|Postal code prefixes|
33xxx, 01xxx, 80xxx, 31xxx
|Area code(s)||324, 322, 328, 326|
|GRP (nominal)||$43.14 billion (2018)|
|GRP per capita||$6,982 (2018)|
Cilicia (/sɪˈlɪʃə/)[note 1] is a geographical region in southern Anatolia in Turkey, extending inland from the northeastern coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. Cilicia has a population ranging over six million, concentrated mostly at the Cilicia plain. The region includes the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye, along with parts of Hatay and Antalya.
Cilicia extends along the Mediterranean coast east from Pamphylia to the Nur Mountains, which separates it from Syria. North and east of Cilicia lie the rugged Taurus Mountains that separate it from the high central plateau of Anatolia, which are pierced by a narrow gorge called in antiquity the Cilician Gates. Ancient Cilicia was naturally divided into Cilicia Trachea and Cilicia Pedias by the Limonlu River. Salamis, the city on the east coast of Cyprus, was included in its administrative jurisdiction. The Greeks invented for Cilicia an eponymous Hellene founder in the purely mythical Cilix, but the historic founder of the dynasty that ruled Cilicia Pedias was Mopsus, identifiable in Phoenician sources as Mpš, the founder of Mopsuestia who gave his name to an oracle nearby. Homer mentions the people of Mopsus, identified as Cilices (Κίλικες), as from the Troad in the northwestern-most part of Anatolia.
The English spelling Cilicia is the same as the Latin, as it was transliterated directly from the Greek form Κιλικία. The palatalization of c occurring in the west in later Vulgar Latin (c. 500–700) accounts for its modern pronunciation in English.
Cilicia Trachea ("rugged Cilicia"—Greek: Κιλικία Τραχεῖα; the Assyrian Hilakku, classical "Cilicia") is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbours, a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a string of havens for pirates and, in the Middle Ages, outposts for Genoese and Venetian traders. The district is watered by the Calycadnus and was covered in ancient times by forests that supplied timber to Phoenicia and Egypt. Cilicia lacked large cities.
Cilicia Pedias ("flat Cilicia"—
The climate of Cilicia shows significant differences between the mountains and the lower plains. At the lower plains, the climate reflects a typical Mediterranean; summers are hot while winters are mild, making the land, particularly, the eastern plains, fertile. In the coldest month (January), the average temperature is 9 °C, and in the warmest month (August), the average temperature is 28 °C. The mountains of Cilicia have an inland climate with snowy winters. The average annual precipitation in the region is 647mm and the average number of rainy days in a year is 76. Mersin and surrounding areas have the highest average temperature in Cilicia. Mersin also has high annual precipitation (1096mm) and 85 rainy days in a year.
The Mountains of Cilicia are formed from ancient limestones, conglomerate, marlstone, and similar materials. The Taurus Mountains are composed of karstic limestone while its soil is also limestone-derived with pockets of volcanic soil. The lower plain is the largest alluvial plain in Turkey. Expansion of limestone formations and fourth era alluvials brought by the rivers Seyhan and Ceyhan, formed the plains of the region over the course of time.
Akyatan, Akyayan, Salt Lake, Seven lakes at Aladağ, and Karstik Dipsiz lake near Karaisalı are the lakes of the region. The reservoirs in the region are Seyhan, Çatalan, Yedigöze, Kozan and Mehmetli.
The major rivers in Cilicia are Seyhan, Ceyhan, Berdan (Tarsus), Asi and Göksu.
- Seyhan River emerges from the confluence of Zamantı and Göksu rivers which originate from Kayseri Province and flows into the Gulf of Mersin. The river is 560 km long.
- Gulf of İskenderun. It is 509 km long and it forms the Akyayan, Akyatan, and Kakarat lakes before flowing into the Mediterranean.
- Berdan River originates from the Taurus Mountains and flows into the Mediterranean, south of Tarsus.
- Göksu river originates from the Taurus Mountains and flows into the Mediterranean, 16 km southeast of Silifke. It forms the delta of Göksu, including Akgöl Lake and Paradeniz Lagoon.
Neolithic to Neo-Assyrian period
Cilicia was settled from the Neolithic period onwards.[page needed] Dating of the ancient settlements of the region from Neolithic to Bronze Age is as follows: Aceramic/Neolithic: 8th and 7th millennia BC; Early Chalcolithic: 5800 BC; Middle Chalcolithic (correlated with Halaf and Ubaid developments in the east): c. 5400–4500 BC; Late Chalcolithic: 4500 – c. 3400 BC; and Early Bronze Age IA: 3400–3000 BC; EBA IB: 3000–2700 BC; EBA II: 2700–2400 BC; EBA III A-B: 2400–2000 BC.: 168–170
The area had been known as Kizzuwatna in the earlier Hittite era (2nd millennium BC). The region was divided into two parts, Uru Adaniya (flat Cilicia), a well-watered plain, and "rough" Cilicia (Tarza), in the mountainous west.
The Cilicians appear as Hilikku in Assyrian inscriptions, and in the early part of the first millennium BC was one of the four chief powers of Western Asia. Homer mentions the plain as the "Aleian plain" in which Bellerophon wandered, but he transferred the Cilicians far to the west and north and made them allies of Troy. The Cilician cities unknown to Homer already bore their pre-Greek names: Tarzu (Tarsus), Ingira (Anchiale), Danuna-Adana, which retains its ancient name, Pahri (perhaps Mopsuestia), Kundu (Kyinda, then Anazarbus) and Azatiwataya (today's Karatepe).
There exists evidence that circa 1650 BC both Hittite kings
In the next century, the Cilician king Pilliya finalized treaties with both King Zidanta II of the Hittites and Idrimi of Alalakh, in which Idrimi mentions that he had assaulted several military targets throughout Eastern Cilicia. Niqmepa, who succeeded Idrimi as king of Alalakh, went so far as to ask for help from a Hurrian rival, Shaushtatar of Mitanni, to try and reduce Cilicia's power in the region. It was soon apparent, however, that increased Hittite power would soon prove Niqmepa's efforts to be futile, as the city of Kizzuwatna soon fell to the Hittites, threatening all of Cilicia. Soon after, King Sunassura II was forced to accept vassalization under the Hittites, becoming the last king of ancient Cilicia. After the death of Mursili I, which led to a power struggle among rival claimants to the throne, eventually leading to the collapse of Hittite supremacy, Cilicia appeared to have regained its independence.
In the 13th century BC a major population shift occurred as the Sea Peoples overran Cilicia. The Hurrians that resided there deserted the area and moved northeast towards the Taurus Mountains, where they settled in the area of Cappadocia. In the 8th century BC, the region was unified under the rule of the dynasty of Mukšuš, whom the Greeks rendered Mopsos and credited as the founder of Mopsuestia, though the capital was Adana. Mopsuestia's multicultural character is reflected in the bilingual inscriptions of the ninth and eighth centuries, written both in Indo-European hieroglyphic Luwian and West Semitic Phoenician. In the ninth century BC, it became part of Assyria and remained so until the late seventh century BC.
Kingdom of Cilicia and Persian period
Before the early foundings of the kingdom, Cilicians had to protect themselves from Assyrian domination. After the dissolution of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 612 BC, they established an independent kingdom from Syria. Given the fact that Cilicia was a strategically significant location, Cilicians were able to expand their kingdom as far north as the Halys River in a short period of time. With these expansions, the Cilician Kingdom became as strong as Babylonia, one of the contemporary powerhouses.
The Syennesis dynasty emerged in Cilicia and seemed to have been based in its western part during the reign of Appuašu. The peaceful governance of the Syennesis dynasty sustained the kingdom and prevented the Achaemenid Empire from attacking Lydians after the Achaemenid invasions of Median lands. Appuašu, the son of Syennesis, defended the country against the Babylonian king Neriglissar, whose army reached Cilicia and crossed the Taurus mountain range.
The Achaemenids defeated the Lydians, and Appuašu had to recognize the authority of the Persians in 549 BC to keep the local administration with the Cilicians. Cilicia became an autonomous
Under the Persian empire, Cilicia (in
The great highway from the west existed before Cyrus conquered Cilicia. On its long rough descent from the Anatolian plateau to Tarsus, it ran through the narrow pass between walls of rock called the
Roman and Byzantine periods
Cilicia Trachea became the haunt of
It was reorganized by Julius Caesar, 47 BC, and about 27 BC became part of the province Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. At first, the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarcondimotus I, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, AD 72. Containing 47 known cities, it had been deemed important enough to be governed by a proconsul.
Under Emperor Diocletian's
Early Islamic period
In the 7th century Cilicia was invaded by the Muslim Arabs.
Armenian Cilicia and the Crusades
During the time of the
It prospered for three centuries due to the vast network of fortifications which secured all the major roads as well as the three principal harbours at Ayas, Koŕikos, and Mopsuestia. Through their complex alliances with the Crusader states, the Armenian barons and kings often invited Crusaders to maintain castles in and along the borders of the Kingdom, including Bagras, Trapessac, T‛il Hamtun, Harunia, Selefkia, Amouda, and Sarvandikar.
The Ilkhanate lost cohesion after the death of Abu Sa'id (r. 1316–1335), and thus could not support the Armenian Kingdom in guarding Cilicia. Internal conflicts within the Armenian Kingdom and the devastation caused by the Black Death that arrived in 1348, led nomadic Türkmens to turn their eyes towards unstable Cilicia. In 1352, Ramazan Beg led Turkmens settled south of Çaldağı and founded their first settlement, Camili. Later that year, Ramazan Beg visited Cairo and was licensed by the Sultan to establish the new frontier Turkmen Emirate in Cilicia.
Mamluk and Turkmen rule
In 1359, Mamluk Sultanate Army marched into Cilicia and took over Adana and Tarsus, two major cities of the plain, leaving few castles to Armenians. In 1375, Mamluks gained the control of the remaining areas of Cilicia, thus ending the three centuries rule of Armenians. Cilicia Pedias became part of the Mamluk Sultanate in 1375.
In 1516, Selim I incorporated the beylik into the Ottoman Empire after his conquest of the Mamluk state. The beys of Ramadanids held the administration of the Ottoman sanjak of Adana in a hereditary manner until 1608, with the last 92 years as a vassal of the Ottomans.
A thriving regional economy, the doubling of Cilician Armenian population due to flee from
Cilicia section of the Berlin–Baghdad railway were opened in 1912, connecting the region to Middle East. Over the course of Armenian genocide, Ottoman telegraph was received by the Governor to deport the more than 70,000 Armenians of the Adana Vilayet to Syria. Armenians of Zeitun had organized a successful resistance against the Ottoman onslaught. In order to finally subjugate Zeitun, the Ottomans had to resort to treachery by forcing an Armenian delegation from Marash to ask the Zeituntsis to put down their arms. Both the Armenian delegation, and later, the inhabitants of Zeitun, were left with no choice.
Armistice of Mudros that was signed on 30 October 1918 to end the World War I, ceded the control of Cilicia to France. French Government sent four battalions of the Armenian Legion in December to take over and oversee the repatriation of more than 170,000 Armenians to Cilicia.
On May 4, 1920 Armenian people declared the independence of Cilicia under the French mandate.
The French forces were spread too thinly in the region and, as they came under withering attacks by Muslim elements both opposed and
With the changing political environment and interests, the French further reversed their policy: The repatriation was halted, and the French ultimately abandoned all pretensions to Cilicia, which they had originally hoped to attach to their
Republic of Turkey
The region become part of the Republic of Turkey in 1921 with the signing of the Treaty of Ankara. On 15 April 1923, just before the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the Turkish government enacted the "Law of Abandoned Properties" which confiscated properties of Armenians and Greeks who were not present on their property. Cilicia were one of the regions with the most confiscated property, thus muhacirs (en: immigrants) from Balkans and Crete were relocated in the old Armenian and Greek neighbourhoods and villages of the region. All types of properties, lands, houses and workshops were distributed to them. Also during this period, there was a property rush of Muslims from Kayseri and Darende to Cilicia who were granted the ownership of large farms, factories, stores and mansions. Within a decade, Cilicia had a sharp change demographically, socially and economically and lost its diversity by turning into solely Muslim/Turkish.
The modern Cilicia is split into four administrative provinces: Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay. Each province is governed by the Central Government in Ankara through an appointed Provincial governor. Provinces are then divided into districts governed by the District Governors who are under the provincial governors.
|Province||Seat||Area (km2)||Districts (West to East)||Population||Map|
|Adana||Adana||14,030||Seyhan, Çukurova, Yüreğir, Sarıçam, Pozantı, Karaisalı, Karataş, Yumurtalık (Ayas), Ceyhan, İmamoğlu, Aladağ (Karsantı), Kozan(Sis), Feke (Vahka), Saimbeyli (Hadjin), Tufanbeyli||2,263,373|
|Osmaniye||Osmaniye||3,767||Sumbas, Kadirli, Toprakkale, Düziçi, Osmaniye, Hasanbeyli, Bahçe||553,012|
Cilicia is heavily populated due to its abundant resources, climate and plain geography. The population of Cilicia as of December 31, 2021 is 6,378,242.
Hatay is the most rural province of Cilicia and also Hatay is the only province that the rural population is rising and the urban population is declining. The major reason is the mountainous geography of Hatay.
Significant Christian communities (Antiochian Greek Christians and Armenians) found in Adana, İskenderun, and Mersin.
Adana Province is the most urbanized province, with most of the population centred in the city of Adana. Mersin Province has a larger rural population than Adana Province, owing to its long and narrow stretch of flat land in between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean.
Largest populated areas in Cilicia
2021 data from Turkish Statistical Institute
Cilicia is well known for the vast fertile land and highly productive agriculture. The region is also industrialized;
The Cilicia plain has some of the most fertile soil in the world in which 3 harvests can be taken each year. The region has the second richest flora in the world and it is the producer of all agricultural products of Turkey except hazelnut and tobacco. Cilicia leads Turkey in soy, peanuts and corn harvest and is a major producer of fruits and vegetables. Half of Turkey's citrus export is from Cilicia. Anamur is the only sub-tropical area of Turkey where bananas, mango, kiwi and other sub-tropical produce can be harvested.
Cilicia is the second largest honey producer in Turkey after the Muğla–Aydın region. Samandağ, Yumurtalık, Karataş and Bozyazı are some of the towns in the region where fishing is the major source of income. Gray mullet, red mullet, sea bass, lagos, calamari and gilt-head bream are some of the most popular fish in the region. There are aquaculture farms in Akyatan, Akyağan, Yumurtalık lakes and at Seyhan Reservoir. While not as common as other forms of agriculture, dairy and livestock are also produced throughout the region.
- Zinc and lead: Kozan-Horzum seam is the major source.
- Baryte resources are around Mersin and Adana.
- Iron is found around Feke and Saimbeyli.
- Asbestos mines are mostly in Hatay Province.
- Limestone reserves are very rich in Cilicia. The region is home to four lime manufacturing plants.
- Pumice resources are the richest in Turkey. 14% of country's reserves are in Cilicia.
Cilicia is one of the first industrialized regions of Turkey. With the improvements in agriculture and the spike of agricultural yield, agriculture-based industries are built in large numbers. Today, the manufacturing industry is mainly concentrated around Tarsus, Adana and Ceyhan. Textile, leather tanning and food processing plants are plentiful. İsdemir is a large steel plant located in İskenderun.
The petrochemical industry is rapidly developing in the region with the investments around the Ceyhan Oil Terminal. Petroleum refineries are being built in the area. Ceyhan is also expected to host the shipbuilding industry.
Adana is the commercial centre of the region where many of the public and private institutions have their regional offices. Mersin and Antakya are also home to regional offices of public institutions. Many industry fairs and congresses are held in the region at venues such as the TÜYAP Congress and Exhibition Centre in Adana and the Mersin Congress Centre.
Mersin Seaport is the third largest seaport in Turkey, after Istanbul and İzmir. There are 45 piers in the port. The total area of the port is 785 square kilometres (194,000 acres), and the capacity is 6,000 ships per year.
İskenderun Seaport is used mostly for transfers to Middle East and Southeastern Turkey.
Ceyhan Oil Terminal is a marine transport terminal for the
Dörtyol Oil Terminal is a marine transport terminal for Batman-Dörtyol oil pipeline which started operating in 1967 to market Batman oil. The pipeline is 511 km long and has an annual capacity of 3.5 million tons.
While the region has a long coastline, international tourism is not at the level of the neighbouring Antalya Province. There are a small number of hotels between Erdemli and Anamur that attracts tourists. Cilicia tourism is mostly cottage tourism serving the Cilicia locals as well as residents of Kayseri, Gaziantep and surrounding areas. Between Silifke and Mersin, high-rise and low-rise cottages line the coast, leaving almost no vacant land. The coastline from Mersin to Karataş is mostly farmland. This area is zoned for resort tourism and is expected to have a rapid development within the next 20 years. Karataş and Yumurtalık coasts are home to cottages with a bird conservatory between the two areas. Arsuz is a seaside resort that is mostly frequented by Antakya and İskenderun residents.
Plateaus on the Taurus mountains are cooler escapes for the locals who wants to chill out from hot and humid summers of the lower plains. Gözne and Çamlıyayla (Namrun) in Mersin Province, Tekir, Bürücek and Kızıldağ in Adana Province, Zorkun in Osmaniye Province and Soğukoluk in Hatay Province are the popular high plain resorts of Cilicia which are often crowded in summer. There are a few hotels and camping sites in the Tekir plateau.
The region is a popular destination for
Lying at a crossroads of three major religions, namely
Places of interest
Kizkalesi (Maiden Castle), a fort on a small island across Kızkalesi township, was built during the early 12th century by Armenian kings of the Rubeniyan dynasty to defend the city of Korykos (prent-day Kızkalesi).
Heaven & Hell, situated on a large hill north of Narlıkuyu, consists of the
The ancient Roman town of
Yılanlı Kale (Castle of Serpents), an 11th-century Crusader castle built on a historical road connecting the Taurus mountains with the city of Antakya. The castle has 8 round towers, a military guardhouse and a church. It is located 5 km. west of Ceyhan.
Anazarbus Castle, built in the 3rd century, served as the centre of the ancient metropolis of Anavarza. The city was built on a hill and had strategic importance, controlling the Cilician plain. The main castle and the city walls represent remains of the city. The city wall is 1500m. long and 8-10m. high, with 4 entrances to the city. The castle is located 80 km. northeast of Adana.
Şar (Comona), an ancient city located in northernmost Cilicia, some 200 km. north of
The Church of St. Peter in Antakya was a cave on the slopes of Habibi Neccar mountain converted into a church. The church is known as the first Christians' traditional meeting place. Pope Paul VI declared the church a "Place of Pilgrimage" for Christians in 1963, and since then a special ceremony takes place on 29 June each year.
St. Simeon Monastery, a 6th-century giant structure built on a desolate hill 18 km south of Antakya. The most striking features of this monastery are its cisterns, its storage compartment, and the walls. It is believed that St. Simeon resided here atop a 20-meter stone column for 45 years.
Parks and conservation areas
Akyatan Lagoon is a large wildlife refuge which acts as a stopover for migratory birds voyaging from Africa to Europe. The wildlife refuge has a 14,700 ha (36,000-acre) area made up of forests, lagoon, marsh, sandy and reedy lands. Akyatan lake is a natural wonder with endemic plants and endangered bird species living in it together with other species of plants and animals. 250 species of birds are observed during a study in 1990. The conservation area is located 30 km south of Adana, near Tuzla.
Yumurtalık Nature Reserve covers an area of 16,430 hectares within the Seyhan-Ceyhan delta, with its lakes, lagoons and wide collection of plant and animal species. The area is an important location for many species of migrating birds, the number gets higher during the winters when the lakes become a shelter when other lakes further north freeze.
Aladağlar National Park, located north of Adana, is a huge park of around 55,000 hectares, the summit of Demirkazik at 3756 m is the highest point in the middle Taurus mountain range. There is a huge range of flora and fauna, and visitors may fish in the streams full of trout. Wildlife includes wild goats, bears, lynx and sable. The most common species of plant life is black pine and cluster pine trees, with some cedar dotted between, and fir trees in the northern areas with higher humidity. The Alpine region, from the upper borders of the forest, has pastures with rocky areas and little variety of plant life because of the high altitude and slope.
Karatepe-Aslantaş National Park located on the west bank of Ceyhan River in Osmaniye Province. The park includes the Karatepe Hittite fortress and an open-air museum.
Tekköz-Kengerlidüz Nature Reserve, located 30 km north of Dörtyol, is known for having an ecosystem different from the Mediterranean. The main species of trees around Kengerliduz are beech, oak and fir, and around Tekkoz are hornbeam, ash, beach, black pine and silver birch. The main animal species in the area are wild goat, roe deer, bear, hyena, wild cat, wagtail, wolf, jackal and fox.
Habibi Neccar Dağı Nature Reserve is famous for its cultural as well as natural value, especially for St Pierre Church, which was carved into the rocks. The Charon monument, 200 m north of the church, is huge sculpture of Haron, known as Boatman of Hell in mythology, carved into the rocks. The main species of tree are cluster pine, oaks and sandalwood. The mountain is also home to foxes, rabbits, partridges and stock doves. Nature reserve is 10 km east of Antakya and can be accessible by public transport.
There are numerous private primary and high schools besides the state schools in the region. Most popular high school in the region is Tarsus American College, founded as a missionary school in 1888 to serve Armenian community and then became a secular school in 1923. Adana Anatolian High School and Adana Science High School most important high schools in the Cilicia. In other cities, Anatolian High School and School for Science are the most popular high schools of the city.
The region is home to five state and two foundation universities.
Çukurova University is a state university founded in 1973 with the union of the faculties of Agriculture and Medicine.. Main campus is in the city of Adana, and the College of Tourism Administration is in Karataş. There is an engineering faculty in Ceyhan, and vocational schools in Kozan, Karaisalı, Pozantı and Yumurtalık. The university is one of the well-developed universities of Turkey with many cultural, social and athletic facilities, currently enrolls 40,000 students.
Mersin University is a state university founded in 1992, and currently serving with 11 faculties, 6 colleges and 9 vocational schools. The university employs more than 2100 academicians and enrolls 26,980 students. Main campus is in the city of Mersin. In Tarsus, there is Faculty of Technical Education and Applied Technology and Management College. In Silifke and Erdemli, university has colleges and vocational schools. There are also vocational schools in Anamur, Aydıncık, Gülnar, and Mut.
Korkut Ata University was founded in 2007 as a state university with the union of colleges and vocational schools in Osmaniye Province and began enrollment in 2009. The university has 3 faculties and a vocational school at the main campus in the city of Osmaniye and vocational schools in Kadirli, Bahçe, Düziçi and Erzin. University employs 107 academicians and enrolled 4000 students in 2009.
Çağ University is a not-for-profit tuition based university founded in 1997. It is located on midway from Adana to Tarsus. University holds around 2500 students, most of them commuting from Adana, Tarsus and Mersin.
Toros University is a not-for-profit tuition based university located in Mersin. The university started enrolling students in 2010.
|Hatayspor||Football (men)||Süper Lig||New Hatay Stadium (25000)||1967|
|Adana Demirspor||Football (men)||Süper Lig||New Adana Stadium (33,543)||1940|
|Adanaspor||Football (men)||TFF First League||New Adana Stadium (33,543)||1954|
|Tarsus İdman Yurdu||Football (men)||TFF Second League||Burhanettin Kocamaz (6000)||1923|
|İskenderun FK||Football (men)||TFF Second League||5 Temmuz (8217)||1978|
Payas Belediyespor 1975
|Football (men)||TFF Third League||5 Temmuz (8217)||1975|
|Kırıkhanspor||Football (men)||TFF Third League||Kırıkhan Şehir (6500)||1938|
|Yeni Mersin İdman Yurdu||Football (men)||TFF Third League||Mersin Arena (25000)||2019|
|Adana Demirspor Women's Football||Football (women)||
First Football League
|Gençlik Stadium (2000)||1993|
|Women's Super League||Edip Buran Arena (1750)||1993|
|Women's Super League||Antakya Sport Hall (2500)||2009|
|Adana Basketbol Kulubü||
|Women's Super League||Adana Atatürk Sports Hall (2000)||2000|
|Mersin Basketbol Kulübü||
|Women's Super League||Edip Buran Arena (1750)|
|Tosyalı Toyo Osmaniye||
|Women's Super League||Tosyalı Sports Hall||2000|
Cilicia has a well-developed transportation system with two airports, two major seaports, motorways and railway lines on the historical route connecting Europe to Middle East.
Cilicia is served by two airports. Adana Şakirpaşa Airport is an international airport that have flights to European destinations. There are daily domestic flights to Istanbul, Ankara, İzmir, Antalya and Trabzon. Adana Şakirpaşa Airport serves the provinces of Mersin, Adana and Osmaniye.
Hatay Airport, opened in 2007, is a domestic airport, and currently has flights to Istanbul, Ankara and Nicosia, TRNC. Hatay Airport mostly serves Hatay Province.
Another under construction airport is Çukurova Regional Airport, According to the newspaper Hürriyet, the project's cost will be 357 million Euro. When finished, it will serve to 15 million people, and the capacity will be doubled in the future.
There are daily seabus and vehicle-passenger ferry services from Taşucu to Kyrenia, Northern Cyprus. From Mersin port, there are ferry services to Famagusta.
Parallel to the highway network in Cilicia, there is an extensive railway network. Adana-Mersin train runs as a commuter train between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. There are also regional trains from Adana to Ceyhan, Osmaniye and İskenderun.
Cilicia was one of the most important regions for the
In Prometheus Bound (v 353), Aeschylus mentions the Cilician caves (probably Cennet and Cehennem), where the earth-born, hundred-headed monster Typhon dwelt before he withstood the gods and was stricken and charred by Zeus's thunderbolt.
- ^ "2019 Population of Cilicia". Nufusune. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
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- Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the originalon 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
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- ^ a b Rife, Joseph L. (2002) "Officials of the Roman Provinces in Xenophon's "Ephesiaca"" Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 138: pp. 93–108 , page 96
- ^ See also the history of Side (Σίδη).
- ^ Wainwright, G. A. (April 1956) "Caphtor - Cappadocia" Vetus Testamentum 6(2): pp. 199–210, pages 205–206
- ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 1.2.22, noted the sesame and millet.
- ^ Remarked by Robin Lane Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:73 and following pages
- ^ The modern plain has added cotton fields and orange groves.
- ^ 1 Kings 10:28, noted by Fox 2008:75 note 15.
- ^ ISBN 978-90-04-41741-0.
- ^ Mitchell, S. Augustus (1860). An Ancient Geography, Classical and Sacred. Philadelphia, PA: E.H. Butler & Co. p. 36.
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- ^ Akpinar, Ezgi (September 2004). "The Natural Landscape - Hydrology" (PDF). Hellenistic & Roman Settlement Patterns in the Plain of Issus & the Amanus Range (Master of Arts Thesis). Ankara: Bilkent University. p. 12. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- ^ a b Mellink, M.J. 1991. Anatolian Contacts with Chalcolithic Cyprus.
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- ^ Iliad 6.201.
- ^ Fox 2008:75 notes these city names.
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- ^ Hallo, p. 112.
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- ^ For a full list of ancient cities and their coins see asiaminorcoins.com - ancient coins of Cilicia Archived 2013-10-31 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ WRIGHT, N.L. 2012: "The house of Tarkondimotos: a late Hellenistic dynasty between Rome and the East." Anatolian Studies 62: 69-88.
- ISBN 0-19-510233-9. See page 90.
- ISBN 0-674-51173-5.
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- ^ Peter Jackson, Mongols and the West, p. 74. "King Het'um of Lesser Armenia, who had reflected profoundly upon the deliverance afforded by the Mongols from his neighbors and enemies in Rum, sent his brother, the Constable Smbat (Sempad) to Guyug's court to offer his submission."
- ^ Angus Donal Stewart, "Logic of Conquest", p. 8. "The Armenian king saw an alliance with the Mongols – or, more accurately, swift and peaceful subjection to them – as the best course of action."
- ISBN 978-9004101807.
- ^ "106. yıldönümünde Adana Katliamı'nın ardındaki gerçekler". Agos Gazetesi. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- ^ Yeghiayan, Puzant (1970), Ատանայի Հայոց Պատմութիւն [The History of the Armenians of Adana] (in Armenian), Beirut: Union of Armenian Compatriots of Adana, pp. 211–272
- ^ See Raymond H. Kévorkian, "The Cilician Massacres, April 1909" in Armenian Cilicia, eds. Richard G. Hovannisian and Simon Payaslian. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 7. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2008, pp. 351–353.
- ^ "Adana araştırması ve saha çalışması". Hrant Dink Foundation. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- ISBN 0-88738-823-X.
- ^ Moumjian, Garabet K. "Cilicia Under French Administration: Armenian Aspirations, Turkish Resistance, and French Stratagems" in Armenian Cilicia, pp. 457–489.
- ^ "Cilicia in the years 1918–1923". Zum.de. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- ^ "Ermeni Kültür Varlıklarıyla Adana" (PDF). HDV Yayınları. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- ^ "2019 Population of Cilicia". Nufusune. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ISBN 9780748686131.
- ^ "District Populations of Adana,Mersin,Hatay and Osmaniye". tuik.gov.tr. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
- ^ "Türkiye'de Arıcılık". Assale. Archived from the original on April 8, 2022. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- ^ "İskenderun Port Authority". Republic of Turkey Privatization Administration. Archived from the original on 2016-12-27. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Batman-Dörtyol Petrol Boru Hattı (Turkish)". BOTAŞ. Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Hatay Hamamat Kaplıcası (Turkish)". Kaplıca ve Termal Turizm. Archived from the original on 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Haruniye Kaplıcaları (Turkish)". Kaplıca ve Termal Turizm. Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Hatay". Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on 2014-10-23. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "The mixture of Roman, Greek, and Jewish elements admirably adapted Antioch for the great part it played in the early history of Christianity. The city was the cradle of the church." — "Antioch," Encyclopaedia Biblica, Vol. I, p. 186 (p. 125 of 612 in online .pdf file. Warning: Takes several minutes to download).
- ^ "Acts of the Apostles 11:26".
- ^ Clyde E. Fant, Mitchell Glenn Reddish, A guide to biblical sites in Greece and Turkey Archived 2022-10-30 at the Wayback Machine (Oxford University Press US, 2003), pg. 149
- ^ "Heaven & Hell". ÇUKTOB. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
Heaven & Hell consists of the grabens result from assoil of furrings in the thousands of years. Natural fenomen of this grabens is called as Heaven & Hell because of the exotic effects on people.You can go Heaven hole from an ancient path which has 452 steps and you can reach 260 meter long mythological giant Typhon cave.
- ^ "Yılanlı Kale". ÇUKTOB. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Adana Governorship (Turkish)".
- ^ "Akyatan Bird Sanctuary". Çukurova Touristic Hoteliers Association. Archived from the original on 2011-10-09. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Yumurtalık Nature Reserve". Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Aladağlar National Park". Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Tekkoz-Kengerlidüz Nature Reserve". Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Habibi Neccar Dagi Nature Reserve". Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "ÇÜ'de Öğrenci Kayıtları (Turkish)". Haber FX. Archived from the original on 2012-08-02.
- ^ "Student Statistics". Mersin University. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "University History (Turkish)". Mustafa Kemal University. Archived from the original on 2018-10-28. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Information about University". Korkut Ata University. Archived from the original on 2010-01-23. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ^ "Adana'ya bilim üniversitesi(Turkish)". Radikal. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
- ^ "Çağ University (Turkish)". Archived from the original on 2009-06-21.
- ^ "Toros Üniversitesi'ne rektör atandı. (Turkish)". Mersin Ajans. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
- ISBN 1-4039-6421-1.
- ISBN 978-3-938402-15-3.
- Rutishauser, Susanne. 2020. Siedlungskammer Kilikien. Studien zur Kultur- und Landschaftsgeschichte des Ebenen Kilikien. Schriften zur Vorderasiatischen Archäologie Bd. 16. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden. ISBN 978-3-447-11397-7.
- Pilhofer, Philipp. 2018. Das frühe Christentum im kilikisch-isaurischen Bergland. Die Christen der Kalykadnos-Region in den ersten fünf Jahrhunderten (PDF; 27,4 MB) (Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, vol. 184). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter (ISBN 978-3-11-057381-7).
- Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 282/283, Symposium: Chalcolithic Cyprus. pp. 167–175.
- Engels, David. 2008. "Cicéron comme proconsul en Cilicie et la guerre contre les Parthes", Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire 86, pp. 23–45.
- Pilhofer, Susanne. 2006. Romanisierung in Kilikien? Das Zeugnis der Inschriften (Quellen und Forschungen zur Antiken Welt 46). Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag (ISBN 978-3-8316-7184-7)
- Ancient Cilicia - texts, photographs, maps, inscriptions
- Jona Lendering, "Ancient Cilicia" Archived 2014-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
- Photographs and Plans of the Churches and Fortifications in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
- Pilgrimages to Historic Armenia and Cilicia
- WorldStatesmen- Turkey
- Armenian Genocide Map's - Map of Kilikia (1909)