Cinema of the United States

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cinema of the United States
Hollywood Sign (Zuschnitt).jpg
The Hollywood Sign in the Hollywood Hills, often regarded as the symbol of the American film industry
No. of screens40,393 (2017)[1]
 • Per capita14 per 100,000 (2017)[1]
Main distributors
Produced feature films (2016)[2]
Fictional646 (98.5%)
Animated10 (1.5%)
Number of admissions (2017)[4]
 • Per capita3.9 (2010)[3]
Gross box office (2017)[4]
Total$11.1 billion

The cinema of the United States, consisting mainly of major film studios (also known metonymously as Hollywood) along with some independent films, has had a large effect on the global film industry since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1910 to 1969 and is still typical of most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema,[5] American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the emerging industry. As of 2017, it produced the third-largest number of films of any national cinema, after India and China, with more than 600 English-language films released on average every year.[6] While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand also produce films in the same language, they are not part of the Hollywood system. Because of this, Hollywood has also been considered a transnational cinema,[7] and has produced multiple language versions of some titles, often in Spanish or French. Contemporary Hollywood often outsources production to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Hollywood is considered to be the oldest film industry, in the sense of being the place where the earliest film studios and production companies emerged. It is the birthplace of various genres of cinema—among them comedy, drama, action, the musical, romance, horror, science fiction, and the war epic—and has set the example for other national film industries.

In 1878,

D.W. Griffith was central to the development of a film grammar. Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941) is frequently cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time.[9]


most commercially successful and most ticket selling movies in the world.[10][11] Many of Hollywood's highest-grossing movies have generated more box-office revenue and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere. The United States is a leading pioneer in motion picture engineering and technology


1894–1907: Origins and Fort Lee

The first recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was

a series of photographs of a running horse by Eadweard Muybridge, which he took in Palo Alto, California, using a set of still cameras placed in a row. Muybridge's accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope.[citation needed

Harold Lloyd in the clock scene from Safety Last!

The history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the

Hudson Palisades offered land at costs considerably less than New York City across the river and benefited greatly as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century.[12]

The industry began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce. In 1907, when the

Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee. Such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios.[16][17][18]

In New York, the

W.C. Fields. The Edison Studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan, was also frequently used. Other Eastern cities, most notably Chicago and Cleveland, also served as early centers for film production.[19][20] In the West, California was already quickly emerging as a major film production center. In Colorado, Denver was home to the Art-O-Graf film company, and Walt Disney's early Laugh-O-Gram animation studio was based in Kansas City, Missouri. Picture City, Florida, was a planned site for a movie picture production center in the 1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and Picture City returned to its original name of Hobe Sound. An attempt to establish a film production center in Detroit also proved unsuccessful.[21]

The film patents wars of the early 20th century helped facilitate the spread of film companies to other parts of the US, outside New York. Many filmmakers worked with equipment for which they did not own the rights to use. Therefore, filming in New York could be dangerous as it was close to Edison's company headquarters, and close to the agents who the company set out to seize cameras. By 1912, most major film companies had set up production facilities in Southern California near or in Los Angeles because of the region's favorable year-round weather.[22]

1907–1927: Rise of Hollywood

The 1908 Selig Polyscope Company production of The Count of Monte Cristo directed by Francis Boggs and starring Hobart Bosworth was claimed as the first to have been filmed in Los Angeles, in 1907, with a plaque being unveiled by the city in 1957 at Dearden's flagship store on the corner of Main Street and 7th Street, to mark the filming on the site when it had been a Chinese laundry.[23] Bosworth's widow suggested the city had got the date and location wrong, and that the film was actually shot in nearby Venice, which at the time was an independent city.[24] Boggs' In the Sultan's Power for Selig Polyscope, also starring Bosworth, is considered the first film shot entirely in Los Angeles, with shooting at 7th and Olive Streets in 1909.[25][24]

In early 1910, director

Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in the Hollywood neighborhood in 1911.[dubious ] Nestor Studios, owned by David and William Horsley, later merged with Universal Studios; and William Horsley's other company, Hollywood Film Laboratory, is now the oldest existing company in Hollywood, now called the Hollywood Digital Laboratory. California's more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the eventual shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s. At the time, Thomas Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and movie producers on the East Coast acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents while movie makers working on the West Coast could work independently of Edison's control.[28]

In Los Angeles, the

1918 flu epidemic by Los Angeles[30] compared to other American cities reduced the number of cases there and resulted in a faster recovery, contributing to the increasing dominance of Hollywood over New York City.[29] During the pandemic, public health officials temporarily closed movie theaters in some jurisdictions, large studios suspended production for weeks at a time, and some actors came down with the flu. This caused major financial losses and severe difficulties for small studios, but the industry as a whole more than recovered during the Roaring Twenties.[31]

There are several starting points for cinema (particularly American cinema), but it was Griffith's controversial 1915 epic The Birth of a Nation that pioneered the worldwide filming vocabulary that still dominates celluloid to this day.[citation needed]

In the early 20th century, when the medium was new, many Jewish immigrants found employment in the US film industry. They were able to make their mark in a brand-new business: the exhibition of short films in storefront theaters called


Other moviemakers arrived from Europe after World War I: directors like Ernst Lubitsch, Alfred Hitchcock, Fritz Lang and Jean Renoir; and actors like Rudolph Valentino, Marlene Dietrich, Ronald Colman, and Charles Boyer. They joined a homegrown supply of actors—lured west from the New York City stage after the introduction of sound films—to form one of the 20th century's most remarkable growth industries. At motion pictures' height of popularity in the mid-1940s, the studios were cranking out a total of about 400 movies a year, seen by an audience of 90 million Americans per week.[32]

Sound also became widely used in Hollywood in the late 1920s.[33] After The Jazz Singer, the first film with synchronized voices was successfully released as a Vitaphone talkie in 1927, Hollywood film companies would respond to Warner Bros. and begin to use Vitaphone sound—which Warner Bros. owned until 1928—in future films. By May 1928, Electrical Research Product Incorporated (ERPI), a subsidiary of the Western Electric company, gained a monopoly over film sound distribution.[32]

A side effect of the "talkies" was that many actors who had made their careers in silent films suddenly found themselves out of work, as they often had bad voices or could not remember their lines. Meanwhile, in 1922, US politician

Motion Picture Association of America
after Hays retired in 1945.

In the early times of

which?] opened a studio in Joinville-le-Pont, France, where the same sets and wardrobe and even mass scenes were used for different time-sharing

Also, foreign unemployed actors, playwrights, and winners of photogenia contests were chosen and brought to Hollywood, where they shot parallel versions of the English-language films. These parallel versions had a lower budget, were shot at night and were directed by second-line American directors who did not speak the foreign language. The Spanish-language crews included people like Luis Buñuel, Enrique Jardiel Poncela, Xavier Cugat, and Edgar Neville. The productions were not very successful in their intended markets, due to the following reasons:

  • The lower budgets were apparent.
  • Many theater actors had no previous experience in cinema.
  • The original movies were often second-rate themselves since studios expected that the top productions would sell by themselves.
  • The mix of foreign accents (Castilian, Mexican, and Chilean for example in the Spanish case) was odd for the audiences.
  • Some markets lacked sound-equipped theaters.

In spite of this, some productions like the Spanish version of Dracula compare favorably with the original. By the mid-1930s, synchronization had advanced enough for dubbing to become usual.

1913–1969: Classical Hollywood cinema and the Golden Age of Hollywood

Classical Hollywood cinema, or the Golden Age of Hollywood, is defined as a technical and narrative style characteristic of American cinema from 1913 to 1969, during which thousands of movies were issued from the Hollywood studios. The Classical style began to emerge in 1913, was accelerated in 1917 after the U.S. entered World War I, and finally solidified when the film The Jazz Singer was released in 1927, ending the silent film era and increasing box-office profits for film industry by introducing sound to feature films.

Most Hollywood pictures adhered closely to a formula –

20th Century Fox

At the same time, one could usually guess which studio made which film, largely because of the actors who appeared in it; MGM, for example, claimed it had contracted "more stars than there are in heaven." Each studio had its own style and characteristic touches which made it possible to know this – a trait that rarely exist today.

For example, To Have and Have Not (1944) is notable not only for the first pairing of actors Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957) and Lauren Bacall (1924–2014), but because it was written by two future winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature: Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961), the author of the novel on which the script was nominally based, and William Faulkner (1897–1962), who worked on the screen adaptation.


Loews theaters owned MGM since forming in 1924, while the Fox Film Corporation owned the Fox Theatre. RKO (a 1928 merger between Keith-Orpheum Theaters and the Radio Corporation of America[35]) also responded to the Western Electric/ERPI monopoly over sound in films, and developed their own method, known as Photophone, to put sound in films.[32]

Paramount, which acquired Balaban and Katz in 1926, would answer to the success of Warner Bros. and RKO, and buy a number of theaters in the late 1920s as well, and would hold a monopoly on theaters in

1927–1948: Rise and decline of the studio system

Motion picture companies operated under the

Movie Ranches in rural Southern California for location shooting of westerns
and other large-scale genre films, and the major studios owned hundreds of theaters in cities and towns across the nation in 1920 film theaters that showed their films and that were always in need of fresh material.

Spencer Tracy was the first actor to win Best Actor award over two consecutive years for his roles in Captains Courageous (1937) and Boys Town
(1938) (and received seven other nominations).

In 1930, MPPDA President Will Hays created the Hays (Production) Code, which followed censorship guidelines and went into effect after government threats of censorship expanded by 1930.[38] However, the code was never enforced until 1934, after the Catholic watchdog organization The Legion of Decency—appalled by some of the provocative films and lurid advertising of the era later classified Pre-Code Hollywood- threatened a boycott of motion pictures if it did not go into effect.[39] The films that did not obtain a seal of approval from the Production Code Administration had to pay a $25,000 fine and could not profit in the theaters, as the MPPDA controlled every theater in the country through the Big Five studios.

Throughout the 1930s, as well as most of the golden age, MGM dominated the film screen and had the top stars in Hollywood, and they were also credited for creating the Hollywood star system altogether.[40] Some MGM stars included "King of Hollywood" Clark Gable, Lionel Barrymore, Jean Harlow, Norma Shearer, Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Jeanette MacDonald, Gene Raymond, Spencer Tracy, Judy Garland, and Gene Kelly.[40] But MGM did not stand alone.

Another great achievement of US cinema during this era came through Walt Disney's animation company. In 1937, Disney created the most successful film of its time, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.[41] This distinction was promptly topped in 1939 when Selznick International created what is still, when adjusted for inflation, the most successful film of all time in Gone with the Wind.[42]

Many film historians have remarked upon the many great works of cinema that emerged from this period of highly regimented filmmaking. One reason this was possible is that, with so many movies being made, not every one had to be a big hit. A studio could gamble on a medium-budget feature with a good script and relatively unknown actors:

greatest film of all time, fits this description. In other cases, strong-willed directors like Howard Hawks (1896–1977), Alfred Hitchcock (1899–1980), and Frank Capra
(1897–1991) battled the studios in order to achieve their artistic visions.

The apogee of the studio system may have been the year 1939, which saw the release of such classics as The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, Stagecoach, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Wuthering Heights, Only Angels Have Wings, Ninotchka and Midnight. Among the other films from the Golden Age period that are now considered to be classics: Casablanca, It's a Wonderful Life, It Happened One Night, the original King Kong, Mutiny on the Bounty, Top Hat, City Lights, Red River, The Lady from Shanghai, Rear Window, On the Waterfront, Rebel Without a Cause, Some Like It Hot, and The Manchurian Candidate.

Walt Disney introduces each of the seven dwarfs in a scene from the original 1937 Snow White
movie trailer.

The studio system and the Golden Age of Hollywood succumbed to two forces that developed in the late 1940s:

In 1938, Walt Disney's

block-booking, in which studios would only sell an entire year's schedule of films at a time to theaters and use the lock-in
to cover for releases of mediocre quality.

Assistant Attorney General

Fox, RKO and Paramount) reaching a compromise with Arnold in October 1940 and signing a consent decree
agreeing to, within three years:

The "Little Three" (

Universal Studios, United Artists, and Columbia Pictures), who did not own any theaters, refused to participate in the consent decree.[44][45] A number of independent film producers were also unhappy with the compromise and formed a union known as the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers and sued Paramount for the monopoly they still had over the Detroit Theaters—as Paramount was also gaining dominance through actors like Bob Hope, Paulette Goddard, Veronica Lake, Betty Hutton, crooner Bing Crosby, Alan Ladd, and longtime actor for studio Gary Cooper too- by 1942. The Big Five studios did not meet the requirements of the Consent of Decree during WWII, without major consequence, but after the war ended they joined Paramount as defendants in the Hollywood antitrust case, as did the Little Three studios.[46]

The Supreme Court eventually ruled that the major studios ownership of theaters and film distribution was a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. As a result, the studios began to release actors and technical staff from their contracts with the studios. This changed the paradigm of film making by the major Hollywood studios, as each could have an entirely different cast and creative team.

The decision resulted in the gradual loss of the characteristics which made Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Universal Studios, Columbia Pictures, RKO Pictures, and 20th Century Fox films immediately identifiable. Certain movie people, such as Cecil B. DeMille, either remained contract artists until the end of their careers or used the same creative teams on their films so that a DeMille film still looked like one whether it was made in 1932 or 1956.

Also, the number of movies being produced annually dropped as the average budget soared, marking a major change in strategy for the industry. Studios now aimed to produce entertainment that could not be offered by television: spectacular, larger-than-life productions. Studios also began to sell portions of their theatrical film libraries to other companies to sell to television. By 1949, all major film studios had given up ownership of their theaters.

This was complemented with the 1952

Motion Picture Association of America
(MPAA) had replaced the Hays Code–which was now greatly violated after the government threat of censorship that justified the origin of the code had ended—with the film rating system.

1965–1983: New Hollywood and post-classical cinema

Director and producer Steven Spielberg, co-founder of DreamWorks Studios

Post-classical cinema is the changing methods of storytelling in the New Hollywood. It has been argued that new approaches to drama and characterization played upon audience expectations acquired in the classical period: chronology may be scrambled, storylines may feature "

twist endings", and lines between the antagonist and protagonist may be blurred. The roots of post-classical storytelling may be seen in film noir, in Rebel Without a Cause (1955), and in Hitchcock's storyline-shattering Psycho

The New Hollywood is the emergence of a new generation of film school-trained directors who had absorbed the techniques developed in Europe in the 1960s as a result of the French New Wave after the American Revolution; the 1967 film Bonnie and Clyde marked the beginning of American cinema rebounding as well, as a new generation of films would afterwards gain success at the box offices as well.[47] Filmmakers like Francis Ford Coppola, Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Brian De Palma, Stanley Kubrick, Martin Scorsese, Roman Polanski, and William Friedkin came to produce fare that paid homage to the history of film and developed upon existing genres and techniques. Inaugurated by the 1969 release of Andy Warhol's Blue Movie, the phenomenon of adult erotic films being publicly discussed by celebrities (like Johnny Carson and Bob Hope),[48] and taken seriously by critics (like Roger Ebert),[49][50] a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of The New York Times, as "porno chic", and later known as the Golden Age of Porn, began, for the first time, in modern American culture.[48][51][52] According to award-winning author Toni Bentley, Radley Metzger's 1976 film The Opening of Misty Beethoven, based on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw (and its derivative, My Fair Lady), and due to attaining a mainstream level in storyline and sets,[53] is considered the "crown jewel" of this 'Golden Age'.[54][55]

At the height of his fame in the early 1970s,

The Exorcist, Spielberg with Jaws, Coppola with The Godfather and Apocalypse Now, Scorsese with Taxi Driver, Kubrick with 2001: A Space Odyssey, Polanski with Chinatown, and Lucas with American Graffiti and Star Wars, respectively helped to give rise to the modern "blockbuster", and induced studios to focus ever more heavily on trying to produce enormous hits.[57]

The increasing indulgence of these young directors did not help.[

One From The Heart and particularly Michael Cimino's Heaven's Gate, which single-handedly bankrupted United Artists. However, Apocalypse Now eventually made its money back and gained widespread recognition as a masterpiece, winning the Palme d'Or at Cannes.[58]

1975–2008: Rise of the modern blockbuster and independent films

Actor Tom Hanks
Some of Hollywood's blockbuster action heroes from the 1970s to 2000s. From left: (top row) Sylvester Stallone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Steven Seagal (bottom row) Dolph Lundgren, Jean-Claude Van Damme, Wesley Snipes, Jackie Chan

Spectacular epics which took advantage of new widescreen processes had been increasingly popular from the 1950s onwards. The 1980s and 1990s saw another significant development. The full acceptance of home video by studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Films which may have performed poorly in their theatrical run were now able to find success in the video market. It also saw the first generation of filmmakers with access to videotapes emerge. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and Paul Thomas Anderson had been able to view thousands of films and produced films with vast numbers of references and connections to previous works. Tarantino has had a number of collaborations with director Robert Rodriguez. Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, which was a commercial success after grossing $2 million against a budget of $7,000.

This, along with the explosion of independent film and ever-decreasing costs for filmmaking, changed the landscape of American movie-making once again and led a renaissance of filmmaking among Hollywood's lower and middle-classes—those without access to studio financial resources. With the rise of the DVD in the 21st century, DVDs have quickly become even more profitable to studios and have led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and

commentary tracks
with the films.

In the US, the

PG-13 rating was introduced in 1984 to accommodate films that straddled the line between PG and R, which was mainly due to the controversies surrounding the violent content of the PG films Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and Gremlins (both 1984).[59]

1988's Die Hard established what would become a common formula for many 1990s action films, featuring a lone everyman against a colorful terrorist character, who's usually holding hostages, in an isolated setting. Such films and their sequels are often referred to as "Die Hard on a _____": Under Siege (battleship), Cliffhanger (mountain), Speed (bus), The Rock (prison island), Con Air (prison plane), Air Force One (presidential plane), etc.

Film makers in the 1990 had access to technological, political and economic innovations that had not been available in previous decades. Dick Tracy (1990) became the first 35 mm feature film with a digital soundtrack. Batman Returns (1992) was the first film to make use of the Dolby Digital six-channel stereo sound that has since become the industry standard. Computer-generated imagery was greatly facilitated when it became possible to transfer film images into a computer and manipulate them digitally. The possibilities became apparent in director James Cameron's Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), in images of the shape-changing character T-1000. Computer graphics or CG advanced to a point where Jurassic Park (1993) was able to use the techniques to create realistic looking animals. Jackpot (2001) became the first film that was shot entirely in digital.[60] In the film Titanic, Cameron wanted to push the boundary of special effects with his film, and enlisted Digital Domain and Pacific Data Images to continue the developments in digital technology which the director pioneered while working on The Abyss and Terminator 2: Judgment Day. Many previous films about the RMS Titanic shot water in slow motion, which did not look wholly convincing.[61] Cameron encouraged his crew to shoot their 45-foot-long (14 m) miniature of the ship as if "we're making a commercial for the White Star Line".

American film industry (1995–2017)
All values in billions
Year Tickets Revenue
1995 1.22 $5.31
1996 1.31 $5.79
1997 1.39 $6.36
1998 1.44 $6.77
1999 1.44 $7.34
2000 1.40 $7.54
2001 1.48 $8.36
2002 1.58 $9.16
2003 1.52 $9.20
2004 1.50 $9.29
2005 1.37 $8.80
2006 1.40 $9.16
2007 1.42 $9.77
2008 1.36 $9.75
2009 1.42 $10.64
2010 1.33 $10.48
2011 1.28 $10.17
2012 1.40 $11.16
2013 1.34 $10.89
2014 1.26 $10.27
2015 1.32 $11.16
2016 1.30 $11.26
2017 1.23 $10.99
As compiled by The Numbers[62]

Even The Blair Witch Project (1999), a low-budget indie horror film by Eduardo Sanchez and Daniel Myrick, was a huge financial success. Filmed on a budget of just $35,000, without any big stars or special effects, the film grossed $248 million with the use of modern marketing techniques and online promotion. Though not on the scale of George Lucas's $1 billion prequel to the Star Wars Trilogy, The Blair Witch Project earned the distinction of being the most profitable film of all time, in terms of percentage gross.[60]

The success of Blair Witch as an indie project remains among the few exceptions, however, and control of

The Big Five studios over film making continued to increase through the 1990s. The Big Six companies all enjoyed a period of expansion in the 1990s. They each developed different ways to adjust to rising costs in the film industry, especially the rising salaries of movie stars, driven by powerful agents. The biggest stars like Sylvester Stallone, Russell Crowe, Tom Cruise, Nicole Kidman, Sandra Bullock, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Mel Gibson and Julia Roberts received between $15-$20 million per film and in some cases were even given a share of the film's profits.[60]

blockbuster film was $60 million before marketing and promotion, which cost another $80 million.[60] Since then, American films have become increasingly divided into two categories: Blockbusters and independent films

Studios supplement these movies with independent productions, made with small budgets and often independently of the studio corporation. Movies made in this manner typically emphasize high professional quality in terms of acting, directing, screenwriting, and other elements associated with production, and also upon creativity and innovation.[citation needed] These movies usually rely upon critical praise or niche marketing to garner an audience. Because of an independent film's low budget, a successful independent film can have a high profit-to-cost ratio while a failure will incur minimal losses, allowing for studios to sponsor dozens[citation needed] of such productions in addition to their high-stakes releases.

American independent cinema was revitalized[

Fox Searchlight Pictures

By this time, Harvey Weinstein was a Hollywood power player, commissioning critically acclaimed film such as Shakespeare in Love, Good Will Hunting, and the Academy Award-winning The English Patient. Under TWC Weinstein had released almost an unbroken chain of successful films. Best Picture winners The Artist and The King's Speech were released under Weinstein's commission.

Hollywood Boulevard from the Dolby Theatre
, before 2006

The decade of the 2000s involved many significant developments in the film industries around the world, especially in the technology used. Building on developments in the 1990s, computers were used to create effects that would have previously been more expensive, from the subtle erasing of surrounding islands in Cast Away (leaving Tom Hanks' character stranded with no other land in sight) to the vast battle scenes such as those in The Matrix sequels and 300.[citation needed]

The 2000s saw the resurgence of several genres.

Bollywood-inspired Moulin Rouge! did the same for musical films. Computer animation replaced traditional animation as the dominant medium for animated feature films in American cinema. Although Hollywood still produces some films for the family audience, particularly animations, the vast majority of films are principally designed for young adult audiences.[citation needed

2008–present: Contemporary cinema

Since the late 2000s, the theatrical market place has been dominated by the superhero genre, particularly since the emergence of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (2008–present) and the DC Extended Universe (2013–present). As of 2022 they are the best-paying productions for actors, because paychecks in other genres have shrunk for even top actors.[63]

As of 2020, the 2019 fantasy film Frozen II was originally planned to be released on Disney+ on June 26, 2020, before it was moved up to March 15. Disney CEO Bob Chapek explained that this was because of the film's "powerful themes of perseverance and the importance of family, messages that are incredibly relevant".[64][65] On March 16, 2020, Universal announced that The Invisible Man, The Hunt, and Emma—all films in theaters at the time—would be available through Premium video on demand as early as March 20 at a suggested price of US$19.99 each.[66] After suffering poor box office since its release at the start of March, Onward was made available to purchase digitally on March 21, and was added to Disney+ on April 3.[67] Paramount announced on March 20, Sonic the Hedgehog is also planning to have an early release to video on demand, on March 31.[68][69] On March 16, Warner Bros. announced that Birds of Prey would be released early to video on demand on March 24.[70] On April 3, Disney announced that Artemis Fowl, a film adaptation of the 2001 book of the same name, would move straight to Disney+ on June 12, skipping a theatrical release entirely.[71][72]

In 2021 despite

Death on the Nile and West Side Story were forced to postponed or delayed their releases to after 2020.[73]

Various studios have responded to the crisis with controversial decisions to forgo the theatrical window and give their films day-and-date releases. NBCUniversal released Trolls World Tour directly to video-on-demand rental on April 10,[66] while simultaneously receiving limited domestic theatrical screenings via drive-in cinemas;[76] CEO Jeff Shell claims that the film had reached nearly $100 million in revenue within the first three weeks.[77][78] The decision was opposed by AMC Theatres, which then announced that its screenings of Universal Pictures films would cease immediately, though the two companies would eventually agree to a 2-week theatrical window.[79][80][81][82][83] By December 2020, Warner Bros. Pictures announced their decision to simultaneously release its slate of 2021 films in both theaters and its streaming site HBO Max for a period of one month in order to maximize viewership.[84] The move was vehemently criticized by various industry figures, many of whom were reportedly uninformed of the decision before the announcement and felt deceived by the studio.[85]

Industry commentators have noted the increasing treatment of films as "content" by corporations that correlate with the rise of streaming platforms such as Netflix, Disney+, Paramount+, and Apple TV+.[86][87] This involves the blurring of boundaries between films, television and other forms of media as more people consume them together in a variety of ways, with individual films defined more by their brand identity and commercial potential rather than their medium, stories and artistry.[87][88] Critic Matt Zoller Seitz has described the release of Avengers: Endgame in 2019 as "represent[ing] the decisive defeat of 'cinema' by 'content'" due to its grand success as a "piece of entertainment" defined by the Marvel brand that culminates a series of blockbuster films that has traits of serial television.[87] The films Space Jam: A New Legacy and Red Notice have been cited as examples of this treatment, with the former being described by many critics as "a lengthy infomercial for HBO Max", featuring scenes and characters recalling various Warner Bros. properties such as Casablanca, The Matrix and Austin Powers,[89][90][91][92] while the latter is a $200 million heist film from Netflix that critics described "a movie that feels more processed by a machine [...] instead of anything approaching artistic intent or even an honest desire to entertain."[93][94][95] Some have expressed that Space Jam demonstrates the industry's increasingly cynical treatment of films as mere intellectual property (IP) to be exploited, an approach which critic Scott Mendelson called "IP for the sake of IP."[90][96][97][91]

Hollywood and politics

In the 1930s, the Democrats and the Republicans saw money in Hollywood. President

Franklin Roosevelt saw a huge partnership with Hollywood. He used the first real potential of Hollywood's stars in a national campaign. Melvyn Douglas toured Washington in 1939 and met the key New Dealers.[citation needed

Political endorsements

Endorsements letters from leading actors were signed, radio appearances and printed advertising were made. Movie stars were used to draw a large audience into the political view of the party. By the 1960s, John F. Kennedy was a new, young face for Washington, and his strong friendship with Frank Sinatra exemplified this new era of glamour. The last moguls of Hollywood were gone and younger, newer executives and producers began pushing more liberal ideas.[citation needed]

Celebrities and money attracted politicians into the high-class, glittering Hollywood lifestyle. As Ron Brownstein wrote in his book The Power and the Glitter, television in the 1970s and 1980s was an enormously important new media in politics and Hollywood helped in that media with actors making speeches on their political beliefs, like Jane Fonda against the Vietnam War.[98] Despite most celebrities and producers being left-leaning and tending to support the Democratic Party,[99][100] this era produced some Republican actors and producers. Former actor Ronald Reagan became governor of California and subsequently became the 40th president of the United States. It continued with Arnold Schwarzenegger as California's governor in 2003.[citation needed]

Political donations

Today, donations from Hollywood help to fund federal politics.[101] On February 20, 2007, for example, Democratic then-presidential candidate Barack Obama had a $2,300-a-plate Hollywood gala, being hosted by DreamWorks founders David Geffen, Jeffrey Katzenberg, and Steven Spielberg at the Beverly Hilton.[101]


Covert advertising

Native advertising is information designed to persuade in more subtle ways than classic propaganda. A modern example common in the United States is copaganda, in which TV shows display unrealistically flattering portrayals of law enforcement, in part to borrow equipment and get their assistance in blocking off streets to more easily film on location.[102] Other reputation laundering accusations have been leveled in the entertainment industry, including the burnishing the image of the Mafia.[103]

Product placement also has been a point of criticism, with the tobacco industry promoting smoking on screen.[104] The Centers for Disease Control cites that 18% of teen smokers wouldn't start smoking if films with smoking were automatically given an 'R' rating, which would save 1 million lives.[105]


Hollywood producers generally seek to comply with the

Chinese government's censorship requirements in a bid to access the country's restricted and lucrative cinema market,[106] with the second-largest box office in the world as of 2016. This includes prioritizing sympathetic portrayals of Chinese characters in movies, such as changing the villains in Red Dawn from Chinese to North Koreans.[106] Due to many topics forbidden in China, such as Dalai Lama and Winnie-the-Pooh being involved in the South Park's episode "Band in China", South Park was entirely banned in China after the episode's broadcast.[107] The 2018 film Christopher Robin, the new Winnie-the-Pooh movie, was denied a Chinese release.[107]

Although Tibet was previously a cause célèbre in Hollywood, featuring in films including Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet, in the 21st century this is no longer the case.[108] In 2016, Marvel Entertainment attracted criticism for its decision to cast Tilda Swinton as "The Ancient One" in the film adaptation Doctor Strange, using a white woman to play a traditionally Tibetan character.[109] Actor and high-profile Tibet supporter Richard Gere stated that he was no longer welcome to participate in mainstream Hollywood films after criticizing the Chinese government and calling for a boycott of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[108][110]

Historic examples

Hollywood also

economic censorship resulted in the self-censoring of content to please the group wielding their economic influence.[111] The Hays Code was an industry-led effort from 1930-1967 to strict self-censorship in order to appease religious objections to certain content and stave off any government censorship that could have resulted.[111]

Global Hollywood

Chinese Theatre
before 2007

Political economy of communication researchers have long focused on the international or global presence, power, profitability and popularity of Hollywood films. Books on global Hollywood by Toby Miller and Richard Maxwell,[112] Janet Wasko and Mary Erickson,[113] Kerry Segrave,[114] John Trumpbour[115] and Tanner Mirrlees[116] examine the international political economy of Hollywood's power.

According to Tanner Mirrlees, Hollywood relies on four capitalist strategies "to attract and integrate non-US film producers, exhibitors and audiences into its ambit: ownership, cross-border productions with subordinate service providers, content licensing deals with exhibitors, and blockbusters designed to travel the globe."[117]

In 1912, American film companies were largely immersed in the competition for the domestic market. It was difficult to satisfy the huge demand for films created by the nickelodeon boom. Motion Picture Patents Company members such as Edison Studios, also sought to limit competition from French, Italian, and other imported films. Exporting films, then, became lucrative to these companies. Vitagraph Studios was the first American company to open its own distribution offices in Europe, establishing a branch in London in 1906, and a second branch in Paris shortly after.[118]

Other American companies were moving into foreign markets as well, and American distribution abroad continued to expand until the mid-1920s. Originally, a majority of companies sold their films indirectly. However, since they were inexperienced in overseas trading, they simply sold the foreign rights to their films to foreign distribution firms or export agents. Gradually, London became a center for the international circulation of US films.[118]

Many British companies made a profit by acting as the agents for this business, and by doing so, they weakened British production by turning over a large share of the UK market to American films. By 1911, approximately 60 to 70 percent of films imported into Great Britain were American. The United States was also doing well in Germany, Australia, and New Zealand.[118]

More recently, as globalization has started to intensify, and the United States government has been actively promoting free trade agendas and trade on cultural products, Hollywood has become a worldwide cultural source. The success on Hollywood export markets can be known not only from the boom of American multinational media corporations across the globe but also from the unique ability to make big-budget films that appeal powerfully to popular tastes in many different cultures.[119]

With globalization, movie production has been clustered in Hollywood for several reasons: the United States has the largest single home market in dollar terms, entertaining and highly visible Hollywood movies have global appeal, and the role of English as a universal language contributes to compensating for higher fixed costs of production.

Hollywood has moved more deeply into Chinese markets, although influenced by China's censorship. Films made in China are censored, strictly avoiding themes like "ghosts, violence, murder, horror, and demons." Such plot elements risk being cut. Hollywood has had to make "approved" films, corresponding to official Chinese standards, but with aesthetic standards sacrificed to box office profits. Even Chinese audiences found it boring to wait for the release of great American movies dubbed in their native language.[120]

Role of women

Women's representation in film has been considered an issue almost as long as film has been an industry. Women's portrayals have been criticized as dependent on other characters, motherly and domestic figures who stay at home, overemotional, and confined to low-status jobs when compared to enterprising and ambitious male characters. With this, women are underrepresented and continually cast and stuck in gender stereotypes.[citation needed]

Women are statistically underrepresented in creative positions in the center of the US film industry, Hollywood. This underrepresentation has been called the "celluloid ceiling", a variant on the employment discrimination term "glass ceiling". In 2013, the "top-paid actors ... made 2+12 times as much money as the top-paid actresses."[121] "[O]lder [male] actors make more than their female equals" in age, with "female movie stars mak[ing] the most money on average per film at age 34 while male stars earn the most at 51."[122]

The 2013 Celluloid Ceiling Report conducted by the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University collected a list of statistics gathered from "2,813 individuals employed by the 250 top domestic grossing films of 2012."[123]

Women represented only 36 percent of major characters in film in 2018—a one percent decline from the 37 percent recorded in 2017. In 2019, that percentage increased to 40 percent. Women account for 51 percent of moviegoers. However, when it comes to key jobs like director and cinematographer, men continue to dominate. For the Academy Award nominations, only five women have ever been nominated for Best Director, but none have ever won in that category in the past 92 years. While female representation has improved, there is work yet to be done with regards to the diversity among those females. The percentage of black female characters went from 16 percent in 2017 to 21 percent in 2018. The representation of Latina actresses, however, decreased to four percent over the past year, three percentage points lower than the seven percent achieved in 2017.[citation needed]

Women accounted for:

  • "18% of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors. This reflected no change from 2011 and only a 1% increase from 1998."[123]
  • "9% of all directors."[123]
  • "15% of writers."[123]
  • "25% of all producers."[123]
  • "20% of all editors."[123]
  • "2% of all cinematographers."[123]
  • "38% of films employed 0 or 1 woman in the roles considered, 23% employed 2 women, 28% employed 3 to 5 women, and 10% employed 6 to 9 women."[123]

A New York Times article stated that only 15% of the top films in 2013 had women for a lead acting role.[124] The author of the study noted that "The percentage of female speaking roles has not increased much since the 1940s when they hovered around 25 percent to 28 percent." "Since 1998, women's representation in behind-the-scenes roles other than directing has gone up just 1 percent." Women "directed the same percent of the 250 top-grossing films in 2012 (9 percent) as they did in 1998."[121]

Race and ethnicity

U.S. Department of Labor in March 2012. During the time he was cast for the Cesar Chavez

On May 10, 2021, NBC announced that it would not televise the 79th Golden Globe Awards in 2022, in support of a boycott of the HFPA by multiple media companies over inadequate efforts to address lack of diversity representation within the membership of the association with person of color, but that it would be open to televise the ceremony in 2023 if the HFPA were successful in its efforts to reform.[125]

Since the late days of the film industry, celluloid representations of Irish Americans have been plentiful. Films with Irish-American themes include social dramas such as Little Nellie Kelly and The Cardinal, labor epics like On the Waterfront, and gangster movies such as Angels with Dirty Faces, The Friends of Eddie Coyle, and The Departed. Though the classic era of American Cinema is dominated predominantly by Caucasian people in front of and behind the camera, minorities and people of color have managed to carve their own pathways to getting their films on the screen.[citation needed]

American cinema has often reflected and propagated

entertainers.[134] However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate Chicano oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities."[135] Filmmakers like Edward James Olmos and Robert Rodriguez were able to represent the Hispanic and Latino Americans experience like none had on screen before, and actors like Hilary Swank, Jordana Brewster, Jessica Alba, Camilla Belle, Al Madrigal, Alexis Bledel, Alexa PenaVega, Ana de Armas and Rachel Zegler have become successful. In the last decade, minority filmmakers like Chris Weitz, Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and Patricia Riggen have been given applier narratives. Early portrayal in films of them include La Bamba (1987), Selena (1997), The Mask of Zorro (1998), Goal II (2007), Overboard (2018), Father of the Bride (2022) and Josefina López's Real Women Have Curves, originally a play which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002.[135]

homosexual within the black community, on the other hand, has been associated with social alienation and homophobic judgement by peers because black gay men are seen as weak or effeminate. In the film, Chiron is placed in this divide as a black gay man and alters his presentation of masculinity as a strategy to avoid ridicule because homosexuality is viewed as incompatible with black masculine expectations. As young kids, Kevin hides his sexuality in order to avoid being singled out like Chiron is. As Chiron grows older, he recognizes the need to conform to a heteronormative ideal of black masculinity in order to avoid abuse and homophobia. As an adult, Chiron chooses to embrace the stereotypical black male gender performance by becoming muscular and a drug-dealer.[137]

According to Korean-American actor Daniel Dae Kim, Asian and Asian American men "have been portrayed as inscrutable villains and asexualized kind of eunuchs."[133] Seen as exceedingly polite and sumbissive. The Media Action Network for Asian Americans accused the director and studio of whitewashing the cast of the film Aloha, and Crowe apologized about Emma Stone being miscast as a character who is meant to be of one quarter Chinese and one quarter Hawaiian descent.[139][140][141] Throughout the 20th century, acting roles film were relatively few, and many available roles were narrow characters. More recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an outlet on YouTube allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase among their fellow Asian Americans.[142] Although more recently the film Crazy Rich Asians film has been lauded in the United States for featuring a predominantly Asian cast,[143] it was criticized elsewhere for casting biracial and non-Chinese actors as ethnically Chinese characters. Another film Always Be My Maybe who has been lauded recently takes familiar rom-com beats and cleverly layers in smart social commentary to find its own sweet groove." according to Rotten Tomatoes[144]

Before 9/11, Arabs and

Jews. The legacy also includes songwriters and authors, for example the author of the song "Viva Las Vegas" Doc Pomus, or Billy the Kid composer Aaron Copland. Many Jews have been at the forefront of women's issues.[citation needed

In the 20th century, early portrayals of Native Americans in

The Lone Ranger television series (1949–57) came to prominence. The roles of Native Americans were limited and not reflective of Native American culture. By the 1970s some Native American film roles began to show more complexity, such as those in Little Big Man (1970), Billy Jack (1971), and The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976), which depicted Native Americans in minor supporting roles.[citation needed

Working conditions

Hollywood's work flow is unique in that much of its work force doesn't report to the same factory each day, nor follow the same routine from day to day, but films at distant locations around the world, with a schedule dictated by the scenes being filmed rather than what makes the most sense for productivity. For instance, an urban film shot entirely on location at night would require the bulk of its crews to work a graveyard shift, while a situational comedy series that shoots primarily on stage with only one or two days a week on location would follow a more traditional work schedule. Westerns are often shot in desert locations far from the homes of the crew in areas with limited hotels that necessitate long drives before and after a shooting day, which take advantage of as many hours of sunlight available, ultimately requiring workers to put in 16 or 17 hours a day from the time they leave their home to the time they return.[148][149]

While the role of labor in America has waned in many parts of the country, the unions have maintained a firm grip in Hollywood since their start during Great Depression when workers would line up outside the thriving movie studios looking for the only job in town. Terrible conditions awaited those workers as the studios exploited the eager workforce with meager pay and the ever present threat of the hundreds of others waiting just outside the gates to take their place if they voiced any complaints.[150]

Due to the casual nature of employment in Hollywood, it's only through collective bargaining can individual workers express their rights to minimum wage guarantees and access to pension & health plans that carry over from film to film or tv series to tv series, and offer the studios access to a trained workforce able to step onto a set on day one with the knowledge and experience to handle the highly technical equipment they are asked to operate.[151]

The majority of the workers in Hollywood are represented by several unions and guilds. The 150,000 member strong International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE) represents most of the crafts, such as the grips, electricians, and camera people, as well as editors, sound engineers, and hair & make-up artists. The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) is the next largest group representing some 130,000 actors and performers, the Directors Guild of America (DGA) represents the directors and production managers, the Writers Guild of America (WGA) representing writers, and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) represents the drivers.[152][153]

The unions and guilds serve as the collective bargaining unit for their membership, negotiating on regular intervals (most currently on 3 year contracts) with the Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers (AMPTP), a trade alliance representing the film studios and television networks that hire the crews to create their content.

While the relationship between labor and management has generally been amicable over the years, working together with the state to develop safe protocols to continue working during Covid-19 and lobbying together in favor of tax incentives, contract negotiations have been known to get contentious over changes in the industry and as a response to rising income inequality. The relationship even turned bloody in 1945 as a six month strike by set decorators turned into a bloody melee on a sweltering October day between strikers, scabs, strikebreakers, and studio security.[154][155][156][157]

See also



  1. ^ a b "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure—Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  2. ^ "Table 1: Feature Film Production—Genre/Method of Shooting". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  3. ^ "Cinema—Admissions per capita". Screen Australia. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Table 11: Exhibition—Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  5. ^ "The Lumière Brothers, Pioneers of Cinema". History Channel. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  6. ^ UIS. "UIS Statistics".
  7. ^ Hudson, Dale. Vampires, Race, and Transnational Hollywoods. Edinburgh University Press, 2017. Website
  8. ^ "Why Contemporary Commentators Missed the Point With 'The Jazz Singer'". Time.
  9. ^ Village Voice: 100 Best Films of the 20th century (2001) Archived March 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.; "Sight and Sound Top Ten Poll 2002". BFI. Archived from the original on May 15, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  10. . Retrieved February 4, 2022.
  11. . Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  12. ^ Kannapell, Andrea (October 4, 1998). "Getting the Big Picture; The Film Industry Started Here and Left. Now It's Back, and the State Says the Sequel Is Huge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 19, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  13. ^ Amith, Dennis (January 1, 2011). "Before Hollywood There Was Fort Lee, N.J.: Early Movie Making in New Jersey (a J!-ENT DVD Review)". J!-ENT. Archived from the original on December 22, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2023. When Hollywood, California, was mostly orange groves, Fort Lee, New Jersey, was a center of American film production.
  14. ^ Rose, Lisa (April 29, 2012). "100 years ago, Fort Lee was the first town to bask in movie magic". Archived from the original on September 29, 2018. Retrieved January 19, 2023. Back in 1912, when Hollywood had more cattle than cameras, Fort Lee was the center of the cinematic universe. Icons from the silent era like Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore and Lillian Gish crossed the Hudson River via ferry to emote on Fort Lee back lots.
  15. ^ Before Hollywood, There Was Fort Lee Archived July 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Fort Lee Film Commission. Accessed April 16, 2011.
  16. . Accessed May 27, 2015.
  17. ^ Studios and Films Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Fort Lee Film Commission. Accessed December 7, 2013.
  18. ^ Liebenson, Donald (February 19, 2015). "'Flickering Empire' details Chicago's early dominance of film industry". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  19. ^ "Cleveland on Film". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  20. .
  21. ^ Jacobs, Lewis; Rise of the American film, The; Harcourt Brace, New York, 1930; p. 85
  22. ^ a b Rasmussen, Cecilia (September 16, 2001). "Movie Industry's Roots in Garden of Edendale". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  23. ^
  24. ^ In the Sultan's Power at the American Film Institute Catalog
  25. OCLC 191090285
  26. .
  27. The Lewiston Journal
    , November 27, 1979. Accessed February 14, 2012. "Movies were unheard if in Hollywood, even in 1900 The flickering shadows were devised in a place called Fort Le, N.J. It had forests, rocks cliffs for the cliff-hangers and the Hudson River. The movie industry had two problems. The weather was unpredictable, and Thomas Edison sued producers who used his invention. ... It was not until 1911 that David Horsley moved his Nestor Co. west."
  28. ^ a b "How the Spanish flu contributed to the rise of Hollywood". November 19, 2020.
  29. ^ How one city avoided the 1918 flu pandemic's deadly second wave
  30. ^ Meares, Hadley (April 1, 2020). "Closed Movie Theaters and Infected Stars: How the 1918 Flu Halted Hollywood". The Hollywood Reporter.
  31. ^ a b c "History of the motion picture". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  32. ^ [1] Archived April 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Will Hays and Motion Picture Censorship".
  34. ^ "Thumbnail History of RKO Radio Pictures". Archived from the original on September 12, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  35. ^ "The Paramount Theater Monopoly". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  36. ^ "Film History of the 1920s". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  37. ^ ""Father of the Constitution" is born". This Day in History—3/16/1751. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  38. ^ Maltby, Richard. "More Sinned Against than Sinning: The Fabrications of "Pre-Code Cinema"". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  39. ^ a b [2] Archived June 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Disney Insider". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  41. ^ [3] Archived May 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Aberdeen, J A (September 6, 2005). "Part 1: The Hollywood Slump of 1938". Hollywood Renegades Archive. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
  43. ^ a b Aberdeen, J A (September 6, 2005). "Part 3: The Consent Decree of 1940". Hollywood Renegades Archive. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
  44. ^ "The Hollywood Studios in Federal Court—The Paramount case". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  45. ^ Scott, A. O. (August 12, 2007). "Two Outlaws, Blasting Holes in the Screen". The New York Times.
  46. ^ a b Corliss, Richard (March 29, 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic". Time. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  47. ^ Ebert, Roger (June 13, 1973). "The Devil In Miss Jones - Film Review". Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  48. ^ Ebert, Roger (November 24, 1976). "Alice in Wonderland:An X-Rated Musical Fantasy". Retrieved February 26, 2016.
  49. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (January 21, 1973). "Porno chic; 'Hard-core' grows fashionable-and very profitable". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
  50. ^ "Porno Chic".
  51. ]
  52. ^ Bentley, Toni (June 2014). "The Legend of Henry Paris". Playboy. Archived from the original on February 4, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  53. ^ Bentley, Toni (June 2014). "The Legend of Henry Paris" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  55. .
  56. Sight & Sound. British Film Institute. December 2002. Archived from the original
    on March 7, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  57. ^ Breznican, Anthony (August 24, 2004). "PG-13 remade Hollywood ratings system". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
  58. ^ a b c d "How George Lucas pioneered the use of Digital Video in feature films with the Sony HDW F900". Red Shark News.
  59. ^ Marsh and Kirkland, pp. 147–154
  60. MPAA in their annual state of the industry report.[needs update
  61. ^ Couch, Aaron; Galuppo, Mia; Kit, Borys (October 21, 2022). "Marvel, DC Among Last Bastion for Supersized Paydays". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  62. ^ Donnelly, Matt (March 14, 2020). "Disney Plus to Stream 'Frozen 2' Three Months Early 'During This Challenging Period'". Variety. Archived from the original on March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  63. ^ "'Frozen 2' to Debut On Disney+ Months Earlier Than Planned". The Hollywood Reporter. March 13, 2020. Archived from the original on March 14, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  64. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 16, 2020). "Universal Making 'Invisible Man', 'The Hunt' & 'Emma' Available In Home On Friday As Exhibition Braces For Shutdown; 'Trolls' Sequel To Hit Cinemas & VOD Easter Weekend". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  65. ^ "Pixar's Onward Releases On-Demand Tonight, Hits Disney+ in April". ScreenRant. March 20, 2020. Archived from the original on March 20, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  66. ^ McNary, Dave (March 20, 2020). "'Sonic the Hedgehog' Speeds to Early Release on Digital". Variety. Archived from the original on March 20, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  67. Slashfilm. Archived
    from the original on March 21, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2020.
  68. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (March 16, 2020). "'Birds of Prey' Will Be Released on VOD Early". Variety. Archived from the original on March 17, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  69. ^ "Disney Pulls 'Artemis Fowl' From Theaters, Will Debut on Disney+". April 3, 2020. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  70. ^ Spangler, Todd (April 17, 2020). "'Artemis Fowl' Premiere Date on Disney Plus Set as Movie Goes Direct-to-Streaming". Variety. Archived from the original on April 21, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  71. ^ "'Black Widow,' 'West Side Story,' 'Eternals' Postpone Release Dates". Variety. September 23, 2020. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  72. ^ Perez, Rodrigo (October 29, 2015). "Exclusive: All-Female 'Ocean's Eleven' In The Works Starring Sandra Bullock, With Gary Ross Directing". The Playlist.
  73. ^ Sullivan, Kevin P. (October 30, 2015). "Sandra Bullock will lead an all-female Ocean's Eleven reboot". Entertainment Weekly.
  74. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 14, 2020). "'Trolls World Tour': Drive-In Theaters Deliver What They Can During COVID-19 Exhibition Shutdown—Easter Weekend 2020 Box Office". Deadline. Archived from the original on April 23, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  75. ^ "Universal's 'Trolls World Tour' Earns Nearly $100 Million in First 3 Weeks of VOD Rentals". TheWrap. April 28, 2020. Archived from the original on May 6, 2020. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  76. from the original on April 28, 2020. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  77. ^ "China Shuts Down All Cinemas, Again". The Hollywood Reporter. March 27, 2020. Archived from the original on April 23, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  78. ^ Alexander, Julia (March 18, 2020). "Trolls World Tour could be a case study for Hollywood's digital future". The Verge. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  79. ^ Alexander, Julia (April 28, 2020). "AMC Theaters will no longer play Universal movies after Trolls World Tour's on-demand success". The Verge. Archived from the original on April 29, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  80. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 28, 2020). "Universal & AMC Theatres Make Peace, Will Crunch Theatrical Window To 17 Days With Option For PVOD After". Deadline. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  81. ^ Whitten, Sarah (July 28, 2020). "AMC strikes historic deal with Universal, shortening number of days films need to run in theaters before going digital". CNBC. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  82. ^ Rubin, Rebecca; Donnelly, Matt (December 3, 2020). "Warner Bros. to Debut Entire 2021 Film Slate, Including 'Dune' and 'Matrix 4,' Both on HBO Max and In Theaters". Variety. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  83. ^ Masters, Kim (December 7, 2020). "Christopher Nolan Rips HBO Max as "Worst Streaming Service," Denounces Warner Bros.' Plan". The Hollywood Reporter. The Hollywood Reporter, LLC. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  84. ^ Brew, Simon (October 21, 2019). "Can we stop calling films 'content' now?". Film Stories. Film Stories Ltd. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  85. ^ a b c Seitz, Matt Zoller (April 29, 2019). "What's Next: Avengers, MCU, Game of Thrones, and the Content Endgame". Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  86. ^ Taylor, Alex (February 20, 2021). "Are streaming algorithms really damaging film?". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved July 22, 2021. [Martin Scorsese has] warned that cinema is being 'devalued ... demeaned and reduced' by being thrown under the umbrella term 'content'.
  87. ^ Shephard, Alex (July 21, 2021). "Space Jam: A New Legacy Is a Peek Into the Bleak, Cynical Future of Film". The New Republic. Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  88. ^ a b Rivera, Joshua (July 14, 2021). "Despair, pitiful mortals: Space Jam: A New Legacy is the future of entertainment". Polygon. Vox Media, LLC. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  89. ^ a b Mendelson, Scott (July 14, 2021). "'Space Jam: A New Legacy' Review: A Feature-Length Commercial For HBO Max". Forbes. Retrieved July 22, 2021. Quite possibly, as Space Jam: A New Legacy is now a classic example of 'IP for the sake of IP,' a brand extension that exists not because audiences want it but because a studio (and/or the film's star) wants it to continue.
  90. ^ Kirby, Kristen-Page (July 14, 2021). "'Space Jam: A New Legacy'—a feature-length ad for Warner Bros.—rises just above mediocrity". The Washington Post. WP Company LLC. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  91. ^ Tallerico, Brian (November 4, 2021). "Red Notice movie review & film summary (2021)". Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  92. ^ Evangelista, Chris (November 4, 2021). "Red Notice Review: Dwayne Johnson And Ryan Reynolds Bumble Through Netflix's Glossy, Lifeless Action Movie". /Film. Static Media. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  93. ^ Lee, Benjamin (November 4, 2021). "Red Notice review—Netflix's biggest film to date offers little reward". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  94. . Retrieved July 22, 2021. It criticizes shameless, money-grubbing attempts to synergize and update beloved classics ... all the while shamelessly synergizing and updating beloved classics. ... The studios rarely seem to want to do anything new with their properties other than remind us that they still own them.
  95. ^ Sollosi, Mary (July 14, 2021). "Space Jam: A New Legacy review: LeBron James enters the server-verse in exhausting reboot". Entertainment Weekly. Meredith Corporation. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  96. ^ "US election 2020: Will celebrity endorsements help Joe Biden?". BBC News. October 14, 2020.
  97. ^ "Celebrities' last-minute pleas to vote: See who's endorsing Biden or Trump". Los Angeles Times. November 3, 2021.
  98. ^ a b Halbfinger, David M. (February 6, 2007). "Politicians Are Doing Hollywood Star Turns". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
  99. ^ Law & Order: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO), retrieved January 29, 2023
  100. ^ Peirson-Hagger, Ellen (November 29, 2019). ""Hollywood Mafia films are skilful propaganda": Kim Longinotto on why her new film breaks that mould". New Statesman. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  101. PMID 11893818
  102. ^ CDCTobaccoFree (August 22, 2022). "Smoking in the Movies". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 30, 2023.
  103. ^ a b Whalen, Jeanne (October 8, 2019). "China lashes out at Western businesses as it tries to cut support for Hong Kong protests". The Washington Post.
  104. ^ a b "South Park ban by China highlights Hollywood tightrope act". Al-Jazeera. October 10, 2019.
  105. ^ a b Steger, Isabella (March 28, 2019). "Why it's so hard to keep the world focused on Tibet". Quartz.
  106. ^ Bisset, Jennifer (November 1, 2019). "Marvel is censoring films for China, and you probably didn't even notice". CNET.
  107. ^ Siegel, Tatiana (April 18, 2017). "Richard Gere's Studio Exile: Why His Hollywood Career Took an Indie Turn". The Hollywood Reporter.
  108. ^ .
  109. .
  110. .
  111. .
  112. .
  113. .
  114. ^ Mirrlees, Tanner (2018). "Global Hollywood: An Entertainment Imperium, by Integration". Cineaction. 1 (100).
  115. ^ .
  116. .
  117. ^ Shirey, Paul (April 9, 2013). "C'mon Hollywood: Is Hollywood going to start being Made in China?". Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  118. ^ a b Betsy Woodruff (February 23, 2015). "Gender wage gap in Hollywood: It's very, very wide". Slate.
  119. ^ Maane Khatchatourian (February 7, 2014). "Female Movie Stars Experience Earnings Plunge After Age 34". Variety.
  120. ^ a b c d e f g h Lauzen, Martha. "The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the-Scenes Employment of Women on the Top 250 Films of 012" (PDF). The Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film. San Diego State University. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  121. ^ Buckley, Cara (March 11, 2014). "Only 15 Percent of Top Films in 2013 Put Women in Lead Roles, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
  122. ^ Ausiello, Michael (May 10, 2021). "Golden Globes Cancelled: NBC Scraps 2022 Ceremony As Backlash Grows". TVLine. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  123. ^ Lee, Kevin (January 2008). ""The Little State Department": Hollywood and the MPAA's Influence on U.S. Trade Relations". Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business. 28 (2).
  124. ^ "Will the cliche of the 'Russian baddie' ever leave our screens?". The Guardian. July 10, 2017.
  125. ^ "Russian film industry and Hollywood uneasy with one another". Fox News. October 14, 2014
  126. ^ "5 Hollywood Villains That Prove Russian Stereotypes Are Hard to Kill". The Moscow Times. August 9, 2015.
  127. ^ "Hollywood stereotypes: Why are Russians the bad guys?". BBC News. November 5, 2014.
  128. ^ "Stereotypes of Italian Americans in Film and Television". Thought Catalog. March 26, 2018.
  129. ^ "NYC; A Stereotype Hollywood Can't Refuse". The New York Times. July 30, 1999.
  130. ^ a b c "Hollywood's Stereotypes". ABC News.
  131. .
  132. ^ .
  133. ^ "Blackface and Hollywood: From Al Jolson to Judy Garland to Dave Chappelle". The Hollywood Reporter. February 12, 2019.
  134. ^ a b Watts, Stephanie (February 17, 2017). "Moonlight And The Performativity of Masculinity". One Room with a View. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  135. PMID 27865335
  136. ^ Variety Staff (June 2, 2015). "Cameron Crowe on Casting Emma Stone: 'I Offer You a Heart-Felt Apology'". Variety. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  137. ^ Gajewski, Ryan (May 23, 2015). "Cameron Crowe's 'Deep Tiki' Criticized for Depicting "Whitewashed" Hawaii". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
  138. ^ McNary, Dave (May 27, 2015). "Sony Defends 'Deep Tiki' After White-Washing Criticism". Variety. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  139. ^ Lee, Elizabeth (February 28, 2013). "YouTube Spawns Asian-American Celebrities". VAO News. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
  140. ^ Kelley, Sonaiya (August 19, 2018). "'Crazy Rich Asians' dominates the box office, makes history for representation". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 6, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  141. ^ "Always be My Maybe (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  142. ^ "Was Disney Wrong To Cast Naomi Scott As Jasmine in the New 'Aladdin' Film? Here's Why People Are Angry". July 17, 2017. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  143. ^ "Aladdin: Disney defends 'making up' white actors to 'blend in' during crowd scenes". BBC News. January 7, 2018. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  144. ^ "Disney accused of 'browning up' white actors for various Asian roles in Aladdin". The Independent. January 7, 2018. Archived from the original on January 14, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  145. ^ Polone, Gavin (May 23, 2012). "The Unglamorous, Punishing Hours of Working on a Hollywood Set". New York Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  146. ^ Vlessing, Etan (December 14, 2021). "Global Unions Call to End "Long Hours Culture" for Film, TV Workers". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  147. .
  148. ^ Kelly, Kim (April 23, 2019). "Hollywood's Labor Force Has Always Had to Fight for Workers' Rights". Teen Vogue.
  149. ^ Robb, David (August 3, 2022). "SAG-AFTRA Collects $1 Billion In Member Dues & Non-Member Fees In Its First 10 Years As Membership Climbs To Record Highs". Deadline Hollywood.
  150. ^ Verhoeven, Beatrice (September 24, 2021). "DGA, SAG-AFTRA, WGA East Stand With IATSE in Negotiations With AMPTP". TheWrap.
  151. ^ Robb, David (December 30, 2021). "How Unions Saved Hollywood During The Pandemic". Deadline Hollywood.
  152. ^ Ellingson, Annlee (June 18, 2014). "IATSE launches letter-writing campaign for California film and TV tax credits". LA Business Journal.
  153. ^ Faughnder, Ryan (October 19, 2021). "Hollywood avoided an IATSE strike. But broader labor issues aren't going away".
  154. ^ Meares, Hadley (November 23, 2021). "How The Bloody Hollywood Strike Of 1945 Forever Changed The Film Business". LAist.


Further reading

  • Hallett, Hilary A. Go West, Young Women! The Rise of Early Hollywood. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2013.
  • Ragan, David. Who's Who in Hollywood, 1900–1976. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1976.i was thinking to

External links