Carl Bildt

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Carl Bildt
Carl Bildt in 2016
Prime Minister of Sweden
In office
4 October 1991 – 7 October 1994
MonarchCarl XVI Gustaf
DeputyBengt Westerberg
Preceded byIngvar Carlsson
Succeeded byIngvar Carlsson
Minister for Foreign Affairs
In office
6 October 2006 – 3 October 2014
Prime MinisterFredrik Reinfeldt
Preceded byJan Eliasson
Succeeded byMargot Wallström
High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina
In office
14 December 1995 – 17 June 1997
MonarchCarl XVI Gustaf
Prime Minister
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byCarlos Westendorp
Leader of the Moderate Party
In office
23 August 1986 – 4 September 1999
Preceded byUlf Adelsohn
Succeeded byBo Lundgren
Personal details
Nils Daniel Carl Bildt

(1949-07-15) 15 July 1949 (age 75)
Halmstad, Halland, Sweden
Political partyModerate
Kerstin Zetterberg
(m. 1974; div. 1975)
Mia Bohman
(m. 1984; div. 1997)
(m. 1998)
RelativesGillis Bildt (great-great grandfather)
Bildt family
Alma materStockholm University
Military service
AllegianceSweden Sweden
Branch/service Swedish Army

Nils Daniel Carl Bildt (born 15 July 1949) is a Swedish politician and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994. He led the Moderate Party from 1986 to 1999, appearing at its lead candidate in four general elections, before his appointment as Minister for Foreign Affairs under Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt from 2006 to 2014. Bildt first entered the Riksdag in 1979, holding a seat until 2001. A member of the Bildt family, he is a great-great grandson of Baron Gillis Bildt, who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 1888 to 1889.[1]

Bildt had been noted internationally as a mediator in the

United Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy for the Balkans. Since 2021, Bildt also has been the World Health Organization's Special Envoy for the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT Accelerator).[2]

Early life and education

Bildt was born on 15 July 1949 in

noble family, the Bildt family, traditionally domiciled in Bohuslän.[citation needed] His grandfather's grandfather, Gillis Bildt, was a Conservative politician and diplomat, long-time Ambassador to the German Empire and Prime Minister of Sweden 1888–1889,[1] mainly remembered for his protectionist
trade policies.

Bildt's father Daniel Bildt (1920–2010) was a major in the reserves of the now defunct Halland Regiment and a bureau director in the now defunct Civil Defense Board's Education Bureau. Daniel Bildt married Kerstin Andersson-Alwå in 1947. Carl Bildt's brother, Nils, was born in 1952. Bildt was married to Kerstin Zetterberg from 1974 to 1975; to Mia Bohman (daughter of former Moderate party leader and Minister of Economy, Gösta Bohman) from 1984 to 1997; and, since 1998, to Anna Maria Corazza. Bildt has three children; two from his second marriage and one from his third marriage.[citation needed]

Bildt attended Stockholm University.[3]

Early career

In May 1968, Bildt opposed the occupation of the Student Union Building by leftist political forces and co-founded the Borgerliga Studenter – Opposition '68 group which went on to win the Student Union elections in Stockholm for a number of years. He served as chairman of the FMSF Confederation of Swedish Conservative and Liberal Students, a centre-right student organisation, in the early 1970s, and also chaired European Democrat Students, bringing together like-minded centre-right student organisations from across Europe.

When the non-socialist formed government in 1976, Bildt served as the head of the Policy Coordinating Office in the Ministry of Economic Affairs and close collaborator to the party leader and Minister of Economy

Member of Parliament
in 1979, although he served instead as State Secretary for Policy Coordination in the reformed non-socialist government after that election.

As an MP in the early eighties, he became noted as an incisive and combative debater on foreign affairs. He was a member of the Submarine Defence Commission investigating the 1982 incursions of foreign submarines in the Stockholm archipelago and naval base areas, and often found himself pitted against prime minister Olof Palme. Bildt was elected leader of the Moderate Party in 1986, succeeding Ulf Adelsohn.

In 1991, the Social Democrats were defeated by a four-party coalition led by Bildt's Moderate Party.

Prime Minister

On 4 October 1991, Bildt became the first conservative prime minister in Sweden in 61 years, leading a four-party coalition government. The policies of his government aimed at giving Sweden a "new start" in the middle of a rapidly mounting economic crisis caused by a speculation bubble in housing, focusing on privatising and de-regulating the economy in order to improve the conditions for businesses.

Long a champion of European integration and Sweden's participation in this, negotiating membership in the European Union was a priority for the Bildt premiership. The preceding Social Democratic government had, as part of an emergency economic crisis package in the autumn of 1990, done a sudden U-turn, abandoned its previous opposition and in the summer of 1991 submitted a formal application for membership in the EU.

Benefiting also from his close links with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Bildt was able to initiate and conclude membership negotiations with the EU in record time, signing the Treaty of Accession at the EU summit in Corfu on 23 June 1994. The accession was supported by a referendum in November, and Sweden entered the EU as full member on 1 January 1995, thus fulfilling a key part of the platform of the Bildt government.

By that time his governing coalition had lost its majority in the September 1994 elections, in spite of his Moderate party making slight gains.

The economic program of the government was focused primarily on a series of structural reforms aiming at improving competitiveness and improving growth. Economic reforms were enacted, including voucher schools, liberalizing markets for telecommunications and energy, privatizing publicly owned companies and health care, contributing to substantially liberalizing the Swedish economy.

These reforms were highly controversial at the time, and the government also had to deal with a rapid increase in unemployment as well as public deficits during 1991 and 1992. The period was marked by a severe economic crisis.[4] These problems were reinforced by the economic crisis in other European countries and the crisis within the European Exchange Rate Mechanism in 1992. As a result, Sweden in November 1992 was forced to abandon its policy of a fixed exchange rate and allow the Swedish crown to float freely. As part of the effort to handle the economic crisis, the government was able to conclude an agreement with the Social Democratic opposition on some of its expenditure-cutting measures.

By 1994 the economy was registering strong growth, and the deficits were declining, although unemployment was still at levels higher than in 1991.

Prior to becoming Prime Minister, Bildt had been severely anti-Soviet Union and a strong supporter of the three Baltic nations, and during his period as PM devoted considerable efforts to trying to assist the three newly-independent Baltic states in handling their immediate challenges in the form of the withdrawal of ex-Soviet forces and strategic installations, as well as deciding on sensitive issues of citizenship. In this he worked closely together with the leaders of the three countries as well as with the Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev.

His government also had to handle a large increase in refugee flows from primarily the war in Bosnia, defending a liberal approach against the anti-immigration New Democracy party that had entered parliament in 1991.

Bildt was an early champion of the Internet and information technologies. He led the first IT Commission in 1994, and in that year also had the first exchange of emails between two heads of government with

US President Bill Clinton

In 1992, he had the reform of private schools under contract and the abolition of the school map adopted, reforms that favored the privatization of education.[5]

The government's effectiveness was sometimes hampered by in-fighting, most memorably over the construction of the Øresund Bridge, which led to the departure of the leader of the Centre Party Olof Johansson from the government, paving the way for the government to take the decision to approve the construction of the link.

Bildt continued to serve as leader of the Moderate party – and thus of the opposition – until 1999, when he was succeeded as party leader by Bo Lundgren.

Balkan conflict

Bildt (right) and Richard Holbrooke before peace talks in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, in October 1995
Bildt meeting former US President Bill Clinton at Grand Hotel in Stockholm on 15 May 2001

After his term as prime minister, Bildt was active as a mediator in the

Dayton Peace Conference that led to the Dayton Peace Accords in November 1995, and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina from December 1995 to June 1997 immediately after the Bosnian War. From 1999 to 2001, he served as the United Nations Secretary General's Special Envoy for the Balkans.[6]

Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, without the approval of the UN Security Council, and Sweden recognised it on 4 March 2008.[7] On 8 March 2008, Bildt became the first foreign minister to officially visit Kosovo after it declared its independence.[8]

Minister for Foreign Affairs

Bildt with U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in Washington, D.C., on 24 October 2006.
Bildt with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Washington, D.C., on 29 April 2011.

On 6 October 2006, Bildt was appointed as

cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt. This was seen by many as a surprising move. Not only had Bildt already served both as prime minister and as leader of the Moderate Party, but he and Reinfeldt had previous antipathy.[9] He retained this post following the 2010 general election

During his time in office, Bildt was widely credited with steering efforts to set up the EU's Eastern Partnership in 2008.[10][11] When Sweden held the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2009, he chaired the sessions of the EU's General Affairs and External Relations Council.[12] For several years, he was widely seen as a candidate to become the first High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy under the new rules established by the Treaty of Lisbon;[13][12] instead, the role went to Catherine Ashton.

Bildt later supported the

JAS 39 Gripen multirole jet fighters to Libya to enforce the no-fly zone.[15]

Following the 2014 European elections, the Financial Times and other news media considered Bildt as a potential candidate to succeed Ashton as High Representative;[11][16] this time, the position went to Federica Mogherini.

Bildt lost his post after the 2014 general election, and moved on to become a board member of the International Crisis Group.[17]


Bildt was as foreign minister in 2007 an active supporter for Turkey to join the EU. He called Istanbul a "true center of European history" and called Kemal Atatürk "undoubtedly the most significant European revolutionary of the last century" in 2004. Bildt's campaign for Turkey's EU membership was controversial in central Europe.[18]

EU membership of Turkey was hindered by its government not recognizing Cyprus, an EU member along with reservations from the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy.[19]

In November 2014 Bildt was criticised for having written an opinion piece in Dagens industri newspaper where Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was described as being "on the right track" despite the persecution of Kurds and political opponents and jailed journalists in Turkey.[20]

South Ossetian conflict

After the

Near Abroad, had similarities with the rationale for the annexation of Sudetenland.[21] Bildt called South Ossetian independence "a joke", and said it would be supported only by a "miserable" lot of countries.[22]


Work in private sector

After leaving his position as leader of the Moderate Party in 1999, other than engaging in international issues, Bildt took positions in the private sector and positions with international

think tanks.[23] His positions in think tanks included serving as the first non-US member on the Board of Trustees of the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California, and on the Advisory Board of the Centre for European Reform in London. He was a member of the board of the European Policy Centre in Brussels, the International Institute for Strategic Studies
in London, and the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Affairs in New York.

Bildt served as non-executive director of the Baltimore-based US assets management company

Legg Mason, Inc. He served as chairman of the board of Teleopti and chairman of the public affairs consultancy Kreab
AB, and board member of the IT consultancy HiQ AB. He was chairman of Nordic Venture Network, which brought Nordic high-tech VC firms together in an informal network.

In 2000, Bildt joined the

Lundin Group's board of directors, a company with oil interests in Ethiopia and Sudan – the seven years with the Lundin Group that followed made Bildt a wealthy man.[24]

From March to November 2000, Bildt was part of an independent panel – together with Jean Peyrelevade and Lothar Späth – to advise the European Space Agency's Director General Antonio Rodotà on the organization's future.[25]

In 2002, Bildt joined the board of directors of

Vostok Nafta, a financial company primarily with holdings in Gazprom

He left his positions on all these boards upon becoming Foreign Minister in October 2006

Bosnian war mediator criticisms

Though decorated for his services in the Bosnian conflict and its immediate aftermath by Great Britain, France, and Germany, his mediation of the conflict and aftermath was castigated as well as celebrated.

Bildt opposed any military intervention and criticized the former British prime minister

Sunday Times describing Bildt and other EU leaders as "robotic political pygmies" and their acceptance of the ongoing genocide as "shameful".[26]

Following Bildt's appointment as the EU special envoy to Yugoslavia, Tom Warrick from the

Bosniaks were killed,[27] and described him as being burdened with a reputation for accepting Bosnian Serb claims of good behavior at face value and overlooking evidence of atrocities against civilians.[29]

Middle East

Bildt has been questioned for his role as a member of the International Advisory Council of the

On 8 April 2008, during his visit in Israel and the Palestinian Authority, Bildt gave an interview to Swedish state radio, where he responded to a question on whether it would be possible to strike a peace deal without the involvement of the Palestinian group Hamas, which remained under international boycott. He responded that the Palestinian Fatah-backed government could deal with Israel, in the same way that it was possible for the Israeli government to make peace with Fatah over the objections of the former Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who, similarly to Hamas opposed a two-state deal. Israeli officials issued very strongly worded condemnations of this, describing it as "horrible and stupid" and an example of "chutzpah" and "complete ignorance of the Middle East", on the grounds that they saw it as comparing Hamas and Netanyahu as equals.[31]

In 2012, Bildt said he saw no problem with exporting

Turki bin Faisal Al Saud "quite regularly".[32] In 2015, Bildt criticized Sweden's foreign minister Margot Wallström for damaging Saudi-Swedish relations. Wallström tweeted criticism of Saudi Arabia's flogging of Saudi blogger and activist Raif Badawi.[33]

Annexation of Crimea

Bildt visiting the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, 11 April 2014.
Map of the EU 28 in 2013: Eastern Partnership.

Bildt, together with Polish Foreign Minister Radosław Sikorski, was one of the main architects of the 2013 Eastern policy of the EU.[34]

During Euromaidan, Carl Bildt has been criticized in Swedish media for ignoring and downplaying the issues with the Ukrainian Svoboda party.[35][36][37][38] Johan Croneman at Dagens Nyheter has also condemned Bildt for pushing Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt to rephrase himself after having expressed understanding of the Russians' concerns about the situation.[36]

In a public message on

Haakon VII, that during the war sat on foreign soil and hoped that he would with help from the British get back his country", he remarked.[41] The culture editorial of the Aftonbladet newspaper where Torsten Kälvemark works has repeatedly been criticized since for being a tool of Russian propaganda in Sweden.[42][43]

Stefan Hedlund, professor at Uppsala University, stated that "Carl Bildt's threatening rhetoric should in this context be regarded as extremely destructive", in an article about the Ukrainian crisis. Hedlund also suggested that Bildt should take a "time-out", and that progress can only be made through dialogue with Russia.[44]

In a radio interview with channel

Crimean referendum illegal, and "invalid, no matter which way people vote". He continued his refusal to answer questions about Svoboda, saying that he "won't describe what that party is". His overall comment on the new regime in Kyiv was that it was a "reasonable and democratic government" and that he does not want to "play along with Russian propaganda".[45]

In early 2015, a study made at the Swedish Defence Research Agency stated that Bildt had been a target of information warfare and that he was "regularly smeared in Russian state-controlled media". The reason was described to be Bildt's involvement in the Eastern Partnership program and that the project was perceived as a threat by the Russian government.[46][47]

In September 2015, Bildt visited Kyiv, where he argued that the EU should provide more financial support to Ukraine.[48]

Internet activities

Bildt was an early pioneer among politicians of using the Internet for communicating. On 4 February 1994, he sent an email message to US president

electronic newsletter which was active until 2005. He is an active blogger, starting his first blog in February 2005. His current blog, started in January 2007, is one of the most widely read political blogs in Sweden.[citation needed

On 30 May 2007, Bildt officially opened a "Swedish embassy" in the

Burson Marsteller survey showed him as the best connected world leader.[51] As of 2014, Bildt has served as Chair of the Global Commission on Internet Governance.[52]

Life after politics

In mid-May 2015, Bildt was appointed to Ukraine's International Advisory Council on Reforms. The group consisting of several foreign advisors to President Petro Poroshenko, aims to improve security and economy in the country which has been ravaged by armed conflict in its Eastern part.[53] On 14 May 2015, Bildt was also appointed as an advisor to Russian-controlled investment group LetterOne.[54]

Bildt served as Chair of the Global Commission on Internet Governance that concluded its two-year work and produced its report in June 2016. In 2016, he joined international law firm Covington as a Senior Policy Advisor in the firm's global Public Policy and Government Affairs practice.[55]

Bildt also writes monthly columns for international syndication organization Project Syndicate.

Non-profit organizations


On 9 April 2021, the anniversary of the

Swedish defence forces were stronger than Norway and Denmark. His tweet provoked severe backlash, both from the public, and politicians, notably from Norwegian Minister of Culture Abid Raja, saying that he "had hoped our closest neighbour would be more sympathetic towards who this day is reflected by Norwegians and Norwegian Jews".[73] Bildt stated that his intention was to commemorate the events of the occupation, and that what he tweeted was historically correct. He also added that people have read an assumption between the lines.[74]



  • Bildt, Carl (1991). Hallänning, svensk, europé (in Swedish). Stockholm: Bonnier. .
  • Bildt, Carl (1994). Den enda vägen (in Swedish). Stockholm: Moderata samlingspartiet. .
  • Bildt, Carl (1997). Uppdrag fred (in Swedish). Stockholm: Norstedt. .
  • Bildt, Carl. (Stockholm 1998) Peace Journey. The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia. (in English) London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Bildt, Carl (2019). Den nya oredans tid (in Swedish). Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag. .


  1. ^ . p. 42
  2. ^ Carl Bildt, former Prime Minister of Sweden, appointed WHO Special Envoy for the ACT-Accelerator World Health Organization (WHO), press release of March 31, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Carl Bildt" (PDF). The Swedish Government. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  4. ^ Between 1990 and 1994, per capita income declined by approximately 10% as per this link Archived 27 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Schwedens umstrittene Schulreform".
  6. ^ "NATO Who's who?: Carl Bildt". Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Sweden recognises the Republic of Kosovo" (Press release). Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
  8. ^ "SWEDEN: MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS CARL BILDT TO VISIT KOSOVO, MACEDONIA". Archived from the original on 3 February 2018.
  9. ^ Kellberg, Christina (18 September 2006). "Berättelsen om Fredrik Reinfeldt". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
  10. ^ Marja Novak (September 1, 2008), New EU Eastern Partnership seen leaving out Russia Reuters.
  11. ^ a b Richard Milne (June 4, 2014), Realist Carl Bildt helps Sweden punch above its weight Financial Times.
  12. ^ a b Alison Smale and Stephen Castle (July 6, 2009), A Diplomat's Reputation for Blunt Speaking International Herald Tribune.
  13. European Voice
  14. ^ "Sweden backs up NATO request on Libya". Swedishwire. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  15. ^ "Government yes to Gripen deployment". The Local. 29 March 2011.
  16. ^ Europe’s next foreign policy chief Financial Times, August 27, 2014.
  17. ^ Byström, Max (11 November 2014). "Bildt får nytt uppdrag" (in Swedish). Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  18. ^ "Top Swedish official backs Turkey for EU". International Herald Tribune. 11 December 2006. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  19. ISSN 0362-4331
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  21. ^ "Georgia 'started unjustified war'". BBC News. 30 September 2009.
  22. ^ "Kremlin told that move could backfire". Financial Times. 27 August 2008.
  23. ^ "Carl Bildt | Bruegel". 3 September 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  24. ^ Lundin may have led Bildt to the heart of darkness Archived 19 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Local, 22 December 2011
  25. ^ Report of the “Wise Men” disclosed in Paris today: Towards a Space Agency for the European Union European Space Agency, press release of November 09, 2000.
  26. ^ Ahlmark, Per (24 October 2006). "Du vet ju hur Carl är". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  27. ^ a b Demirbag-Sten, Dilsa (16 October 2006). "Oförebildtlig". Expressen (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 14 June 2011..
  28. ^ "BosNet Digest V5 No. 11". 7 January 1996. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  29. ^ "Mr. Bildt's Responsibility in Bosnia". The New York Times. 17 December 1995.
  30. ^ Nyberg, Mikael (27 October 2006). "Vad Carl Bildt gjort för kriget". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 24 January 2007..
  31. ^ Hoffman, Gil (10 April 2008). "Swedish FM likens Netanyahu to Hamas". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 28 March 2009.[permanent dead link]
  32. ^ "Saudi Arabia a 'family business': Bildt". The Local. 4 April 2012. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  33. ^ "Clash between Sweden and Saudi Arabia escalates as ambassador is withdrawn". The Guardian. 11 March 2015.
  34. ^ "Playing East against West: The success of the Eastern Partnership depends on Ukraine". The Economist. 23 November 2013.
  35. ^ Kälvemark, Torsten (6 March 2014). "Svoboda luktar fascism". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  36. ^ a b Croneman, Johan (4 March 2014). "Johan Croneman: SVT har inte haft en självständig utrikes-analytiker på flera decennier". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 9 March 2014.
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  38. ^ Kärrman, Jens (14 March 2014). "Bildt pressades om Svoboda". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 March 2014.
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  41. ^ Kälvemark, Torsten (2 April 2014). "Så sprids fördomar om krisen på Krim". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 3 April 2014.
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  44. ^ Hedlund, Stefan (12 March 2014). "Enda vägen framåt är dialog med Ryssland". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  45. ^ "Bildt: Crimea referendum illegal". Sveriges Radio. 15 March 2014. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  46. ^ Sundberg, Marit (12 March 2015). "FOI: Så försökte Ryssland smutskasta Bildt" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
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  48. ^ John Lloyd (14 September 2015). "Europeans 'not grasping' the importance of Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  49. ^ "First Email Bildt to Clinton" Archived 10 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine,; accessed 22 September 2015.
  50. ^ Simmons, Carl (30 May 2007). "Sweden opens virtual embassy 3D-style". Archived from the original on 16 November 2007.
  51. ^ Sweden's Carl Bildt 'best connected' Twitter leader BBC News, July 24, 2013.
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  53. ^ "Sweden's Carl Bildt advises Ukraine President and Russian group". Stockholm: Yahoo! News. AFP. 18 May 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  54. ^ Russian Tycoon Taps Ex-Swedish Foreign Minister And Kremlin Critic As Adviser, 15 May 2015; retrieved 22 September 2015.
  55. ^ Former Prime Minister of Sweden Carl Bildt Joins Covington Covington, press release of May 19, 2016.
  56. ^ CEPA Announces High-Level Advisory Group led by Gen. McMaster and Min. Kramp-Karrenbauer Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA), press release of 6 July 2022.
  57. ^ Coordinating Committee Historians without Borders.
  58. ^ International Advisory Board Atlantic Council.
  59. ^ Carl Bildt Berggruen Institute.
  60. ^ Advisory Board Centre for European Reform (CER).
  61. Club de Madrid
  62. ^ Leadership European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR).
  63. ^ Governance Friends of Europe.
  65. ^ Board of Trustees International Crisis Group (ICG).
  66. ^ Board of Directors Middle East Investment Initiative (MEII).
  67. ^ Advisory Council Munich Security Conference (MSC).
  68. ^ Board of Trustees RAND Corporation.
  69. ^ a b International Advisory Board Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC).
  70. ^ Membership Archived 3 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine Trilateral Commission.
  71. ^ Honorary Board Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies.
  72. ^ Board Yalta European Strategy (YES).
  73. ^ Tweet fra Sveriges eksstatsminister skaper kraftige reaksjoner, Aftenposten, 9 April 2021
  74. ^ "Severe backlash following Bildt-tweet about the occupation day" (in Norwegian). VG. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  75. ^ "Sök ordens- och medaljförläningar" [Search for orders and medals] (in Swedish). Royal Court of Sweden. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  76. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  77. ^ "Tildelinger av ordener og medaljer" [Awards of medals and medals]. (in Norwegian). Royal Court of Norway. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  78. ^ "UOK – Upplysning om kommunismen". Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism. Retrieved 19 October 2009.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by Leader of the Moderate Party
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Leader of the Opposition
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of Sweden
Leader of the Opposition
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister for Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
New office High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina
Succeeded by