony and was officially adopted in 1980.[487] Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French before it was adapted into English in 1906.[488]

Sports

Canadian men's national ice hockey team celebrates shortly after winning the gold medal final at the 2010 Winter Olympics
.

The

Lou Marsh Trophy is awarded annually to Canada's top athlete by a panel of journalists.[494] There are numerous other sport "halls of fame" in Canada, such as the Hockey Hall of Fame.[493]

Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States.[495] Canadian teams in these leagues include seven franchises in the National Hockey League, as well as three Major League Soccer teams and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. Other popular professional competitions include the Canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League, the Canadian Premier League, and the various curling tournaments sanctioned and organized by Curling Canada.[496]

Canada has enjoyed success both

2026 FIFA World Cup alongside Mexico and the United States.[504]

See also

Notes

  1. contiguous 48 states and 2,475 km (1,538 mi) via Alaska.[131]
  2. ^ "Brokerage politics: A Canadian term for successful big tent parties that embody a pluralistic catch-all approach to appeal to the median Canadian voter ... adopting centrist policies and electoral coalitions to satisfy the short-term preferences of a majority of electors who are not located on the ideological fringe."[170][171] "The traditional brokerage model of Canadian politics leaves little room for ideology"[172][173][174][175]
  3. ^ "The Royal Canadian Navy is composed of approximately 8,400 full-time sailors and 5,100 part-time sailors. The Army is composed of approximately 22,800 full-time soldiers, 18,700 reservists, and 5,000 Canadian Rangers. The Royal Canadian Air Force is composed of approximately 13,000 Regular Force personnel and 2,400 Air Reserve personnel."[249]
  4. ^ a b All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestral origin or descent. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire.[370] "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones) and no longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage."[371][372]
  5. ^ Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority in Statistics Canada calculations. Visible minorities are defined by Statistics Canada as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[376]
  6. ^
    Catholic Church (29.9%), United Church (3.3%), Anglican Church (3.1%), Eastern Orthodoxy (1.7%), Baptistism (1.2%), Pentecostalism and other Charismatic (1.1%) Anabaptist (0.4), Jehovah's Witness (0.4), Latter Day Saints (0.2), Lutheran (0.9), Methodist and Wesleyan (Holiness) (0.3), Presbyterian (0.8), Reformed (0.2)[397]

References

  1. ^ "Royal Anthem". Government of Canada. August 11, 2017. Retrieved October 8, 2022.
  2. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  3. ^ "Population estimates, quarterly". December 21, 2022. Archived from the original on December 21, 2022. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
  4. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. April 2023. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  6. ^ "Income inequality". OECD. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  8. ISBN 978-1-55002-276-6. The dd/mm/yy and mm/dd/yy formats also remain in common use; see Date and time notation in Canada
    .
  9. .
  10. ^ .
  11. .
  12. ^ "An Act to Re-write the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada". J.C. Fisher & W. Kimble. 1841. p. 20.
  13. .
  14. .
  15. ^ "November 8, 1951 (21st Parliament, 5th Session)". Canadian Hansard Dataset. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  16. ^ Bowden, J.W.J. (2015). "'Dominion': A Lament". The Dorchester Review. 5 (2): 58–64.
  17. .
  18. ^ .
  19. .
  20. ^ .
  21. .
  22. .
  23. .
  24. .
  25. .
  26. .
  27. ^ .
  28. .
  29. .
  30. .
  31. .
  32. .
  33. .
  34. .
  35. .
  36. .
  37. .
  38. .
  39. ^ .
  40. .
  41. .
  42. ^ "Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action" (PDF). National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. 2015. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  43. ^ "Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada : calls to action.: IR4-8/2015E-PDF - Canada.ca". Government of Canada Publications. July 1, 2002. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  44. ^ "Principles respecting the Government of Canada's relationship with Indigenous peoples". Ministère de la Justice. July 14, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  45. ^ Wallace, Birgitta (October 12, 2018). "Leif Eriksson". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  46. .
  47. ^ .
  48. .
  49. .
  50. .
  51. .
  52. .
  53. .
  54. .
  55. .
  56. .
  57. .
  58. .
  59. .
  60. .
  61. .
  62. ^ Hopkins, John Castell (1898). Canada: an Encyclopaedia of the Country: The Canadian Dominion Considered in Its Historic Relations, Its Natural Resources, its Material Progress and its National Development, by a Corps of Eminent Writers and Specialists. Linscott Publishing Company. p. 125.
  63. .
  64. .
  65. .
  66. .
  67. .
  68. .
  69. .
  70. ^ Gallagher, John A. (1936). "The Irish Emigration of 1847 and Its Canadian Consequences". CCHA Report: 43–57. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
  71. .
  72. .
  73. .
  74. ^ Farr, DML; Block, Niko (August 9, 2016). "The Alaska Boundary Dispute". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on December 15, 2017.
  75. .
  76. .
  77. .
  78. ^ "Railway History in Canada | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  79. ^ a b "Building a nation". Canadian Atlas. Canadian Geographic. Archived from the original on March 3, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  80. ^ Denison, Merrill (1955). The Barley and the Stream: The Molson Story. McClelland & Stewart Limited. p. 8.
  81. ^ "Sir John A. Macdonald". Library and Archives Canada. 2008. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  82. ^ Cook, Terry (2000). "The Canadian West: An Archival Odyssey through the Records of the Department of the Interior". The Archivist. Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  83. .
  84. ^ Gagnon, Erica. "Settling the West: Immigration to the Prairies from 1867 to 1914". Canadian Museum of Immigration. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  85. .
  86. .
  87. .
  88. .
  89. .
  90. ^ .
  91. .
  92. ^ a b McGonigal, Richard Morton (1962). "Intro". The Conscription Crisis in Quebec – 1917: a Study in Canadian Dualism. Harvard University Press.
  93. .
  94. .
  95. .
  96. .
  97. ^ .
  98. .
  99. .
  100. .
  101. .
  102. .
  103. .
  104. ^ Sarrouh, Elissar (January 22, 2002). "Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development" (PDF). Social Policy Series, No. 1. United Nations. pp. 14–16, 22–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 17, 2010.
  105. ^ "Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982". Government of Canada. May 5, 2014. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  106. ^ "A statute worth 75 cheers". The Globe and Mail. March 17, 2009. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017.
  107. ^ Couture, Christa (January 1, 2017). "Canada is celebrating 150 years of... what, exactly?". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  108. ^ Trepanier, Peter (2004). "Some Visual Aspects of the Monarchical Tradition" (PDF). Canadian Parliamentary Review. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  109. .
  110. .
  111. .
  112. .
  113. ^ .
  114. ^ Leblanc, Daniel (August 13, 2010). "A brief history of the Bloc Québécois". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  115. .
  116. .
  117. ^ "Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  118. ^ Sourour, Teresa K (1991). "Report of Coroner's Investigation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 28, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  119. ^ "The Oka Crisis". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2000. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  120. .
  121. .
  122. .
  123. .
  124. ^ Juneau, Thomas (2015). "Canada's Policy to Confront the Islamic State". Canadian Global Affairs Institute. Archived from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
  125. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)". Government of Canada. 2021.
  126. ^ "Catholic group to release all records from Marievel, Kamloops residential schools". CTVNews. June 25, 2021. Archived from the original on June 25, 2021. Retrieved June 25, 2021.
  127. .
  128. .
  129. ^ .
  130. ^ "Geography". Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  131. ^ a b "Boundary Facts". International Boundary Commission. Retrieved May 20, 2023.
  132. ^ Chase, Steven (June 10, 2022). "Canada and Denmark reach settlement over disputed Arctic island, sources say". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  133. .
  134. ^ Canadian Geographic. Royal Canadian Geographical Society. 2008. p. 20.
  135. ^ "Physiographic Regions of Canada". The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. September 12, 2016.
  136. .
  137. ^ "Physical Components of Watersheds". The Atlas of Canada. December 5, 2012. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  138. .
  139. .
  140. ^ "Statistics, Regina SK". The Weather Network. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
  141. Environment Canada. September 25, 2013. Archived
    from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  142. ^ Bush, E.; Lemmen, D.S. (2019). "Canada's Changing Climate Report" (PDF). Government of Canada. p. 84.
  143. ^ Zhang, X.; Flato, G.; Kirchmeier-Young, M.; Vincent, L.; Wan, H.; Wang, X.; Rong, R.; Fyfe, J.; Li, G. (2019). Bush, E.; Lemmen, D.S. (eds.). "Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Across Canada; Chapter 4" (PDF). Canada's Changing Climate Report. Government of Canada. pp. 112–193.
  144. .
  145. ^ "Introduction to the Ecological Land Classification (ELC) 2017". Statistics Canada. January 10, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  146. ^ "Wild Species 2015: The General Status of Species in Canada" (PDF). National General Status Working Group: 1. Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council. 2016. p. 2. The new estimate indicates that there are about 80,000 known species in Canada, excluding viruses and bacteria
  147. ^ "Canada: Main Details". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  148. ^ "COSEWIC Annual Report". Species at Risk Public Registry. 2019.
  149. ^ "Wild Species 2000: The General Status of Species in Canada". Conservation Council. 2001.
  150. ^ "State of Canada's Biodiversity Highlighted in New Government Report". October 22, 2010.
  151. .
  152. .
  153. .
  154. ^ a b "Canada's conserved areas". Environment and Climate Canada. 2020.
  155. ^ "The Mountain Guide – Banff National Park" (PDF). Parks Canada. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2006.
  156. .
  157. ^ "Algonquin Provincial Park Management Plan". Queen's Printer for Ontario. 1998.
  158. ^ Government of Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (December 13, 2017). "Spotlight on Marine Protected Areas in Canada". www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca.
  159. ^ "Scott Islands Marine National Widllife Area". Protected Planet. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  160. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (February 7, 2013). "Proposed Scott Islands Marine National Wildlife Area: regulatory strategy". aem.
  161. ^ "UNESCO Biosphere Reserves of Canada". e CanadianBiosphere Reserves Association and the Canadian Commission for UNESCO. 2018. PDF
  162. ^ "2021 Democracy Index" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2021.
  163. .
  164. .
  165. .
  166. . Retrieved October 10, 2021.
  167. .
  168. .
  169. .
  170. .
  171. .
  172. ^ Christopher Cochrane (2010). Left/Right Ideology and Canadian Politics. Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue Canadienne De Science Politique, 43(3), 583–605. Retrieved January 21, 2021,
  173. . Two historically dominant political parties have avoided ideological appeals in favour of a flexible centrist style of politics that is often labelled brokerage politics
  174. ISBN 978-1-4426-0695-1. Canada's party system has long been described as a "brokerage system" in which the leading parties (Liberal and Conservative) follow strategies that appeal across major social cleavages
    in an effort to defuse potential tensions.
  175. . ...most Canadian governments, especially in the federal sphere, have taken a moderate, centrist approach to decision making, seeking to balance growth, stability, and governmental efficiency and economy...
  176. .
  177. ^ Johnston, Richard (April 13, 2021). "The baffling history of Canada's party system". Policy Options. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  178. .
  179. .
  180. .
  181. ^ "Election 2015 roundup". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015.
  182. S2CID 145773856
    .
  183. ^ Taub, Amanda (June 27, 2017). "Canada's Secret to Resisting the West's Populist Wave". The New York Times.
  184. ^ Geddes, John (February 8, 2022). "What's actually standing in the way of right-wing populism in Canada?". Macleans.ca. Retrieved October 31, 2022.
  185. .
  186. Queen's Printer. March 29, 1867. Archived
    from the original on February 3, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  187. ^ Smith, David E (June 10, 2010). "The Crown and the Constitution: Sustaining Democracy?" (PDF). The Crown in Canada: Present Realities and Future Options. Queen's University. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 17, 2010.
  188. ^
    ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on January 5, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  189. .
  190. ^ "The Governor General of Canada: Roles and Responsibilities". Queen's Printer. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  191. .
  192. ^ (PDF) on December 29, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  193. ^ a b Marleau, Robert; Montpetit, Camille. "House of Commons Procedure and Practice: Parliamentary Institutions". Queen's Printer. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  194. ^ Edwards, Peter (November 4, 2015). "'A cabinet that looks like Canada:' Justin Trudeau pledges government built on trust". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017.
  195. .
  196. ^ "The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  197. ^ McWhinney, Edward Watson (October 8, 2019), "Sovereignty", The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Canada, retrieved March 5, 2023
  198. ^ "About Elections and Ridings". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2016.
  199. ^ O'Neal, Brian; Bédard, Michel; Spano, Sebastian (April 11, 2011). "Government and Canada's 41st Parliament: Questions and Answers". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
  200. .
  201. ^ "Difference between Canadian Provinces and Territories". Intergovernmental Affairs Canada. 2010. Archived from the original on December 1, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  202. ^ "Differences from Provincial Governments". Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories. 2008. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  203. . Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  204. ^ "About". Statistics Canada. 2014. Archived from the original on January 15, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  205. .
  206. .
  207. .
  208. .
  209. .
  210. .
  211. ^ "Current and Former Chief Justices". Supreme Court of Canada. December 18, 2017. Archived from the original on January 16, 2018. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  212. S2CID 240317161
    .
  213. .
  214. .
  215. .
  216. ^ "Who we are". Ontario Provincial Police. 2009. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  217. . Retrieved April 29, 2023.
  218. .
  219. ^ a b Patterson, Lisa Lynne (2004). Aboriginal roundtable on Kelowna Accord: Aboriginal policy negotiations 2004–2006 (PDF) (Report). 1. Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 26, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
  220. ^ "Treaty areas". Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. October 7, 2002. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  221. .
  222. .
  223. ^ .
  224. .
  225. ^ "Plans at a glance and operating context". Global Affairs Canada. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  226. .
  227. .
  228. ^ "Millennium Development Goals: A sprint to 2015 and the way forward". Canadian Government Executive. 2014. Archived from the original on November 13, 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
  229. ^ "International Organizations and Forums". Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. 2013. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  230. .
  231. .
  232. .
  233. .
  234. ^ "Canada". United States Department of State. 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  235. ^ See Congressional Research Service. Canada-U.S. Relations (Congressional Research Service, 2021) 2021 Report, by an agency of the US Congress; Updated February 10, 2021.
  236. .
  237. .
  238. .
  239. .
  240. .
  241. .
  242. .
  243. .
  244. ^ Farnsworth, Clyde H (November 27, 1994). "Torture by Army Peacekeepers in Somalia Shocks Canada". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  245. .
  246. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (August 3, 2007). "Russia claims North Pole with Arctic flag stunt". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on April 28, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  247. ^ "Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada's Defence Policy". National Defence. September 22, 2017.
  248. ^ "Canadian Armed Forces 101". National Defence. March 11, 2021.
  249. ^ "About the Canadian Armed Forces". National Defence. March 11, 2021.
  250. ^ Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (April 24, 2022). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2021" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  251. ^ Brewster, Murray (June 7, 2017). "More soldiers, ships and planes for military in Liberal defence plan". CBC News. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  252. ^ "Current operations list". National Defence. 2022.
  253. .
  254. .
  255. .
  256. ^ Jackson, Michael D. (1990). The Canadian Monarchy in Saskatchewan (2nd ed.). Regina: Queen's Printer for Saskatchewan. p. 14.
  257. .
  258. ^ Commissioner of the Northwest Territories, Role of the Commissioner, Government of Northwest Territories, retrieved March 8, 2023
  259. .
  260. .
  261. .
  262. .
  263. ^ Diekmeyer, Peter (June 11, 2020). "Capitalism in Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  264. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. April 2, 2019. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  265. ^ "Evolution of the world's 25 top trading nations – Share of global exports of goods (%), 1978–2020". United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
  266. ^
  267. ^ "Monthly Reports". World Federation of Exchanges.as of November 2018
  268. .
  269. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index (latest)". Transparency International. January 31, 2023. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
  270. .
  271. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2019" (PDF). Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  272. .
  273. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2021.
  274. ^ Shorrocks, Anthony; Davies, Jim; Lluberas, Rodrigo (October 2018). "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse.
  275. ^ "Canada". OECD Better Life Index. 2021. Retrieved August 5, 2022.
  276. ^ Source: Prices: Analytical house price indicators. "Prices - Housing prices - OECD Data". Data.oecd.org. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
  277. ^ a b "'Worst in the world': Here are all the rankings in which Canada is now last". nationalpost. August 11, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  278. . Retrieved August 14, 2022.
  279. from the original on March 20, 2018.
  280. ^ "Employment by Industry". Statistics Canada. January 8, 2009. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  281. ^ .
  282. ^ Vodden, K. and Cunsolo, A. (2021): Rural and Remote Communities; Chapter 3 in Canada in a Changing Climate: National Issues Report, (ed.) F.J. Warren and N. Lulham; Government of Canada
  283. .
  284. .
  285. .
  286. .
  287. .
  288. ^ "Expand globally with Canada's free trade agreements". GAC. December 3, 2020. Retrieved May 14, 2023.
  289. .
  290. ^ Government of Canada, Canada Energy Regulator (January 29, 2021). "CER – Market Snapshot: 25 Years of Atlantic Canada Offshore Oil & Natural Gas Production". www.cer-rec.gc.ca.
  291. ^ Monga, Vipal (January 13, 2022). "One of the World's Dirtiest Oil Patches Is Pumping More Than Ever". WSJ. Retrieved May 13, 2023.
  292. .
  293. ^ "Trade Ranking Report: Agriculture" (PDF). FCC. 2017.
  294. ^ "Canada (CAN) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners - The Observatory of Economic Complexity". OEC - The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved May 20, 2023.
  295. ^ "The Atlas of Economic Complexity by @HarvardGrwthLab". The Atlas of Economic Complexity. Retrieved May 20, 2023.
  296. ^ "Mapping Canada's Top Manufacturing Industries". Industry Insider. January 22, 2015.
  297. ^ "Fisheries". The Canadian Encyclopedia. March 4, 2015. Retrieved May 19, 2023.
  298. ^ The Daily (January 27, 2023). "Gross domestic expenditures on research and development, 2020 (final), 2021 (preliminary) and 2022 (intentions)" (Press release). Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 11, 2023.
  299. ^ "Canadian Nobel Prize in Science Laureates". Science.ca. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  300. ^ "2022 tables: Countries/territories | 2022 tables | Countries/territories | Nature Index". www.nature.com/nature-index/.
  301. ^ "Top Technology Companies in Canada". World Top 25,000 Companies by market cap as on Dec 2022. January 1, 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2023.
  302. ^ "Access to the Internet in Canada, 2020". Statistics Canada. May 31, 2021. Retrieved May 11, 2023.
  303. ^ "Lew Urry". Science.ca.
  304. .
  305. ^ "Leone N. Farrell". Science.ca.
  306. ^ "Leon Katz". Science.ca.
  307. ^ Strauss, Evelyn (2005). "2005 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award". Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
  308. ^ a b "Top ten Canadian scientific achievements". GCS Research Society. 2015.
  309. ^ "James Hillier". Inventor of the Week. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2008.
  310. ^ Pearce, Jeremy (January 22, 2007). "James Hillier, 91, Dies; Co-Developed Electron Microscope". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2008.
  311. S2CID 4222070
    .
  312. .
  313. ^ "Canadian Space Milestones". Canadian Space Agency. 2016. Archived from the original on October 8, 2009.
  314. .
  315. .
  316. ^ "The Canadian Aerospace Industry praises the federal government for recognizing Space as a strategic capability for Canada". Newswire. March 11, 2010. Archived from the original on June 9, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  317. .
  318. ^ .
  319. ^ a b Zimonjic, Peter (February 9, 2022). "Despite pandemic, Canada's population grows at fastest rate in G7: census". CBC News. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  320. .
  321. .
  322. .
  323. .
  324. ^ Sangani, Priyanka (February 15, 2022). "Canada to take in 1.3 million immigrants in 2022–24". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on February 15, 2022.
  325. .
  326. ^ "2019 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration" (PDF). Minister of Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  327. ^ Jason, Markusoff (January 23, 2019). "Canada now brings in more refugees than the U.S." Maclean's.
  328. ^ .
  329. .
  330. ^ a b c "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population – Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022.
  331. .
  332. ^ "Public vs. private health care". CBC News. December 1, 2006.
  333. .
  334. .
  335. ^ "17.2 Universality". The Health of Canadians – The Federal Role (Report). Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  336. ^ .
  337. .
  338. ^ Martel, Laurent; Malenfant, Éric Caron (September 22, 2009). "2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006, by Age and Sex". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on September 20, 2017.
  339. ^ a b "Canada". The World Factbook. CIA. May 16, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  340. ^ Weiss, Thomas G. (2017). "Canadian Male and Female Life Expectancy Rates by Province and Territory". Disabled World.
  341. ^ "Health Status of Canadians – How healthy are we? – Perceived health". Report of the Chief Public Health Officer. Public Health Agency of Canada. 2016.
  342. ^ .
  343. ^ "How Healthy are Canadians?". Public Health Agency of Canada. 2017.
  344. ^ "Health at a Glance 2019" (PDF). OECD. 2019.
  345. ^ "National Health Expenditure Trends". Canadian Institute for Health Information. 2022. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
  346. ^ "Health expenditure and financing". stats.oecd.org.
  347. ^ "Health at a Glance 2017" (PDF). OECD. 2017.
  348. ^ "Health at a Glance: OECD Indicators by country". OECD. 2017.
  349. ^ .
  350. .
  351. ^ Scholey, Lucy (April 21, 2015). "2015 federal budget 'disappointing' for post-secondary students: CFS". Archived from the original on June 3, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  352. ^ Canada 1956 the Official Handbook of Present Conditions and Recent Progress. Canada Year Book Section Information Services Division Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1959.
  353. .
  354. .
  355. .
  356. .
  357. .
  358. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019: Canada". Shanghai Ranking. Archived from the original on February 27, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
  359. ^ a b "Most Educated Countries 2019". World Population Review. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  360. ^ "Government expenditure on education as % of GDP (%)". World Bank. 2015. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  361. ^ "Financial and human resources invested in Education" (PDF). OECD. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  362. ^ "Canada". OECD Better Life Index. OECD. 2014. Archived from the original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  363. ^ "Overview of Education in Canada". Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  364. ^ "Comparing countries' and economies' performances" (PDF). OECD. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  365. ^ "Canadian education among best in the world: OECD". CTV News. December 7, 2010. Archived from the original on May 28, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
  366. ^ "PISA – Results in Focus" (PDF). OECD. 2015. p. 5.
  367. ^ "Canada – Student performance (PISA 2015)". OECD. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  368. ^ a b c "The Canadian census: A rich portrait of the country's religious and ethnocultural diversity". Statistics Canada. October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  369. ^ "Ethnic or cultural origin by gender and age: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". Statistics Canada. October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 26, 2022.
  370. .
  371. .
  372. .
  373. ^ "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Canada [Country] Total – Ethnic or cultural origin for the population in private households – 25% sample data". Statistics Canada. October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  374. ^ a b "The Daily — Indigenous population continues to grow and is much younger than the non-Indigenous population, although the pace of growth has slowed". Statistics Canada. September 21, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  375. ^ "Visible Minority". The Canadian Encyclopedia. October 27, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  376. ^ "Classification of visible minority". Statistics Canada. July 25, 2008. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
  377. ^ "The Daily — The Canadian census: A rich portrait of the country's religious and ethnocultural diversity". Statistics Canada. October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  378. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  379. ^ Pendakur, Krishna. "Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  380. ^ "The Daily — Immigrants make up the largest share of the population in over 150 years and continue to shape who we are as Canadians". Statistics Canada. October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  381. ^ "2021 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. March 15, 2022.
  382. ^ "2006 Census: The Evolving Linguistic Portrait, 2006 Census: Highlights". Statistics Canada, Dated 2006. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  383. ^ a b "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population – Canada [Country]". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
  384. ^ "Official Languages and You". Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. June 16, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
  385. S2CID 144320961
    .
  386. .
  387. .
  388. .
  389. .
  390. ^ "Aboriginal languages". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
  391. .
  392. .
  393. ^ "Sign languages". Canadian Association of the Deaf – Association des Sourds du Canada. 2015. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017.
  394. .
  395. .
  396. ^ "Religions in Canada—Census 2021". Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada. October 26, 2022.
  397. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Religion by visible minority and generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  398. ^ a b c Cornelissen, Louis (October 28, 2021). "Religiosity in Canada and its evolution from 1985 to 2019". Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 13, 2023.
  399. .
  400. .
  401. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (August 7, 2020). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, THE CONSTITUTION ACTS, 1867 to 1982". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
  402. .
  403. .
  404. .
  405. .
  406. .
  407. .
  408. .
  409. .
  410. ^ "Religions in Canada—Census 2011". Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada. May 8, 2013.
  411. ^ "Religion by visible minority and generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". Statistics Canada. October 26, 2022. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  412. ^ "Sikh Heritage Month Act". laws.justice.gc.ca. January 14, 2020. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  413. ^ "Sikh Community Profile Infographic – English" (PPT). birmingham.gov.uk. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  414. .
  415. .
  416. .
  417. .
  418. .
  419. .
  420. .
  421. .
  422. .
  423. .
  424. .
  425. .
  426. .
  427. .
  428. .
  429. ^ "Exploring Canadian values" (PDF). Nanos Research. October 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  430. ^ "A literature review of Public Opinion Research on Canadian attitudes towards multiculturalism and immigration, 2006–2009". Government of Canada. 2011. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
  431. ^ "Focus Canada (Final Report)" (PDF). The Environics Institute. Queen's University. 2010. p. 4 (PDF page 8). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  432. .
  433. .
  434. .
  435. ^ Monaghan, David (2013). "The mother beaver – Collection Profiles". The House of Commons Heritage. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2015.
  436. ^ "Canada in the Making: Pioneers and Immigrants". The History Channel. August 25, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2006.
  437. .
  438. ^ .
  439. ^ "Maple Leaf Tartan becomes official symbol". Toronto Star. Toronto. March 9, 2011.
  440. .
  441. .
  442. ^ .
  443. .
  444. ^ .
  445. ^ "Phasing out the penny". Royal Canadian Mint. 2015. Archived from the original on December 12, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  446. .
  447. .
  448. .
  449. .
  450. ^ .
  451. .
  452. .
  453. ^ Broadview Anthology of British Literature. Vol. B (Concise ed.). Broadview Press. 2006. p. 1459. GGKEY:1TFFGS4YFLT.
  454. .
  455. .
  456. ^ Fry, H (2017). Disruption: Change and churning in Canada's media landscape (PDF) (Report). Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
  457. ^ "Freedom of expression and media freedom". GAC. February 17, 2020. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  458. .
  459. .
  460. .
  461. .
  462. .
  463. .
  464. .
  465. .
  466. .
  467. .
  468. . During the French regime in Quebec, the Roman Catholic Church was a major patron of artists, contracting them to design the interior decoration of churches and to produce paintings and sculpture
  469. .
  470. .
  471. ^ as, for instance, in the following example of a show funded by the Government of Canada at the Peel Art Gallery Museum + Archives, Brampton:"Putting a spotlight on Canada's Artistic Heritage". Government of Canada. January 14, 2020.
  472. .
  473. .
  474. .
  475. .
  476. .
  477. .
  478. ^ The Canadian Communications Foundation. "The history of broadcasting in Canada". Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
  479. .
  480. ^ "IFPI Global Music Report 2023" (PDF). p. 10. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 25, 2023. Retrieved April 19, 2023.
  481. .
  482. .
  483. .
  484. .
  485. .
  486. ^ "Maple Cottage, Leslieville, Toronto". Institute for Canadian Music. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009.
  487. ^ Kallmann, Helmut; Potvin, Gilles (February 7, 2018). "O Canada". Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
  488. ^ "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. June 23, 2008. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
  489. ^ Roxborough, Henry (1975). The Beginning of Organized Sport in Canada. pp. 30–43.
  490. ^ Lindsay, Peter; West, J. Thomas (September 30, 2016). "Canadian Sports History". The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  491. ^ "National Sports of Canada Act". Government of Canada. November 5, 2015. Archived from the original on November 24, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  492. ^ "Canadian sport participation – Most frequently played sports in Canada (2010)" (PDF). Government of Canada. 2013. p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 10, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  493. ^ .
  494. .
  495. .
  496. .
  497. .
  498. .
  499. .
  500. .
  501. .
  502. ^ Temporary Importations Using the FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015 Remission Order. Canada Border Services Agency. 2015.
  503. ^ Peterson, David (July 10, 2014). "Why Toronto should get excited about the Pan Am Games". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on September 25, 2020.
  504. ^ "World Cup 2026: Canada, US & Mexico joint bid wins right to host tournament". BBC Sport. June 13, 2018. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. Retrieved June 13, 2018.

Further reading

Overview

Culture

Demography and statistics

Economy

Foreign relations and military

Geography and climate

Government and law

History

Social welfare

External links

Overviews

Government

Travel