Chinese New Year

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Chinese New Year
chunlian couplets
DateFirst day of the first Chinese lunisolar month
2023 date22 January
2024 date10 February
2025 date29 January
FrequencyAnnual
Related toLantern Festival and similar celebrations in other Asian cultures
Chinese New Year
Hanyu Pinyin
Zhōngguó chuántǒng xīnnián
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄔㄨㄢˊ ㄊㄨㄥˇ ㄒㄧㄣ ㄋㄧㄢˊ
Wade–GilesChung¹-kuo² ch’uan²-tong³ hsin¹-nien²
Tongyong PinyinJhongguó chuán-tǒng sin-nián
IPA[ʈʂʊ́ŋ.kwǒ ʈʂʰwǎn.tʰʊ̀ŋ ɕín.njɛ̌n]

Chinese New Year or the Spring Festival (see also § Names) is a festival that celebrates the beginning of a new year on the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar. Marking the end of winter and the beginning of spring, observances traditionally take place from Chinese New Year's Eve, the evening preceding the first day of the year, to the Lantern Festival, held on the 15th day of the year. The first day of Chinese New Year begins on the new moon that appears between 21 January and 20 February.[a]

Chinese New Year is one of the most important holidays in Chinese culture. It has influenced similar celebrations in other cultures, commonly referred to collectively as Lunar New Year, such as the Losar of Tibet, the Tết of Vietnam, the Korean New Year, and the Ryukyu New Year.[3][4][5] It is also celebrated worldwide in regions and countries that house significant Overseas Chinese or Sinophone populations, especially in Southeast Asia. These include Singapore,[6] Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar,[7] the Philippines,[8] Thailand, and Vietnam. It is also prominent beyond Asia, especially in Australia, Canada, France, Mauritius,[9] New Zealand, Peru,[10] South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as in many European countries.[11][12][13]

The Chinese New Year is associated with several myths and customs. The festival was traditionally a time to honour

good fortune or happiness, wealth, and longevity. Other activities include lighting firecrackers and giving money in red envelopes
.

Names

In Chinese, the festival is commonly known as the "Spring Festival" (traditional Chinese: 春節; simplified Chinese: 春节; pinyin: Chūnjié),[16] as the spring season in the lunisolar calendar traditionally starts with lichun, the first of the twenty-four solar terms which the festival celebrates around the time of the Chinese New Year.[17] The name was first proposed in 1914 by Yuan Shikai, who was at the time the interim president of the Republic of China.[18] The official usage of the name "Spring Festival" was retained by the government of the People's Republic of China, but the government of the Republic of China based in Taiwan has since adopted the name "Traditional Chinese New Year".[19]

The festival is also called "Lunar New Year" in English, despite the traditional Chinese calendar being lunisolar and not lunar. However, "Chinese New Year" is still a commonly-used translation for people of non-Chinese backgrounds.[20] Along with the Han Chinese inside and outside of Greater China, as many as 29 of the 55 ethnic minority groups in China also celebrate Chinese New Year. Korea, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines celebrate it as an official festival.[20]

Dates in Chinese lunisolar calendar

The largest Chinese New Year parade outside Asia, in Chinatown, Manhattan
Traditional paper cutting with the character ('spring'))
Chinese New Year decorations along New Bridge Road in Singapore
Chinese New Year eve in Meizhou on 8 February 2005

The Chinese calendar defines the lunisolar month containing the winter solstice as the eleventh month, meaning that Chinese New Year usually falls on the second new moon after the winter solstice (rarely the third if an intercalary month occurs[b]).[21][2] In more than 96% of years, the Chinese New Year is the closest new moon to the beginning of spring (lichun) according to the calendar. In the Gregorian calendar, the Chinese New Year occurs on the new moon that falls between 21 January and 20 February.[22]

Gregorian Date Animal Day of the week
2023 22 Jan Rabbit Sunday
2024 10 Feb Dragon Saturday
2025 29 Jan Snake Wednesday
2026 17 Feb Horse Tuesday
2027 6 Feb Goat Saturday
2028 26 Jan Monkey Wednesday
2029 13 Feb Rooster Tuesday
2030 3 Feb Dog Sunday
2031 23 Jan Pig Thursday
2032 11 Feb Rat Wednesday
2033 31 Jan Ox Monday
2034 19 Feb Tiger Sunday

Mythology

Lijiang
, Yunnan

According to legend, Chinese New Year started with a mythical beast called the Nian (a beast that lives under the sea or in the mountains) during the annual Spring Festival. The Nian would eat villagers, especially children in the middle of the night.[23] One year, all the villagers decided to hide from the beast. An older man appeared before the villagers went into hiding and said that he would stay the night and would get revenge on the Nian. The old man put red papers up and set off firecrackers. The day after, the villagers came back to their town and saw that nothing had been destroyed. They assumed that the old man was a deity who came to save them. The villagers then understood that Yanhuang had discovered that the Nian was afraid of the color red and loud noises.[23] Then the tradition grew when New Year was approaching, and the villagers would wear red clothes, hang red lanterns, and red spring scrolls on windows and doors and used firecrackers and drums to frighten away the Nian. From then on, Nian never came to the village again. The Nian was eventually captured by Hongjun Laozu, an ancient Taoist monk.[24]

History

Before the new year celebration was established, ancient Chinese gathered and celebrated the end of harvest in autumn. However, this was not the Mid-Autumn Festival, during which Chinese gathered with family to worship the Moon. In the Classic of Poetry, a poem written during Western Zhou (1045 BC – 771 BC) by an anonymous farmer, described the traditions of celebrating the 10th month of the ancient solar calendar, which was in autumn.[25] According to the poem, during this time people clean millet-stack sites, toast guests with mijiu (rice wine), kill lambs and cook their meat, go to their masters' home, toast the master, and cheer the prospect of living long together. The 10th-month celebration is believed to be one of the prototypes of Chinese New Year.[26] The records of the first Chinese new year celebration can be traced to the Warring States period (475 – 221 BC). In the Lüshi Chunqiu, in Qin state an exorcism ritual to expel illness, called "Big Nuo", was recorded as being carried out on the last day of the year.[27][28] Later, Qin unified China, and the Qin dynasty was founded; and the ritual spread. It evolved into the practice of cleaning one's house thoroughly in the days preceding Chinese New Year.

The first mention of celebrating at the start of a new year was recorded during the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD). In the book Simin Yueling (四民月令), written by the Eastern Han agronomist Cui Shi (崔寔), a celebration was described: "The starting day of the first month, is called Zheng Ri. I bring my wife and children, to worship ancestors and commemorate my father." Later he wrote: "Children, wife, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren all serve pepper wine to their parents, make their toast, and wish their parents good health. It's a thriving view."[29] The practice of worshipping ancestors on New Year's Eve is maintained by Chinese people to this day.[30]

Han Chinese also started the custom of visiting acquaintances' homes and wishing each other a happy new year. In Book of the Later Han, volume 27, a county officer was recorded as going to his prefect's house with a government secretary, toasting the prefect, and praising the prefect's merit.[31][32]

During the Jin dynasty (266–420), people started the New Year's Eve tradition of all-night revelry called shousui (守歲). It was described in Western Jin general Zhou Chu's article Fengtu Ji (風土記, 'Notes on Local Conditions'): "At the ending of a year, people gift and wish each other, calling it Kuisui (饋歲, 'time for gifts'); people invited others with drinks and food, calling it Biesui (別歲, 'sending off the year'); on New Year's Eve, people stayed up all night until sunrise, calling it Shousui (守歲, 'guard the year')."[33] The article used the phrase chuxi (除夕) to indicate New Year's Eve—a phrase still used today.

The Northern and Southern dynasties book Jingchu Suishiji describes the practice of firing bamboo in the early morning of New Year's Day,[34] a New Year's tradition of the ancient Chinese. Poet and chancellor of the Tang dynasty, Lai Gu, also described this tradition in his poem Early Spring (早春): "新曆才將半紙開,小亭猶聚爆竿灰", meaning "Another new year just started as a half opening paper, and the family gathered around the dust of exploded bamboo pole."[35] The practice was used by ancient Chinese people to scare away evil spirits, since bamboo would noisily crack and explode from firing.

During the

imperial examinations became essential and reached their heyday under the Tang dynasty, candidates curried favor to become pupils of respected teachers in order to get recommendation letters. After obtaining good examination marks, a pupil went to the teacher's home with a men zhuang to convey their gratitude. Eventually, men zhuang became a symbol of good luck, and people started sending them to friends on New Year's Day, calling them by a new name, bai nian tie.[37]

The Palace Museum

The

Northern Song politician, litterateur, philosopher, and poet Wang Anshi recorded the custom in his poem "元日" ("New Year's Day").[40]

Chinese firecracker

The poem Yuan Ri (元日) also includes the word bao zhu (爆竹, "exploding bamboo"), which is believed to be a reference to firecrackers, instead of the previous tradition of firing bamboo, both of which are called the same in the Chinese language. After gunpowder was invented in the Tang dynasty and widely used under the Song dynasty, people modified the tradition of firing bamboo by filling the bamboo pole with gunpowder, which made for louder explosions. Later under the Song, people discarded the bamboo and started to use paper to wrap the gunpowder in cylinders, in imitation of the bamboo. The firecracker was still called bao zhu (爆竹), thus equating the new and old traditions. It is also recorded that people linked the firecrackers with hemp rope and created the bian pao (鞭炮, "gunpowder whip") in the Song dynasty. Both bao zhu (爆竹) and bian pao (鞭炮) are still used today to celebrate the Chinese New Year and other festive occasions.[41]

It was also during the Song dynasty that people started to give money to children in celebration of a new year. The money was called sui nian qian (随年钱, "money based on age"). In the chapter, "Ending of a Year" (歲除) in Wulin jiushi (武林舊事), concubines of the emperor prepared a hundred and twenty coins for princes and princesses to wish them longevity.[42]

New Year's celebrations continued under the Yuan dynasty, when people also gave nian gao (年糕, "year cakes") to relatives.[43]

The tradition of eating Chinese dumplings jiaozi (餃子) was established under the Ming dynasty at the latest. It is described in the book Youzhongzhi (酌中志): "People get up at 5 in the morning of new year's day, burn incense and light firecrackers, throw door latch or wooden bars in the air three times, drink pepper and thuja wine, eat dumplings. Sometimes put one or two silver currency inside dumplings, and whoever gets the money will attain a year of fortune."[44] Modern Chinese people also put other food that is auspicious into dumplings such as dates, which prophesy a flourishing new year; candy, which predicts sweet days; and nian gao (年糕, "year cakes"), which foretells a rich life.

In the Qing dynasty, the name ya sui qian (壓歲錢, "New Year's Money)" was money given to children during New Year's. The book Qing Jia Lu (清嘉錄) recorded: "elders give children coins threaded together by a red string, and the money is called Ya Sui Qian."[45] The term is still used by Chinese people today. The money was presented in two forms: coins strung on red string or colourful purses filled with coins.[46]

In 1928, the ruling Kuomintang party decreed that the Chinese New Year would fall on 1 Jan of the Gregorian Calendar, but this was abandoned due to overwhelming opposition. In 1967, during the Cultural Revolution, official Chinese New Year celebrations were banned in China. The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced that the public should "change customs" and have a "revolutionized and fighting Spring Festival." Since people needed to work on Chinese New Year's Eve, they would not need holidays during the Spring Festival. In 1980, the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations were reinstated.[47]

Public holiday

Chinese New Year is observed as a public holiday in some countries and territories where there is a sizeable Chinese population. Since Chinese New Year falls on different days of the week each year, some of these governments opt to shift working days in order to accommodate a longer public holiday. In some countries, a statutory holiday is added on the following work day if the New Year (as a public holiday) falls on a weekend, as in the case of 2013, where the New Year's Eve (9 February) falls on Saturday and the New Year's Day (10 February) on Sunday. Depending on the country, the holiday may be termed differently; common names in English are "Chinese New Year", "Lunar New Year", "New Year Festival", and "Spring Festival".

For New Year celebrations that follow Chinese-inspired calendars but are outside of China and Chinese diaspora (such as Korea's Seollal and Vietnam's Tết), see the article on Lunar New Year.

For other countries and regions where Chinese New Year is celebrated but not an official holiday, see the table below.

Country and region Official name Description Number of days
Malaysia Tahun Baru Cina The first 2 days of Chinese New Year.[48] 2[49][48]
Singapore Chinese New Year The first 2 days of Chinese New Year.[50] 2
Brunei Tahun Baru Cina Half-day on Chinese New Year's Eve and the first day of Chinese New Year.[51] 1
Hong Kong Lunar New Year The first 3 days of Chinese New Year.[52] 3
Macau Novo Ano Lunar The first 3 days of Chinese New Year[53] 3
Indonesia Tahun Baru Imlek (Sin Cia) The first day of Chinese New Year.[54][55] 1
China Spring Festival (Chūn Jié) The first 3 days of Chinese New Year. Extra holiday days are de facto added adjusting the weekend days before and after the three days holiday, resulting in a full week of public holiday known as Golden Week.[56][57] During the Chunyun holiday travel season. 3 (official holiday days) / 7 (de facto holiday days)
Philippines Chinese New Year Half-day on Chinese New Year's Eve and the first day of Chinese New Year.[58] 1
South Korea Korean New Year (Seollal) The first 3 days of Chinese New Year. 3
Taiwan Lunar New Year / Spring Festival Chinese New Year's Eve and the first 3 days of Chinese New Year; will be made up on subsequent working days if any of the 4 days fall on Saturday or Sunday. The day before Chinese New Year's Eve is also designated as holiday, but as a bridge holiday, and will be made up on an earlier or later Saturday. Additional bridge holidays may apply, resulting in 9-day or 10-day weekends.[59][60][61] 4 (legally), 9–10 (including Saturdays and Sundays)[62]
Thailand Wan Trut Chin (Chinese New Year's Day) Observed by
Songkhla Provinces.[50]
1
Vietnam Tết Nguyên Đán (Vietnamese New Year) The first 3 days of Chinese New Year. 3
New York, United States Lunar New Year The first days of Lunar New Year. 1
California, United States Lunar New Year The first days of Lunar New Year. 1
Suriname Maan Nieuwjaar The first day of Chinese New Year. 1

Festivities

Red couplets and red lanterns are displayed on the door frames and light up the atmosphere. The air is filled with strong Chinese emotions. In stores in Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan, and other cities, products of traditional Chinese style have started to lead fashion trend[s]. Buy yourself a Chinese-style coat, get your kids tiger-head hats and shoes, and decorate your home with some beautiful red Chinese knots, then you will have an authentic Chinese-style Spring Festival.

— Xinwen Lianbo, January 2001, quoted by Li Ren, Imagining China in the Era of Global Consumerism and Local Consciousness[64]

During the festival, people around China will prepare different gourmet dishes for their families and guests. Influenced by the flourished cultures, foods from different places look and taste totally different. Among them, the most well-known ones are dumplings from northern China and Tangyuan from southern China.[citation needed]

Preceding days

On the eighth day of the lunisolar month prior to Chinese New Year, the

Laba porridge (simplified Chinese: 腊八粥; traditional Chinese: 臘八粥; pinyin: làbā zhōu), is served in remembrance of an ancient festival, called La, that occurred shortly after the winter solstice.[65] Pickles such as Laba garlic, which turns green from vinegar, are also made on this day. For those that practice Buddhism, the Laba holiday is also considered Bodhi Day. Layue (simplified Chinese: 腊月; traditional Chinese: 臘月; pinyin: Làyuè) is a term often associated with Chinese New Year as it refers to the sacrifices held in honour of the gods in the twelfth lunisolar month, hence the cured meats of Chinese New Year are known as larou (simplified Chinese: 腊肉; traditional Chinese: 臘肉; pinyin: làròu). The porridge was prepared by the women of the household at first light, with the first bowl offered to the family's ancestors and the household deities. Every member of the family was then served a bowl, with leftovers distributed to relatives and friends.[66] It's still served as a special breakfast on this day in some Chinese homes. The concept of the "La month" is similar to Advent
in Christianity. Many families eat vegetarian on Chinese New Year eve, the garlic and preserved meat are eaten on Chinese New Year day.

Men gathering to receive the Gods in the Chinese New Year, 1900s

On the days immediately before the New Year celebration, Chinese families give their homes a thorough cleaning. There is a Cantonese saying "Wash away the dirt on nin ya baat" (Chinese: 年廿八,洗邋遢; pinyin: nián niàn bā, xǐ lātà; Jyutping: nin4 jaa6 baat3, sai2 laap6 taap3 (laat6 taat3)), but the practice is not restricted to nin ya baat (the 28th day of month 12). It is believed the cleaning sweeps away the bad luck of the preceding year and makes their homes ready for good luck. Brooms and dust pans are put away on the first day so that the newly arrived good luck cannot be swept away. Some people give their homes, doors and window-frames a new coat of red paint; decorators and paper-hangers do a year-end rush of business prior to Chinese New Year.

couplets
. Purchasing new clothing and shoes also symbolize a new start. Any hair cuts need to be completed before the New Year, as cutting hair on New Year is considered bad luck due to the homonymic nature of the word "hair" (fa) and the word for "prosperity". Businesses are expected to pay off all the debts outstanding for the year before the new year eve, extending to debts of gratitude. Thus it is a common practice to send gifts and rice to close business associates, and extended family members.

In many households where Buddhism or Taoism is observed, home altars and statues are cleaned thoroughly, and decorations used to adorn altars over the past year are taken down and burned a week before the new year starts on Little New Year, to be replaced with new decorations. Taoists (and Buddhists to a lesser extent) will also "send gods back to heaven" (Chinese: 送神; pinyin: sòngshén), an example would be burning a paper effigy of the Kitchen God, the recorder of family functions. This is done so that the Kitchen God can report to the Jade Emperor of the family household's transgressions and good deeds. Families often offer sweet foods (such as candy) in order to "bribe" the deities into reporting good things about the family.

Prior to the Reunion Dinner, a prayer of thanksgiving is held to mark the safe passage of the previous year. Confucianists take the opportunity to remember their ancestors, and those who had lived before them are revered. Some people do not give a Buddhist prayer due to the influence of Christianity, with a Christian prayer offered instead.

Chinese New Year's Eve

The day before Chinese New Year is usually accompanied with a dinner feast, consisting of special meats as a main course and an offering for the New Year. This meal is comparable to Thanksgiving dinner and Christmas dinner.

In northern China, it is customary to make

niangao) and send pieces of it as gifts to relatives and friends in the coming days.[68]

Some families visit local temples hours before midnight to pray for success by lighting the first incense of the year. Today many households hold parties. Traditionally, firecrackers were lit to ward off evil spirits. The household doors are sealed and not reopened until dawn in a ritual called "opening the door of fortune" (simplified Chinese: 开财门; traditional Chinese: 開財門; pinyin: kāicáimén).[69] The tradition of staying up late on Chinese New Year's Eve is known as shousui (Chinese: 守岁). It is still practiced and believed to add to parental longevity.

First day

The first day, known as the "Spring Festival" (simplified Chinese: 春节; traditional Chinese: 春節) is for the welcoming of the deities of the heavens and Earth on midnight. It is a traditional practice to light fireworks, burn bamboo sticks and firecrackers, and lion dance troupes, were done commonly as a tradition to ward off evil spirits.

Typical actions such as lighting fires and using knives are considered taboo, thus all consumable food has to be cooked prior. Using the broom, swearing, and breaking any dinnerware without appeasing the deities are also considered taboo.[70]

Normal traditions occurring on the first day involve house gatherings to the families, specifically the elders and families to the oldest and most senior members of their extended families, usually their parents, grandparents and great-grandparents, and trading

red envelopes containing cash known as lai see (Cantonese: 利事) or angpow (Hokkien and Teochew), or hongbao (Mandarin: 红包), a form of a blessing and to suppress both the ageing and challenges that were associated with the coming year, to junior members of the family, mostly children and teenagers. Business managers may also give bonuses in the form of red packets to employees.[71] The money can be of any form, specifically numbers ending with 8 (Mandarin: ba 八), which sounds similar to fa (Mandarin: ), meaning prosperity, but packets with denominations of odd or unlucky numbers, or packets without money are usually not allowed due to bad luck. The number 4 is especially unlucky, because it is sounded as si (Mandarin: ), which means death.[72][71]

While fireworks and firecrackers are traditionally very popular, some regions have banned them due to concerns over fire hazards. For this reason, various city governments (e.g., Kowloon, Beijing, Shanghai for a number of years) issued bans over fireworks and firecrackers in certain precincts of the city. As a substitute, large-scale fireworks display have been launched by governments in Hong Kong and Singapore.

Second day

Incense is burned at the graves of ancestors as part of the offering and prayer rituals

The second day, entitled "a year's beginning" (simplified Chinese: 开年; traditional Chinese: 開年; pinyin: kāinián),[73] oversees married daughters visiting their birth parents, relatives and close friends, often renew family ties and relationship. (Traditionally, married daughters didn't have the opportunity to visit their birth families frequently.)

The second day also saw giving offering money and sacrifices to the God of Wealth (Chinese: 财神) to symbolize a rewarding time after hardship in the preceding year. During the days of imperial China, "beggars and other unemployed people circulate[d] from family to family, carrying a picture [of the God of Wealth] shouting, "Cai Shen dao!" [The God of Wealth has come!]."[74] Householders would respond with "lucky money" to reward the messengers. Business people of the Cantonese dialect group will hold a 'Hoi Nin' prayer to start their business on the second day of Chinese New Year, blessing business to strive in the coming year.

As this day is believed to be

kau cim
.

Third day

The third day is known as "red mouth" (Chinese: 赤口; pinyin: Chìkǒu). Chikou is also called "Chigou's Day" (Chinese: 赤狗日; pinyin: Chìgǒurì). Chigou, literally "red dog", is an epithet of "the God of Blazing Wrath" (Chinese: 熛怒之神; pinyin: Biāo nù zhī shén). Rural villagers continue the tradition of burning paper offerings over trash fires. It is considered an unlucky day to have guests or go visiting.[75] Hakka villagers in rural Hong Kong in the 1960s called it the Day of the Poor Devil and believed everyone should stay at home.[76] This is also considered a propitious day to visit the temple of the God of Wealth and have one's future told.

Fourth day

In those communities that celebrate Chinese New Year for 15 days, the fourth day is when corporate "spring dinners" kick off and business returns to normal. Other areas that have a longer Chinese New Year holiday will celebrate and welcome the gods that were previously sent on this day.

Fifth day

This day is the god of Wealth's birthday. In northern China, people eat jiaozi, or dumplings, on the morning of powu (Chinese: 破五; pinyin: pòwǔ). In Taiwan, businesses traditionally re-open on the next day (the sixth day), accompanied by firecrackers.

It is also common in China that on the 5th day people will shoot off firecrackers to get Guan Yu's attention, thus ensuring his favour and good fortune for the new year.[77]

Sixth day

The sixth day is Horse's Day, on which people drive away the Ghost of Poverty by throwing out the garbage stored up during the festival. The ways vary but basically have the same meaning—to drive away the Ghost of Poverty, which reflects the general desire of the Chinese people to ring out the old and ring in the new, to send away the previous poverty and hardship and to usher in the good life of the New Year.[78]

Seventh day

The seventh day, traditionally known as Renri (the common person's birthday), is the day when everyone grows one year older. In some overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia and Singapore, it is also the day when tossed raw fish salad, yusheng, is eaten for continued wealth and prosperity.

For many Chinese Buddhists, this is another day to avoid meat, the seventh day commemorating the birth of Sakra, lord of the devas in Buddhist cosmology who is analogous to the Jade Emperor.

Metro Vancouver suburb of Richmond, British Columbia
, Canada

Eighth day

Another family dinner is held to celebrate the eve of the birth of the Jade Emperor, the ruler of heaven. People normally return to work by the eighth day, therefore the Store owners will host a lunch/dinner with their employees, thanking their employees for the work they have done for the whole year.

Ninth day

The ninth day is traditionally known as the birthday of the

Taoist Pantheon as thanks or gratitude.[79] It is commonly known as called Ti Kong Dan (Chinese: 天公誕; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Thiⁿ-kong Tan), Ti Kong Si (Chinese: 天公生; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Thiⁿ-kong Siⁿ/Thiⁿ-kong Seⁿ) or Pai Ti Kong (Chinese: 拜天公; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pài Thiⁿ-kong), and is especially important to Hokkiens.[80]

A prominent requisite offering is sugarcane.[80] Legends holds that the Hokkien were spared from a massacre by Japanese pirates by hiding in a sugarcane plantation between the eighth and ninth days of the Chinese New Year, coinciding with the Jade Emperor's birthday.[80] "Sugarcane" (Chinese: 甘蔗; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: kam-chià) is a near homonym to "thank you" (Chinese: 感謝; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: kám-siā) in the Hokkien dialect.[80]

In the morning (traditionally anytime between midnight and 7 am), Taiwanese households set up an altar table with three layers: one top (containing offertories of six vegetables (Chinese: 六齋; pinyin: liù zhāi; those being noodles, fruits, cakes, tangyuan, vegetable bowls, and unripe betel), all decorated with paper lanterns) and two lower levels (five sacrifices and wines) to honour the deities below the Jade Emperor.[79] The household then kneels three times and kowtows nine times to pay obeisance and wish him a long life.[79]

Incense, tea, fruit, vegetarian food or roast pig, and gold paper, are served as a customary protocol for paying respect to an honoured person.

Tenth day

The nation celebrates the Jade Emperor's birthday on this day.

Fifteenth day

The fifteenth day of the new year is celebrated as the Lantern Festival, also known as the Yuanxiao Festival (simplified Chinese: 元宵节; traditional Chinese: 元宵節; pinyin: Yuán xiāo jié), the Shangyuan Festival (simplified Chinese: 上元节; traditional Chinese: 上元節; pinyin: Shàng yuán jié), and Chap Goh Meh (Chinese: 十五暝; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Cha̍p-gō͘-mê; lit. 'the fifteen night' in Hokkien). Rice dumplings, or tangyuan (simplified Chinese: 汤圆; traditional Chinese: 湯圓; pinyin: tang yuán), a sweet glutinous rice ball brewed in a soup, are eaten this day. Candles are lit outside houses as a way to guide wayward spirits home. Families may walk the streets carrying lanterns, which sometimes have riddles attached to or written on them as a tradition.[81]

In China and Malaysia, this day is celebrated by individuals seeking a romantic partner, akin to Valentine's Day.[82] Nowadays, single women write their contact number on mandarin oranges and throw them in a river or a lake after which single men collect the oranges and eat them. The taste is an indication of their possible love: sweet represents a good fate while sour represents a bad fate.

This day often marks the end of the Chinese New Year festivities.

Traditional food

niangao
, New Year rice cake

A

communal hot pot as it is believed to signify the coming together of the family members for the meal. Most reunion dinners (particularly in the Southern regions) also prominently feature speciality meats (e.g. wax-cured meats like duck and Chinese sausage) and seafood (e.g. lobster and abalone
) that are usually reserved for this and other special occasions during the remainder of the year. In most areas, fish (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is included, but not eaten completely (and the remainder is stored overnight), as the Chinese phrase "may there be surpluses every year" (simplified Chinese: 年年有余; traditional Chinese: 年年有餘; pinyin: niánnián yǒu yú) sounds the same as "let there be fish every year." Eight individual dishes are served to reflect the belief of good fortune associated with the number. If in the previous year a death was experienced in the family, seven dishes are served.

Other traditional foods consists of noodles, fruits, dumplings,[84] spring rolls,[85] and Tangyuan[83] which are also known as sweet rice balls. Each dish served during Chinese New Year represents something special. The noodles used to make longevity noodles are usually very thin, long wheat noodles. These noodles are longer than normal noodles that are usually fried and served on a plate, or boiled and served in a bowl with its broth. The noodles symbolize the wish for a long life. The fruits that are typically selected would be oranges, tangerines, and pomelos as they are round and "golden" color symbolizing fullness and wealth. Their lucky sound when spoken also brings good luck and fortune. The Chinese pronunciation for orange is 橙 (chéng), which sounds the same as the Chinese for 'success' (成). One of the ways to spell tangerine(桔 jú) contains the Chinese character for luck (吉 jí). Pomelos are believed to bring constant prosperity. Pomelo in Chinese (柚 yòu) sounds similar to 'to have' (有 yǒu), disregarding its tone, however it sounds exactly like 'again' (又 yòu). Dumplings and spring rolls symbolize wealth, whereas sweet rice balls symbolize family togetherness.

Red packets for the immediate family are sometimes distributed during the reunion dinner. These packets contain money in an amount that reflects good luck and honorability. Several foods are consumed to usher in wealth, happiness, and good fortune. Several of the Chinese food
names are homophones for words that also mean good things.

Many families in China still follow the tradition of eating only vegetarian food on the first day of the New Year, as it is believed that doing so will bring good luck into their lives for the whole year.[86]

Like many other New Year dishes, certain ingredients also take special precedence over others as these ingredients also have similar-sounding names with prosperity, good luck, or even counting money.

Food item Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Description
Buddha's delight 罗汉斋 羅漢齋 Luóhàn zhāi An elaborate
Hakkas usually serve kiu nyuk (Chinese: 扣肉; pinyin: kòuròu) and ngiong teu fu
.
Chicken Boiled chicken is served because it is figured that any family, no matter how humble their circumstances, can afford a chicken for Chinese New Year.
Apples 苹果 蘋果 Píngguǒ Apples symbolize peace because the word for apple ("ping") is a homonym of the word for peace.
Fish Is usually eaten or merely displayed on the eve of Chinese New Year. The pronunciation of fish makes it a homophone for "surpluses" (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ).
Garlic Suàn Is usually served in a dish with rondelles of Chinese sausage or Chinese cured meat during Chinese New Year. The pronunciation of Garlic makes it a homophone for "calculating (money)" (Chinese: ; pinyin: suàn). The Chinese cured meat is so chosen because it is traditionally the primary method for storing meat over the winter and the meat rondelles resemble coins.
Jau gok
油角 Yóu jiǎo The main Chinese new year dumpling for Cantonese families. It is believed to resemble a sycee or yuánbǎo, the old Chinese gold and silver ingots, and to represent prosperity for the coming year.
Jiaozi 饺子 餃子 Jiǎozi The common dumpling eaten in northern China, also believed to resemble sycee. In the reunion dinner, Chinese people add various food into Jiaozi fillings to represent good fortune: coin, Niangao, dried date, candy, etc.
Mandarin oranges 桔子 Júzi Oranges, particularly
dialects such as Teochew (in which , , and , , are both pronounced gik).[87]
Melon seed
/Guazi
瓜子 Guāzi Other variations include sunflower, pumpkin and other seeds. It symbolizes fertility and having many children.
Niangao 年糕 Niángāo Most popular in eastern China (
Min Nan
) there. Known as Chinese New Year pudding, niangao is made up of glutinous rice flour, wheat starch, salt, water, and sugar. The color of the sugar used determines the color of the pudding (white or brown).
Noodles 面条 麵條 Miàntiáo Families may serve uncut noodles (making them as long as they can[88]), which represent longevity and long life, though this practice is not limited to the new year.
Sweets 糖果 Tángguǒ Sweets and similar dried fruit goods are stored in a red or black Chinese candy box.
Rougan
(Yok Gon)
肉干 肉乾 Ròugān Chinese salty-sweet dried meat, akin to jerky, which is trimmed of the fat, sliced, marinated and then smoked for later consumption or as a gift.
Taro cakes 芋头糕 芋頭糕 Yùtougāo Made from the vegetable taro, the cakes are cut into squares and often fried.
Turnip cakes 萝卜糕 蘿蔔糕 Luóbogāo A dish made of shredded radish and rice flour, usually fried and cut into small squares.
Yusheng or Yee sang 鱼生 魚生 Yúshēng Raw fish salad. Eating this salad is said to bring good luck. This dish is usually eaten on the seventh day of the New Year, but may also be eaten throughout the period.
Five Xinpan 五辛盘 五辛盤 Wǔ xīnpán Five Xin include onion, garlic, pepper, ginger, mustard. As an ancient traditional folk culture, it has been existing since the Jin dynasty. It symbolizes health. In a well-economic development dynasty, like Song, The Five Xinpan not only have five spicy vegetables. Also, include Chinese bacon and other vegetables. Moreover, it offered to the family's ancestors to express respect and seek a blessing.[89]
Laba porridge 腊八粥 臘八粥 Làbā zhōu This dish is eaten on Laba Festival, the eighth day of the twelfth month of the Chinese lunisolar calendar. The congees are made of mixed walnut, pine nuts, mushrooms, persimmon. The congees are for commemorating the sacrifices of ancestors and celebrating the harvest.[90]

Practices

Red envelopes

Red packets for sale in a market in Taipei, Taiwan, before the Year of the Rat
Shoppers at a New Year market in Chinatown, Singapore

Traditionally, red envelopes or red packets (

Hakka Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: fùng-pâu), alternatively known as lai see particularly in Cantonese speaking areas (Chinese: 利是 / 利市 / 利事; Cantonese Yale: laih sih; pinyin: lìshì), are passed out during the Chinese New Year's celebrations, from married couples or the elderly to unmarried juniors or children. During this period, red packets are also known as yasuiqian (壓歲錢; 压岁钱; yāsuìqián), which was evolved from a homophonous phrase yasuiqian (壓祟錢; 压祟钱; yāsuìqián), literally meaning "money to suppress evil spirits".[91] According to legend, a demon named Sui patted a child on the head three times on New Year's Eve, and the child would have a fever. The parents wrapped coins in red paper and placed them next to their children's pillows. When Sui came, the flash of the coin scared him away. From then on, every New Year's Eve, parents will wrap the coin in red paper to protect their children.[92]

Red packets almost always contain money, usually varying from a couple of dollars to several hundred. Chinese superstitions favour amounts that begin with even numbers, such as 8 (八, pinyin: ), a homophone for "wealth", and 6 (六, pinyin: liù), a homophone for "smooth"—but not the number 4 (四, pinyin: ), which is a homophone of "death", and is, as such, considered unlucky in Asian culture. Odd numbers are also avoided, as they are associated with cash given during funerals (帛金, pinyin: báijīn).[93][94] It is also customary for bills placed inside a red envelope to be new.[95]

The act of asking for red packets (Mandarin: 討紅包; tǎo hóngbāo, Cantonese: 逗利是; dauh laih sih) wouldn't be turned down by a married person as it would mean that he or she would be "out of luck" in the new year. Red packets are generally given by married couples to the younger non-married members of the family.[85] It is custom and polite for children to wish elders a happy new year and a year of happiness, health and good fortune before accepting the red envelope.[85] Red envelopes are then kept under the pillow and slept on for seven nights after Chinese New Year before opening because that symbolizes good luck and fortune.

In Taiwan in the 2000s, some employers also gave red packets as a bonus to maids, nurses or domestic workers from Southeast Asian countries, although whether this is appropriate is controversial.[96][97]

In the mid-2010s, Chinese

group chats.[98][99] In 2017, it was estimated that over 100 billion of these virtual red envelopes would be sent over the New Year holiday.[100][101]

Mythology

In ancient times, there was a monster named sui () which comes out on New Year's Eve and touches the heads of sleeping children. The child will be frightened by the touch and wake up and have a fever. The fever eventually will cause the child to have intellectual disabilities. Hence, families will light up their homes and stay awake, leading to a tradition of shou sui (守祟), to guard against sui harming their children.

A folklore tale of sui is about an elderly couple with a precious son. On the night of New Year's Eve, since they were afraid that sui would come, they took out eight pieces of copper coins to play with their son in order to keep him awake. Their son was very sleepy, however, so they let him go to sleep after placing a red paper bag containing the copper coins under the child's pillow. The two older children also stayed with him for the whole night. Suddenly, the doors and windows were blown open by a strange wind, and even the candlelight was extinguished. It turned out to be a sui. When the sui was going to reach out and touch the child's head, the pillow suddenly brightened with the golden light, and the sui was scared away, so the exorcism effect of "red paper wrapped copper money" spread in the past China[102] (see also Chinese numismatic charms). The money is then called ya sui qian (壓歲錢), the money to suppress sui.

Another tale is that a huge demon was terrorizing a village and there was nobody in the village who was able to defeat the demon; many warriors and statesmen had tried with no luck. A young orphan stepped in, armed with a magical sword that was inherited from his ancestors, and battled the demon, eventually killing it. Peace was finally restored to the village, and the elders all presented the brave young man with a red envelope filled with money to repay the young orphan for his courage and for ridding the village of the demon.[103]

Gift exchange

Chinese candy box

In addition to red envelopes, which are usually given from older people to younger people, small gifts (usually food or sweets) are also exchanged between friends or relatives (of different households) during Chinese New Year. Gifts are usually brought when visiting friends or relatives at their homes. Common gifts include fruits (typically oranges, but never trade pears), cakes, biscuits, chocolates, and candies. Gifts are preferred to be wrapped with red or golden paper, which symbolizes good luck.

Certain items should not be given, as they are considered taboo. Taboo gifts include:[104][105][106]

Markets

Markets or village fairs are set up as the New Year is approaching. These usually open-air markets feature new year related products such as flowers, toys, clothing, and even fireworks and firecrackers. It is convenient for people to buy gifts for their new year visits as well as their home decorations. In some places, the practice of shopping for the perfect plum tree is not dissimilar to the Western tradition of buying a Christmas tree.

Fireworks

A Chinese man setting off fireworks during Chinese New Year in Shanghai

Bamboo stems filled with gunpowder that was burnt to create small explosions were once used in ancient China to drive away evil spirits. In modern times, this method has eventually evolved into the use of

firecrackers during the festive season. Firecrackers are usually strung on a long fused string so it can be hung down. Each firecracker is rolled up in red papers, as red is auspicious, with gunpowder in its core. Once ignited, the firecracker lets out a loud popping noise and, as they are usually strung together by the hundreds, the firecrackers are known for their deafening explosions that are thought to scare away evil spirits. The burning of firecrackers also signifies a joyful time of year and has become an integral aspect of Chinese New Year celebrations.[107]
Since the 2000s, firecrackers have been banned in various countries and towns.

Music

"Happy New Year!" (Chinese: 新年好呀; pinyin: Xīn Nián Hǎo Ya) is a popular children's song for the New Year holiday.[108] The melody is similar to the American folk song, Oh My Darling, Clementine. Another popular Chinese New Year song is Gong Xi Gong Xi (Chinese: 恭喜恭喜!; pinyin: Gongxi Gongxi!) .

Movies

Watching Chinese New Year films is an expression of Chinese cultural identity. During the New Year holidays, the stage boss gathers the most popular actors whom from various troupes let them perform repertories from Qing dynasty. Nowadays many people celebrate the new year by watching these movies.[109]

Hong Kong filmmakers also release Chinese New Year films, mostly comedies, at this time of year.

Clothing

Girls dressed in red (NYC)

The color red is commonly worn throughout Chinese New Year; traditional beliefs held that red could scare away evil spirits.[85] The wearing of new clothes is another clothing custom during the festival;[110] the new clothes symbolize a new beginning in the year.[85]

Family portrait

In some places, the taking of a family portrait is an important ceremony after the relatives are gathered.[111] The photo is taken at the hall of the house or taken in front of the house. The most senior male head of the family sits in the center.

Symbolism

An inverted character fu is a sign of arriving blessings

As with all cultures, Chinese New Year traditions incorporate elements that are symbolic of deeper meaning. One common example of Chinese New Year symbolism is the red

fu characters (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Cantonese Yale: fūk; lit. 'blessings', 'happiness'), which are displayed on the entrances of Chinese homes. This sign is usually seen hanging upside down, since the Chinese word for "upside down" (倒; dào), is homophonous or nearly homophonous with the word for "arrive" (到; dào) in all varieties of Chinese
. Therefore, it symbolizes the arrival of luck, happiness, and prosperity. Other characters may include (壽; shòu), (萬; wàn), (寶; bǎo) or (財; cái).

For Cantonese-speaking people, if the fu sign is hung upside down, the implied dao (upside down) sounds like the Cantonese word for "pour", producing "pour the luck [away]", which would usually symbolize bad luck; this is why the fu character is not usually hung upside-down in Cantonese communities.

Red is the predominant color used in New Year celebrations. Red is the emblem of joy, and this color also symbolizes virtue, truth and sincerity. On the Chinese opera stage, a painted red face usually denotes a sacred or loyal personage and sometimes a great emperor. Candies, cakes, decorations and many things associated with the New Year and its ceremonies are coloured red. The sound of the Chinese word for "red" (pinyin: hóng; Cantonese Yale: húng) is in Mandarin homophonous with the word for "prosperous." Therefore, red is an auspicious color and has an auspicious sound. According to Chinese tradition, the year of the pig is a generally unlucky year for the public, which is why you need to reevaluate most of your decisions before you reach a conclusion. However, this only helps you get even more control over your life as you learn to stay ahead of everything by being cautious.[112]

Nianhua

Chinese New Year festival in Chinatown, Boston

Nianhua can be a form of Chinese coloured woodblock printing, for decoration during Chinese New Year.[113] Nianhua uses a range of subjects to express and invite positive prospects as the new year begins. The most popular representatives of these prospects take inspiration from nature, religion, folklore, etc., and are portrayed in flashy and lively ways.[114]

Flowers

The following are popular floral decorations for the New Year and are available at new year markets.

Floral Decor Meaning
Plum Blossom
symbolizes luck
Kumquat symbolizes prosperity
Calamondin
symbolizes luck
Narcissus
symbolizes prosperity
Bamboo a plant used for any time of year, its sturdiness represents strength
Sunflower
means to have a good year
Eggplant a plant to heal all of your sicknesses
Chom Mon Plant a plant which gives you tranquility
Orchid represents fertility and abundance, as well as good taste, beauty, luxury and innocence

Each flower has a symbolic meaning, and many Chinese people believe that it may usher in the values that it represents.

ancestral veneration.[116]

Icons and ornaments

Icons Meaning Illustrations
Lanterns These lanterns that differ from those of Mid-Autumn Festival in general. They will be red in color and tend to be oval in shape. These are the traditional Chinese paper lanterns. Those lanterns, used on the fifteenth day of the Chinese New Year for the Lantern Festival, are bright, colorful, and in many different sizes and shapes.
Decoration Decorations generally convey a New Year greeting. They are not advertisements.
couplets
.
Dragon dance and Lion dance Dragon and lion dances are common during Chinese New Year. It is believed that the loud beats of the drum and the deafening sounds of the cymbals together with the face of the Dragon or lion dancing aggressively can evict bad or evil spirits. Lion dances are also popular for opening of businesses in Hong Kong and Macau.
Fu Lu Shou Nianhua of the Fu Lu Shou.
Red envelope Typically given to children, elderly and gōng xǐ fā cái.
Shrubs Citrus trees are typically used for decoration.

Spring travel

Scene of the 2009 Chunyun period inside Beijing West railway station

Traditionally, families gather together during the Chinese New Year. In modern China, migrant workers in China travel home to have reunion dinners with their families on Chinese New Year's Eve. Owing to a large number of interprovincial travellers, special arrangements were made by railways, buses and airlines starting from 15 days before the New Year's Day. This 40-day period is called chunyun, and is known as the world's largest annual migration.[117] More interurban trips are taken in China in this period than the total population of China.

In Taiwan, spring travel is also a major event. The majority of transportation in western Taiwan is in a north–south direction: long-distance travel between urbanized north and hometowns in the rural south. Transportation in eastern Taiwan and that between Taiwan and its islands is less convenient. Cross-strait flights between Taiwan and China began in 2003 as part of Three Links, mostly for "Taiwanese businessmen" to return to Taiwan for the new year.[118]

Festivities outside China

Chinese New Year is also celebrated annually in many countries which houses significant Chinese populations. These include countries throughout Asia, Oceania, and North America. Sydney,[119] London,[120] and San Francisco[121] claim to host the largest New Year celebration outside of Asia and South America.

East Asia

Japan

Southeast Asia

Chinese New Year is a national public holiday in many Southeast Asian countries and considered to be one of the most important holidays of the year.

Malaysia

Temple at night illuminated with light from decorations
Southeast Asia's largest temple – Kek Lok Si in George Town, Penang, Malaysia – illuminated in preparation for the Chinese New Year in 2024.[122]

Chinese New Year's Eve is typically a half-day holiday in Malaysia, while Chinese New Year is a two-day public holiday. George Town, a Chinese-majority city, is known for its lively Chinese New Year celebrations that last until the Lantern Festival on the fifteenth day. Kek Lok Si, the largest Buddhist temple in Southeast Asia, is typically lit up throughout the festivities.[122] Penang's Chief Minister customarily hosts an "open house" for the public, while various other events take place across the city, including at the Chinese clan houses and the Snake Temple.[123][124] Hokkien households celebrate the Jade Emperor's Birthday, known colloquially as the "Hokkien New Year", on the ninth day with offerings.[125] Traditionally during the Lantern Festival, single females throw oranges at seafront locations like the Esplanade with the hope of finding their partners.[126]

Singapore

Decorations on the occasion of Chinese New Year – River Hongbao 2016, Singapore

In

Chingay Parade also features prominently in the celebrations. It is an annual street parade in Singapore, well known for its colourful floats and wide variety of cultural performances.[128] The highlights of the Parade for 2011 include a Fire Party, multi-ethnic performances and an unprecedented travelling dance competition.[129]

Philippines

Binondo, Manila
Mr. & Ms. Chinatown Philippines

In the

Tikoy, especially by Chinese Filipinos
, is widely known and practised in the country. Celebrations are centered primarily in Binondo in Manila, the oldest ever Chinatown in the world, with other celebrations in key cities.

In 2024,

Joss sticks, including Chinese ancestor worship at Martyr Saints of China altars in Binondo Chinese Parish Church. A midnight 2-minute pyro-musical fireworks was witnessed by 1.5 million at the Chinese-Filipino Friendship Bridge.[130]

In Cebu are also celebrating which a festival is called the Red Lantern Festival.[131]

Indonesia

Lanterns hung around Senapelan street, the Pekanbaru Chinatown in Riau, Indonesia

In

Hokkien as Sin Cia (Chinese: 新正; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: sin-chiaⁿ).[134] It was celebrated as one of the official national religious holiday by Chinese Indonesians since 18 June 1946 to 1 January 1953 through government regulation signed by President Sukarno on 18 June 1946.[135] It was unofficially celebrated by ethnic Chinese from 1953 to 1967 based on government regulation signed by Vice-President Muhammad Hatta on 5 February 1953 which annul the previous regulation, among others, the Chinese New Year as a national religious holiday.[136]

Effectively from 6 December 1967,[137] until 1998, the spiritual practice to celebrate the Chinese New Year by Chinese families was restricted specifically only inside of the Chinese house. This restriction is made by the New Order government through a Presidential Instruction No. 14 of 1967 signed by President Suharto. This restriction is ended when the regime has changed and the President Suharto was overthrown. The celebration was conducted unofficially by Chinese community from 1999 to 2000.

On 17 January 2000, the President Abdurrahman Wahid issued Presidential Decree No. 6 of 2000 to annul the previous instruction.[138] On 19 January 2001, the Ministry of Religious Affairs issued Minsterial Decree No.13 of 2001 on Imlek Day as a National Holiday to set Hari Tahun Baru Imlek as a "facultative holiday" for Chinese community.[139] Through the Presidential Decree it was officially declared as a 1 (one) day public religious holiday as of 9 April 2002 by President Megawati.[133] The Indonesian government authorize only the first day of the Chinese New Year as a public religious holiday and it is specifically designated only for Chinese people.[132][133][135][136][140]

Liong attraction during Chinese New Year in Jakarta, Indonesia
, Indonesia.

In Indonesia, the first day of the Chinese New Year is recognized as a part of the celebration of the Chinese religion and tradition of Chinese community.[132][133][135][136][139] There are no other official or unofficial of the Chinese New Year as a public holiday. The remaining 14 days are celebrated only by ethnic Chinese families.[141] In Indonesia, the Chinese Year is named as a year of Kǒngzǐ (Chinese: 孔子) or Kongzili in Indonesian. Every year, the Ministry of Religious Affairs set the specific date of religious holiday based on input from religious leaders.[141] The Chinese New Year is the only national religious holiday in Indonesia that was enacted specifically with the Presidential Decree, in this case with the Presidential Decree No. 19 of 2002 dated on 9 April 2002.[132][133] The celebration of the Chinese New Year as a religious holiday is specifically intended only for Chinese people in Indonesia (tradisi masyarakat Cina yang dirayakan secara turun temurun di berbagai wilayah di Indonesia,[133] dan umat Agama Tionghoa[135]) and it is not intended to be celebrated by native Indonesians.[132][133][135][136][137][139]

Cities with significant Chinese populations

red envelopes
and sometimes rice, fruits or sugar to the poor around.

Thailand

Chinese New Year festivities occur throughout the country, especially in provinces where many people of Chinese descent live such as

Observed by

Songkhla.[145] For the year 2021 (one year only) the government declared Chinese New Year a government holiday. It applied mostly to civil servants. Financial institutions and private businesses were allowed to decide whether or not to observe it.[146]

Divided into 3 days, the first day is the Wan chai (Thai: วันจ่าย; pay day), meaning the day that people go out to shop for offerings, the second day is the Wan wai (Thai: วันไหว้; worship day), is a day of worshiping the gods and ancestral spirits, which is divided into three periods: dawn, late morning and afternoon, the third day is a Wan tieow (Thai: วันเที่ยว; holiday), is a holiday where everyone will leave the house to travel or to bless relatives or respectable people, often wearing red clothes which is believed to bring auspiciousness to life.[147]

In the capital Bangkok, there are large celebrations in

Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn.[148][149][150]

Yaowarat

Australia and New Zealand

Melbourne: Chinese New Year in Chinatown

With one of the largest Chinese populations outside of Asia, Sydney also claims to have the largest Chinese New Year Celebrations outside of Asia with over 600,000 people attending the celebrations in Chinatown annually. The events there span over three weeks including the launch celebration, outdoor markets, evening street food stalls, Chinese top opera performances, dragon boat races, a film festival and multiple parades that incorporate Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese people. More than 100,000 people attend notably the main parade with over 3,500 performers.[151] The festival also attracts international media coverage, reaching millions of viewers in Asia.[152] The festival in Sydney is organized in partnership with a different Chinese province each year. Apart from Sydney, other state capital cities in Australia also celebrate Chinese New Year due to large number of Chinese residents.[153] The cities include: Brisbane, Adelaide, Melbourne Box Hill and Perth. The common activities are lion dance, dragon dance, New Year market, and food festival. In the Melbourne suburb of Footscray, Victoria a Lunar New Year celebration initially focusing on the Vietnamese New Year has expanded into a celebration of the Chinese New Year as well as the April New Year celebrations of the Thais, Cambodians, Laotians and other Asian Australian communities who celebrate the New Year in either January/February or April.[154]

The city of Wellington hosts a two-day weekend festival for Chinese New Year,[155] and a one-day festival is held in Dunedin, centred on the city's Chinese gardens.[156]

North America

Chinese New Year in
Washington, DC

Many cities in

Flushing, Queens; and Brooklyn),[157] San Francisco,[158] Los Angeles,[159] Boston,[160] Chicago,[161] Mexico City,[162] Toronto, and Vancouver.[163] However, even smaller cities that are historically connected to Chinese immigration, such as Butte, Montana,[164]
have recently hosted parades.

New York

New York City

Fuzhou Town, Brooklyn

Multiple groups in

New York State made Lunar New Year a mandatory public school holiday.[170]

California

Lion costume for New Year parade, Los Angeles, 1953

Signed into law in 2022, and effective 2023, California declared Lunar New Year a state government holiday.

.

San Francisco

The San Francisco Chinese New Year Festival and Parade is the oldest and one of the largest events of its kind outside of Asia, and one of the largest Asian cultural events in North America.

The festival incorporates Grant and Kearny Streets into its street festival and parade route, respectively. The use of these streets traces its lineage back to early parades beginning the custom in San Francisco. In 1849, with the discovery of gold and the ensuing

California Gold Rush, over 50,000 people had come to San Francisco to seek their fortune or just a better way of life. Among those were many Chinese, who had come to work in the gold mines and on the railroad. By the 1860s, the residents of San Francisco's Chinatown were eager to share their culture with their fellow San Francisco residents who may have been unfamiliar with (or hostile towards) it. The organizers chose to showcase their culture by using a favourite American tradition – the parade. They invited a variety of other groups from the city to participate, and they marched down what today are Grant Avenue and Kearny Street
carrying colourful flags, banners, lanterns, drums, and firecrackers to drive away evil spirits.

In San Francisco, over 100 units participate in the annual Chinese New Year Parade held since 1958.[172] The parade is attended by some 500,000 people along with another 3 million TV viewers.[173]

Greater Los Angeles

The Golden Dragon Parade has happened annually in Chinatown Los Angeles since 1899, one of the oldest and largest Chinese New Year parades outside of Asia. Beginning in the 1970s, famous Asian American actors have held the title of Grand Marshall of the parade, the first being Bruce Lee.[174]

Around Southern California many communities also put on festivals and parades that can last multiple days, with some of the largest occurring in the

San Gabriel Valley, home to the largest Chinese community outside of Asia and often called the first suburban Chinatown, and Little Saigon where many Vietnamese and Chinese live. Monterey Park puts on the largest of such festivals, occupying 5 blocks in the city and attracting over 100,000 individuals.[175] Neighboring Alhambra also has hosted a large festival since 1993 with many performances and street vendors.[176] San Gabriel hosts an annual Chinese Gala at the San Gabriel Mission Playhouse in addition to its street festival.[177]

The Little Saigon area has hosted Tet celebrates since 1982 for its Chinese and Vietnamese community.[178] Originally held at Garden Grove Park, with parades in both Garden Grove and Westminster, starting in 2014 a larger celebration is also held at the Orange County Fair and Events Center in Costa Mesa which attracts over 50,000 visitors.[178] Neighboring Fountain Valley also hosts an annual Chinese New Year carnival in Mile Square Regional Park with many food vendors and a ferris wheel.[179]

Many people also celebrate by going to temples across Southern California, and the largest temple celebration is held at

Hacienda Heights.[180] Most major shopping malls will also decorate for Chinese New Year.[181]

Anaheim celebrates Chinese New Year by decorating certain areas of the park in Chinese displays, serving speciality East Asian foods and allowing for character photos with Mulan, Mushu, Raya, Tigger and Mickey and Minnie Mouse in Chinese Costumes.[182]

Some other communities that hold Chinese New Year Celebrations include

West Covina
.

Europe

United Kingdom

London: Chinatown with Chinese New Year decoration

In London, celebrations take place in Chinatown, Leicester Square, and Trafalgar Square. Festivities include a parade, cultural feast, fireworks, concerts, and performances.[183] The celebration attracts between 300,000 and 500,000 people yearly according to the organisers.[184]

France

In Paris, celebrations have been held since the 1980s in several districts during one month with many performances

13th arrondissement.[186][187]

Netherlands

Official celebrations were held in The Hague,[188][189] Amsterdam, and Rotterdam.[190][191]

Hungary

Chinese New Year at Kőbánya, 2024

In Budapest, celebrations have been held since 2017 in Kőbánya district with many performances and parades.[192]

India and Pakistan

Chinese New Year 2014 Celebration in Kolkata

Many celebrate the festival in

community of people of Chinese origin
exists. In Kolkata, Chinese New Year is celebrated with lion and dragon dance.

In Pakistan, the Chinese New Year is also celebrated among the sizeable Chinese expatriate community that lives in the country. During the festival, the Chinese embassy in Islamabad arranges various cultural events in which Pakistani arts and cultural organizations and members of the civil society also participate.[193][194][195][196]

Mauritius

Chinese culture in Mauritius is an important component of the multiculturalism in Mauritius.[197] Despite the small size of the Sino-Mauritian community (estimated to be only about 3% of the total population),[198] Chinese New Year (also known as Chinese Spring Festival) is a time where Chinese culture is celebrated on the island[199] and is a public holiday in Mauritius.[200] Mauritius is also the only country in Africa which lists the Chinese Spring Festival as a statutory public holiday.[197] During this period of the year, there is a joyful and festive atmosphere throughout the entire country.[197]

Sino-Mauritians are very attached to Chinese traditions.[201] The Chinese Spring Festival is the biggest celebration for the Sino-Mauritians on the island.[201] The dates of the celebration follows the Chinese lunisolar calendar instead of the Gregorian calendar.[201] During the week prior to the New Year's Day, spring cleaning in homes is performed.The festival starts on Chinese New Year's Eve by lighting on firecrackers to ward off evil spirits.[202]: 71  Traditionalist visit pagodas to offer offerings and prayers on the New Year's Eve.[202]: 71 Following Chinese customs, there is a big family dinner on the New Year's Eve.[201][203] While the family dinner was traditionally celebrated at the house of the oldest family parents, going to restaurants for New Year's Eve is getting more popular; some restaurants may also have special dinners across the island to foster the family reunions of Sino-Mauritians.[201] After the New year's Eve dinner, youths often go to nightclubs.[201] On the day of the Chinese New Year, it is customary for Sino-Mauritian to share niangao to their relatives and friends and to lit firecrackers to ward off evil spirits.[200][201] Red envelopes are also given. Some families would also visit pagoda on New Year to honour their ancestors.[201] Some families observe a vegetarian diet on the New Year.[203] The main celebration events typically take place in the Chinatown area in Port Louis, the capital of Mauritius.[200][204] The Dragon dance and the Southern Lion dance is also customary on that day.[201][203] The colour red is predominantly used to decorate the streets and houses. Chinese items (e.g. Chinese lanterns) are also used as decorations.[204]

Greetings

The Chinese New Year is often accompanied by loud, enthusiastic greetings, often referred to as 吉祥話 (jíxiánghuà) in Mandarin or 吉利說話 (Kat Lei Seut Wa) in Cantonese, loosely translated as auspicious words or phrases. New Year couplets printed in gold letters on bright red paper, referred to as chunlian (春聯) or fai chun (揮春), is another way of expressing auspicious new year wishes. They probably predate the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), but did not become widespread until then.[205] Today, they are ubiquitous with Chinese New Year.

Some of the most common greetings include:

  • Xin nian kuai le / San nin fai lok: simplified Chinese: 新年快乐; traditional Chinese: 新年快樂; pinyin: Xīnniánkuàilè; Jyutping: san1 nin4 faai3 lok6; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Sin-nî khòai-lo̍k;
    Hakka: Sin Ngen Kai Lok; Taishanese: Slin Nen Fai Lok. A more contemporary greeting reflective of Western influences, it literally translates from the greeting "Happy new year" more common in the west. It is written in English as "xin nian kuai le".[206] In northern parts of China, traditionally people say simplified Chinese: 过年好; traditional Chinese: 過年好; pinyin: Guònián Hǎo instead of simplified Chinese: 新年快乐; traditional Chinese: 新年快樂 (Xīnniánkuàile), to differentiate it from the international new year. And 過年好 (Guònián Hǎo) can be used from the first day to the fifth day of Chinese New Year. However, 過年好 (Guònián Hǎo) is considered very short and therefore somewhat discourteous.
    Gong Hei Fat Choi at Lee Theatre Plaza, Hong Kong
  • Gong xi fa cai / Gong hei fat choi: simplified Chinese: 恭喜发财; traditional Chinese: 恭喜發財; pinyin: Gōngxǐfācái;
    Hakka: Gung hee fatt choi, which loosely translates to "Congratulations and be prosperous". It is spelled varyingly in English, such as "Gung hay fat choy",[207] "gong hey fat choi",[206] or "Kung Hei Fat Choy".[208] It is often mistakenly assumed to be synonymous with "Happy New Year". The saying is now commonly heard in English speaking communities for greetings during Chinese New Year in parts of the world where there is a sizable Chinese-speaking community, including overseas Chinese communities that have been resident for several generations, relatively recent immigrants from Greater China
    , and those who are transit migrants (particularly students).

Numerous other greetings exist, some of which may be exclaimed out loud to no one in particular in specific situations. For example, as breaking objects during the new year is considered inauspicious, one may then say 歲歲平安 (Suìsuì-píng'ān) immediately, which means "everlasting peace year after year". Suì (), meaning "age" is homophonous with (suì) (meaning "shatter"), in the demonstration of the Chinese love for wordplay in auspicious phrases. Similarly, 年年有餘 (niánnián yǒu yú), a wish for surpluses and bountiful harvests every year, plays on the word that can also refer to (yú meaning fish), making it a catch phrase for fish-based Chinese new year dishes and for paintings or graphics of fish that are hung on walls or presented as gifts.

The most common auspicious greetings and sayings consist of four characters, such as the following:

These greetings or phrases may also be used just before children receive their red packets, when gifts are exchanged, when visiting temples, or even when tossing the shredded ingredients of yusheng particularly popular in Malaysia and Singapore. Children and their parents can also pray in the temple, in hopes of getting good blessings for the new year to come.

Children and teenagers sometimes jokingly use the phrase "恭喜發財,紅包拿來" (pinyin: gōngxǐfācái, hóngbāo nálái; Cantonese: 恭喜發財,利是逗來; Jyutping: gung1hei2 faat3coi4, lei6 si6 dau6 loi4), roughly translated as "Congratulations and be prosperous, now give me a red envelope!". In

Hakka
the saying is more commonly said as 'Gung hee fatt choi, hung bao diu loi' which would be written as 恭喜發財,紅包逗來 – a mixture of the Cantonese and Mandarin variants of the saying.

Back in the 1960s, children in Hong Kong used to say 恭喜發財,利是逗來,斗零唔愛 (Cantonese, Gung Hei Fat Choy, Lai Si Tau Loi, Tau Ling M Ngoi), which was recorded in the pop song Kowloon Hong Kong by Reynettes in 1966. Later in the 1970s, children in Hong Kong used the saying: 恭喜發財,利是逗來,伍毫嫌少,壹蚊唔愛, roughly translated as, "Congratulations and be prosperous, now give me a red envelope, fifty cents is too little, don't want a dollar either." It basically meant that they disliked small change – coins which were called "hard substance" (Cantonese: 硬嘢). Instead, they wanted "soft substance" (Cantonese: 軟嘢), which was either a ten dollar or a twenty dollar note.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ And in extremely rare cases, 21 February, such as in 2319, which would be the first occurrence since the 1645 calendar reform.[2]
  2. ^ The next occurrence will be in 2033.[2]

References

  1. ^ "Asia welcomes lunar New Year". BBC. 1 February 2003. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  2. ^ a b c Aslaksen, Helmer (17 July 2010). "The Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2016.
  3. ^ Yeung, Jessie (29 January 2023). "Is it Chinese New Year or Lunar New Year? Depends who you ask". CNN.
  4. .
  5. ^ "Lunar New Year Ceremonies Live On in the Okinawa Islands". nippon.com. 28 February 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  6. ^ "Chinese New Year 2011". VisitSingapore.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  7. ^ "Chinese New Year Celebrated in Grand Scale in Yangon". Mizzima.com. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Philippines adds Chinese New Year to holidays". Yahoo News Philippines. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  9. ^ "Festivals, Cultural Events and Public Holidays in Mauritius". Mauritius Tourism Authority. Archived from the original on 11 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  10. ^ "Peru leads Chinese New Year celebrations in Latin America". China Daily. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  11. ^ Crabtree, Justina (16 February 2018). "As the Lunar New Year celebrations begin, CNBC looks at Chinatowns across the world". CNBC.
  12. ^ "Happy Chinese New Year! The year of the Dog has begun". USA TODAY.
  13. ^ "Chinese New Year and its effect on the world economy". BostonGlobe.com.
  14. ^ "Chinese New Year". History.com. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  15. ^ "The Year of the Dog – Celebrating Chinese New Year 2018". EC Brighton. 16 February 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  16. .
  17. ^ "There are 6 Chinese solar terms in spring". GBTIMES. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  18. ^ Huang, Alice (21 January 2020). "Lunar New Year explainer: what's with all the lions and lanterns?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  19. ^ 民國政府 曾強廢農曆新年. China Times. 9 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  20. ^ a b Haiwang Yuan. "The Origin of Chinese New Year". pp. 3, 6. Retrieved 2 January 2016. ... it is also called Lunar New Year in Chinese communities all over the world. ... Chinese outside mainland China still prefer calling it Lunar [New] Year. 'Chinese New Year' is a popular and convenient translation for people of non-Chinese cultural backgrounds. Along with the Han Chinese in and outside China, as many as 29 of the 55 ethnic minority groups in China also celebrate Chinese New Year. Countries like Korea, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia celebrate it as their official festival.
  21. Central Weather Bureau. Archived from the original
    on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  22. ^ Aslaksen, Helmer (17 July 2010), The Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar (PDF), National University of Singapore, p. 31, archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2014
  23. ^ a b Chan Sui Jeung (2001). Traditional Chinese Festivals and Local Celebrations. Wan Li Book Company Limited.
  24. ^ "保庇有狗讚-這些年 年獸去了哪裡?". tw.news.yahoo.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  25. ^ "七月" . 詩經  (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 九月肅霜,十月滌場。朋酒斯饗,曰殺羔羊。躋彼公堂,稱彼兕觥。萬壽無疆。
  26. ^ "春节起源". www.sohu.com.
  27. ^ 呂不韋. "季冬紀". 呂氏春秋  (in Chinese). Vol. 12 – via Wikisource. 命有司大儺,旁磔,出土牛,以送寒氣。
  28. ^ 司馬彪. "禮儀中". 後漢書  (in Chinese). Vol. 95 – via Wikisource. 先臘一日,大儺,謂之逐疫。
  29. ^ 崔寔. 四民月令  (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 正月之旦,是謂正日。躬率妻孥,絜祀祖禰...子、婦、孫、曾,各上椒酒於其家長,稱觴舉壽,欣欣如也。
  30. ^ "Chinese New Year". History.com. 20 April 2023. Ritual sacrifices of food and paper icons were offered to gods and ancestors.
  31. ^ "吳良". 後漢書  [Book of the Later Han] (in Chinese). Vol. 27 – via Wikisource. 歲旦與掾史入賀,門下掾王望舉觴上壽,謅稱太守功德。
  32. ^ "The Lunar New Year: Rituals and Legends". Asia for Educators, Columbia University. On New Year's Day and for the next several days, people still follow the custom of exchanging visits — with close relatives first, then with distant relatives and friends. Traditionally, the order of these visits also began with the eldest, and the first day was usually devoted to paternal family relatives.
  33. ^ 周處. 風土記  (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 蜀之風俗,晚歲相與饋問,謂之饋歲。酒食相邀為別歲。至除夕,達旦不眠,謂之守歲。
  34. ^ 宗懍. 荊楚歲時記  (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 正月一日,是三元之日也,謂之端月。鷄鳴而起。先於庭前爆竹,以辟山臊惡鬼。
  35. ^ 来鵠. "早春". 萬首唐人絶句 (四庫全書本)  (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 新曆才將半紙開,小庭猶聚爆竿灰。 偏憎楊柳難鈐轄,又惹東風意緒來。
  36. ^ "古代春节:春秋战国有雏形 "桃梗"是最初的春联". 新文化报. 7 February 2014 – via www.chinanews.com.
  37. ^ "古人拜年常用"拜年帖"". 半岛晨报. 30 January 2011 – via www.chinanews.com.
  38. ^ 張唐英. 蜀檮杌  (in Chinese). Vol. 2 – via Wikisource. 蜀未亡前一年歲除日,昶令學士辛寅遜題桃符板於寢門,以其詞工,昶命筆自題云:「新年納餘慶,嘉節賀長春。」
  39. ^ "Love of Chinese Language Expressed in Couplets". The earliest known couplet was written at Spring Festival 964 by the King of Later Shu. It said: "The New Year is bathed in forefathers' blessings; the joyous festival promises everlasting youth and wealth."
  40. ^ "Chinese Couplets History, Categories & Quotable Examples". 9 March 2019. The famous poet Wang Anshi (1021–1086) in Northern Song Dynasty even created a poem to depict the spectacular scene of pasting Spring Festival couplets, called New Year's Day (《元日》 [yuán rì]).
  41. ^ 周, 廣玲 (9 February 2011). "宋代人怎样过年:大抵与今人相似". Guangzhou Daily.
  42. ^ 周密. 武林舊事  (in Chinese). Vol. 3 – via Wikisource. 后妃諸閣,又各進歲軸兒及珠翠百事、吉利市袋兒、小樣金銀器皿,並隨年金錢一百二十文。
  43. ^ 熊夢祥. 析津志辑佚  (in Chinese) – via Wikisource. 車馬紛紜於街衢、茶坊、酒肆,雜遝交易至十三日,人家以黃米為糍糕,饋遺親戚,歲如常。
  44. ^ 劉若愚. 酌中志  (in Chinese). Vol. 20 – via Wikisource. 正月初一五更起,焚香放紙炮,將門閂或木杠於院地上拋擲三度,名曰「跌千金」。飲椒柏酒,吃水點心,即「扁食」也。或暗包銀錢一二於內,得之者以卜一年之吉。
  45. ^ 顾禄. "遞貢望". 清嘉錄. 長者貽小兒以朱繩綴百錢,謂之壓歲錢;置橘、荔諸果於枕畔、謂之壓歲果子。元旦睡覺時食之,取讖于吉利,為新年休征。
  46. ^ 邱建一 (24 January 2020). "皇帝也有「壓歲錢」可領內容物曝光". Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. 皇帝領到的壓歲錢的內容是這樣的:「賜皇上之荷包,乃黃緞繡五彩加金,繡有歲歲平安四字,內裝金銀錢、金銀錁子、金銀八寶各一個(各五分重),口上插一小金如意,約二吋許。上鏨連年如意四字。」
  47. ^ Huang, Wei; Xie, Ying (January 2012). "The New Year That Wasn't". NewsChina. NewsChinaMagazine. Archived from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  48. ^ a b "HOLIDAYS". Embassy of the United States: Kuala Lumpur, Mayalsia. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  49. ^ "Jadual hari kelepasan am persekutuan 2012" [Federal Public Holiday Schedule 2012] (PDF) (in Malay). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Jabatan Perdana Menteri (Department of the Prime Minister). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  50. ^ a b "Public holidays: entitlement and pay". Ministry of Manpower Singapore.
  51. ^ "Embassy Holidays". Embassy of the United States: Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  52. ^ "General holidays for 2018". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  53. ^ "Public Holidays in 2019 Decree Law No. 60/2000 on Public Holidays". Macao SARG Portal. Macao SAR of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  54. ^ "National Public Holidays in Indonesia". AngloINFO, the global expat network: INDONESIA. AngloINFO Limited. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  55. ^ "Holiday Schedule". Embassy of the United States: Jakarta, Indonesia. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  56. ^ Zhu Yafei (16 October 2006). "从数字之外看黄金周的去与留 (Seeing Golden Week from Beyond the Numbers)". news.cctv.com. Retrieved 7 June 2020. 黄金周的7天连续假期是通过对法定三天假日前、后的周末休息日进行调整而形成的。(The 7 seven-consecutive day Golden Week is formed by adjusting the weekend days before and after the 3 day holiday).
  57. ^ "Chinese New Year – China's Grandest Festival & Longest Public Holiday". TravelChinaGuide.
  58. ^ "Proclamation No. 831, s. 2014 by the President of the Philippines, Declaring the Regular Holidays, Special (Non-Working) Days, and Special Holiday (for all Schools) for the Year 2015" (Press release). Malacañang Palace, Manila: Official Gazette of the Philippines. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  59. ^ "紀念日及節日實施辦法". Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 8 January 2023.
  60. ^ "Before You Go: Useful Information: Public Holidays". Taiwan, the heart of Asia. Tourism Bureau, Republic of China (Taiwan). 4 February 2015. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015. Chinese Lunar year: Lunar New Year's Eve; 1st, 2nd, 3rd of the 1st month by lunar calendar
  61. ^ 2015 Work Calendar (Revised Version), Directorate-General of Personnel Administration, 27 October 2014, archived from the original on 23 September 2015
  62. ^ "AIT Offices to Close for Multiple Holidays in February" (Press release). American Institute in Taiwan. 10 February 2015. Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  63. ^ a b "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง กำหนดเวลาทำงานและวันหยุดราชการ (ฉบับที่ ๒๐) พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๕" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2019.
  64. ^ Li Ren (2003). "Imagining China in the Era of Global Consumerism and Local Consciousness: Media, Mobility, and the Spring Festival". PhD thesis, College of Communications, Ohio University. Retrieved 13 September 2007. Edited for grammar.
  65. ^ Bodde, Derk. Festivals in Classical China: New Year and other Annual Observances during the Han Dynasty, Princeton University Press, 1975, pp. 49 ff.
  66. ^ Welch 1997, p. 5.
  67. ^ Welch 1997, p. 9.
  68. ^ Welch 1997, p. 36.
  69. ^ Welch 1997, p. 30.
  70. ^ "Chinese New Year customs in Singapore | Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg.
  71. ^ . Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  72. ^ "10 taboos you should always observe during Chinese New Year". www.msn.com.
  73. ^ Welch 1997, p. 40.
  74. ^ Kong, Shiu L. Chinese Culture and Lore. HK: University of Toronto Press, 1989, p. 48
  75. ^ "¬K¸'". .ctps.tp.edu.tw. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  76. ^ Berkowitz and Brandauer, Folk Religion in an Urban Setting, Hong Kong, 1969, p. 49.
  77. ^ Rodgers, Greg. "Chinese New Year Traditions". About.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  78. ^ "Chinese New Year". yourchineseastrology.com.
  79. ^ a b c Lin Meirong (2011). "Jade Emperor". Encyclopedia of Taiwan. Council for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  80. ^ a b c d Conceicao, Jeanne Louise (2009). "Hokkien community". Singapore Infopedia. National Library Board Singapore. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  81. ^ "This Mid-Autumn Festival, learn all about the ancient Chinese tradition of writing riddles on lanterns – and solve some yourself". Young Post. 23 September 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  82. ^ "Thousands throw oranges to mark Chap Goh Meh". Thestar.com.my. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  83. ^ a b "Chinese New Year Traditions". History.com. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  84. ^ "Chinese New Year Food". Timothy S. Y. Lam Museum of Anthropology. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  85. ^ . Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  86. ^ Chan, Yannie (26 January 2021). "Why do Chinese families stick to a vegetarian diet on Lunar New Year?". The Loop HK. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  87. ^ Butler, Stephanie (30 January 2014). "Symbolic Foods Of Chinese New Year – Hungry History". History.com. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  88. .
  89. ^ (宋)周密. 武林舊事·卷一~卷三. 浙江大学图书馆.
  90. . Retrieved 4 November 2008.
  91. ^ "Red Pockets". Chinese New Year. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  92. ^ "This numbers game is crazy – for 8s". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  93. ^ "How much money should you put in red envelope..." Taiwan News. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  94. ^ "What's the significance of Lunar New Year red envelopes?". The Seattle Times. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  95. ^ "Ofw chinese new year things to remember" (PDF). South East Asia Group [an agency introducing foreign workers to work in Taiwan]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  96. ^ 家庭外傭過年習俗應注意事項 (JPEG) (in Chinese, Vietnamese, Indonesian, Thai, and English). South East Asia Group. 23 January 2012.
  97. ^ "How Social Cash Made WeChat The App For Everything". Fast Company. 2 January 2017. Archived from the original on 3 January 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  98. ^ Young, Doug. "Red envelope wars in China, Xiaomi eyes US". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  99. ^ "Why this Chinese New Year will be a digital money fest". BBC News. 27 January 2017. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  100. ^ "Tencent, Alibaba Send Lunar New Year Revelers Money-Hunting". Caixin Global. 13 January 2017. Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  101. ^ 超宏, 陳 (2014). 紅包. 香港: 商務書局。.
  102. ISSN 2169-3536
    .
  103. ^ "Chinese Culture: New Years – Cantonese Culture Notes and Phrases". chinese-lessons.com. Retrieved 4 November 2008.
  104. ^ David (3 December 2009). "Green Hat a No-No".
  105. ^ Mack, Lauren (27 February 2015). "Chinese Gift-Giving: What Not to Buy – Avoid These Chinese Gift-Giving Blunders". About.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  106. ^ "Firecrackers". Infopedia.nlb.gov.sg. 15 April 1999. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  107. ^ "新年好 (xīnniánhǎo) Happy New Year". eChineseLearning.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  108. . Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  109. . Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  110. 澎湃新闻
    . Retrieved 1 January 2023. 春节来临,不少家庭喜欢趁团聚拍一张全家福,记录时光、记录美好,是一件很有仪式感的事。
  111. ^ "Year of the Pig | 2019 Chinese Horoscope | Ask Astrology Blog". 16 October 2018.
  112. ^ Wood, Frances. "The Boxer Rebellion, 1900: A Selection of Books, Prints and Photographs". British Library. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  113. JSTOR 20066170
    .
  114. ^ "10 Lucky Flowers & Plants For Chinese New Year". thehkhub.com. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  115. ^ "清明節掃墓為什麼用菊花?清明節掃墓用什麼顏色菊花好". Archived from the original on 22 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  116. ^ China's holiday rush begins early, BBC
  117. ^ Shan, Shelley (7 January 2012). "Ministry warns of heavy Lunar New Year holiday traffic". Taipei Times. Lee, I-chia (25 January 2012). "Despite rain, millions hit the road". Taipei Times. Lee, I-chia (29 January 2012). "Early start beats tolls and congestion as the holiday ends". Taipei Times. ... total traffic volume on Friday was 2.7  million vehicles, about 1.7 times the average daily traffic volume of about 1.6  million. "We estimate the total traffic volume [yesterday] was between 2.1  million and 2.3  million vehicles," Chen said. "Northbound traffic volume was much higher than southbound and peak hours were between 3  pm and 6  pm."
  118. ^ "Chinese New Year parade doomed as Baird government's new route 'too narrow' for floats". Smh.com.au. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  119. ^ "London – Chinese New Year – "The largest celebrations outside of Asia"". BBC. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  120. ^ Kim, Ryan (28 February 2010). "Year of the Tiger off to roaring start at parade". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  121. ^ a b Lo, Tern Chern (4 February 2024). "Kek Lok Si Temple lights up for Chinese New Year". The Star. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  122. ^ Trisha, N. (31 January 2024). "Penang gears up for a month of Chinese New Year festivities". The Star. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  123. ^ Wang, Yi (30 January 2023). "Discover cultural treasures in Chinese New Year celebration at Malaysia's Penang". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  124. ^ Chong, Kah Yuan (24 February 2018). "Penang Chinese usher in Hokkien New Year with grand offerings". The Star. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  125. ^ Edmund Lee (1 February 2023). "Penang expects grander Chap Goh Meh celebration". Buletin Mutiara. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  126. ^ "Singapore in spring: Chinatown Chinese New Year Celebrations 2010". VisitSingapore.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  127. ^ "Chingay Parade Singapore 2011". VisitSingapore.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  128. ^ "Chinggay Parade 2011 Highlights". Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  129. ^ Calusin, Diann (11 February 2024). "Crowd of 1.5 million seen at Chinese New Year festivity in Binondo". Manila Bulletin.
  130. ^ "Cebu City to celebrate Chinese new year with a Red Lantern Festival at Plaza Sugbo". INQUIRER.net. 20 January 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  131. ^ a b c d e "Hari-Hari Penting Di Indonesia" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 8 October 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  132. ^ a b c d e f g "Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia. Nomor 19 Tahun 2002. Tentang. Hari Tahun Baru Imlek" [Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia. Number 19 of 2002. About. Chinese New Year's Day] (PDF). kepustakaan-presiden.pnri.go.id. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2017.
  133. ^ Chang-Yau Hoon (2009). "The politics of Imlek". Inside Indonesia. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  134. ^ a b c d e "Penetapan Pemerintah 1946 No 2/Um::Aturan Hari Raya". ngada.org. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  135. ^ a b c d "Keputusan Presiden Republik Indoniesia No. 24 Tahun 1953 Tentang Hari-Hari Libur" [Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia No. 24 of 1953 concerning Holidays]. Aswin Weblog (in Indonesian). 24 May 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  136. ^ a b Instruksi Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 14 Tahun 1967  (in Indonesian) – via Wikisource.
  137. ^ Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 6 Tahun 2000  (in Indonesian) – via Wikisource.
  138. ^ a b c "Keputusan Menteri Agama No. 13 dan 14 Tahun 2001 – Imlek Sebagai Hari Libur Fakultatif ". www.hukumonline.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  139. ^ AFP (22 January 2012). "Chinese-Indonesians celebrate once-forbidden roots". Taipei Times.
  140. ^ a b "Pemerintah Tetapkan Hari Libur Nasional dan Cuti Bersama Tahun 2017". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  141. ^ "Nakhon Sawan Chinese New Year Festival". TAT. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  142. ^ "Chinese New Year in Phuket". PHUKET.COM. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  143. ^ "Suphanburi Chinese New Year Festival". TAT. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  144. ^ "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง กำหนดเวลาทำงานและวันหยุดราชการ (ฉบับที่ ๒๑) พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๖" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2019.
  145. ^ "CHINESE NEW YEAR IS AMONG NEW GOV'T HOLIDAYS FOR 2021". Khao Sod. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  146. ^ "วันตรุษจีน 2561 กับ 7 คำถามยอดฮิตที่คนอยากรู้" [Chinese New Year 2018 with 7 popular questions that people want to know]. Kapook.com (in Thai). 7 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  147. ^ Pramarnpanich, Tanachai (16 February 2018). "Gateway to the Chinese new year". The Nation. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  148. TPBS. 19 February 2015. Archived from the original
    on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  149. ^ "Princess Sirindhorn opens Chinese New Year Celebration at China Town". TPBS. 31 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  150. ^ "2013 Sydney Chinese New Year Twilight Parade". sydneychinesenewyear.com. 17 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  151. ^ "City of Sydney Official Chinese New Year Website". Cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au. 1 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  152. ^ "Chinese New Year in Australia". www.chinesenewyear.net.au. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  153. ^ "East Meets West Lunar New Year Festival". Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  154. ^ "Chinese New Year Festival, Wellington New Zealand". Chinesenewyear.co.nz. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  155. ^ "Tourists flock for Year of the Rooster". www.odt.co.nz. 28 January 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  156. ^ a b Cross, Heather. "Chinese Lunar New Year in New York City: 2015 – Don't miss out on Lunar New Year festivities in NYC". About.com. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  157. ^ "Southwest Airlines Chinese New Year Parade in San Francisco". Chineseparade.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  158. ^ "The Golden Dragon Parade". Chinese Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles. 2014. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013.
  159. ^ "Welcome to Chinatown, Boston". Chinatown Main Street. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  160. ^ "Chicago Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Events". Chicago Chinatown Chamber of Commerce. 2016. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  161. ^ "Realizarán desfile en DF por Año Nuevo chino". El Universal. Archived from the original on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  162. ^ "Chinese New Year Parade in Vancouver". Seechinatown.com. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  163. ^ Rhein, Jamie (16 February 2007). "A Chinese New Year Parade in Butte, Montana? Sure". Gadling.com. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  164. ^ a b "Fireworks Fly on Hudson River For Chinese Lunar New Year". CBSNewYork. 17 February 2015.
  165. ^ Semple, Kirk (16 February 2015). "With Lunar New Year Show, Another Link to China for a New York Fireworks Family". The New York Times.
  166. ^ "Chinese New Year". 7 November 2022.
  167. ^ "LNY PARADE". 10 January 2020.
  168. ^ Harris, Elizabeth A.; Grynbaum, Michael M. (22 June 2015). "Mayor de Blasio to Make Lunar New Year a School Holiday". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  169. ^ David Robinson (11 September 2023). "NY makes Asian Lunar New Year a public school holiday. When is it in 2024?". USA TODAY Network. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  170. ^ "State Holidays". www.calhr.ca.gov.
  171. ^ "Chinese New Year festival & Parade". chineseparade.com. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  172. ^ "Best San Francisco Bay Area Events, Weekends & Festivals 2013". hiddensf.com. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  173. ^ "Welcome to the Visit California Homepage". www.visitcalifornia.com.
  174. ^ "Lunar New Year". Lunar New Year.
  175. ^ "Gallery". Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  176. ^ "2023 Lunar New Year Festival | San Gabriel, CA – Official Website". www.sangabrielcity.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  177. ^ a b HENRIQUEZ, CRYSTAL (20 January 2023). "Tet Parades Across OC Gear Up for Year of the Cat Festivities". Voice of OC.
  178. ^ "OC Tet Festival at Mile Square Park 2023 | Enjoy OC". 11 January 2023.
  179. ^ "Fo Guang Shan Hsi Lai Temple 1/1/2022 News: New Year Festival at Hsi Lai Temple". www.hsilai.org.
  180. ^ "Lunar New Year – South Coast Plaza". www.southcoastplaza.com.
  181. ^ "Lunar New Year". Disneyland. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  182. ^ "Chinese New Year 2013 – Year of the Snake starts in style". chinatownlondon.org. 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  183. ^ "London's Chinese New Year is More Chinese than Ever Before". londonnet.co.uk. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  184. ^ "Le Nouvel An Chinois à Paris 2013". sortiraparis.com. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  185. ^ "Le Nouvel An Chinois". mairie13.paris.fr. 2 February 2013. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  186. ^ "Le grand défilé du Nouvel An Chinois". mairie13.paris.fr. 2 February 2013. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  187. ^ Chinese New Year Festival
  188. ^ "Chinees Nieuwjaarfeest Den Haag 2020". Stichting Chinese Culturele Evenementen Nederland. 27 December 2019.
  189. ^ "Chinees Nieuwjaar in Amsterdam (binnenstad)". Immaterieel Erfgoed.
  190. ^ "'Chinees Nieuwjaar stelt steeds meer voor in Nederland'". NU. 31 January 2019.
  191. ^ https://hirado.hu/kultura-eletmod/cikk/2020/01/25/kitarul-a-budapesti-kinai-negyed Retrieved: 2024.02.10
  192. ^ Iqbal, Myra (15 February 2013). "Chinese New Year: Celebrating spring and all it brings". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  193. ^ "Chinese new year : Pakistan in photo show". The Express Tribune. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  194. ^ "CELEBRATING THE CHINESE NEW YEAR WITH THE PAKISTAN-CHINA INSTITUTE – – Youlin Magazine". Youlin Magazine.
  195. ^ "Chinese New Year celebrated in Islamabad". CCTV English. 15 February 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  196. ^ a b c "Relishing a different Spring Festival in Mauritius ( An Essay written by Chinese Ambassador in Mauritius)". www.mfa.gov.cn. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  197. ^ "Chinese Spring Festival in Mauritius in 2023". Office Holidays. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  198. ^ "Chinese New Year Mauritius: A cultural celebration". www.airmauritius.com. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  199. ^ a b c "Republic of Mauritius- Festivals". www.govmu.org. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  200. ^ a b c d e f g h i administrator (18 February 2021). "How is the Chinese New Year celebrated in Mauritius? | World Marks". Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  201. ^
    OCLC 795856647
    .
  202. ^ a b c Turenne, Christine (8 February 2016). "Nouvel an chinois: la force des symboles". lexpress.mu (in French). Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  203. ^ a b "A Taste of Chinese New Year in Mauritius". www.airmauritius.com. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  204. ^ Welch 1997, p. 20.
  205. ^ a b Friedman, Sophie (4 February 2019). "Top 10 things to know about Chinese New Year". nationalgeographic.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019. In Mandarin, they'll say gong xi fa cai (恭喜发财), wishing you a prosperous New Year. In Cantonese, it's gong hey fat choi. Still, if you wish someone xin nian kuai le (新年快乐), literally 'happy new year,' that's perfectly welcome, too.
  206. ^ Rabinovitz, Jonathan (29 January 1998). "Bettors Try to Ride the Tiger; Chinese Hope Good Luck Accompanies the New Year". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2019. When they arrived at Foxwoods, casino employees greeted them with 'Gung hay fat choy,' the Cantonese phrase that translates roughly as 'Happy New Year.'
  207. ^ Magida, Lenore (18 December 1994). "What's Doing in Hong Kong". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2019. In such an environment, it seems fitting that the traditional New Year's greeting is, in Cantonese, 'Kung Hei Fat Choy' – which means 'Wishing You Success and Prosperity.'
  208. ^ Welch 1997, p. 22.

Bibliography

External links