morphotype Streptognathodus wabaunsensis chronocline
|Lower boundary GSSP||Aidaralash, Ural Mountains, Kazakhstan|
50°14′45″N 57°53′29″E / 50.2458°N 57.8914°E
|Lower GSSP ratified||1996|
|Upper boundary definition||FAD of the Conodont Jinogondolella nanginkensis|
|Upper boundary GSSP||Stratotype Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A.|
31°52′36″N 104°52′36″W / 31.8767°N 104.8768°W
|Upper GSSP ratified||2001|
The Cisuralian is the first
The Cisuralian is often synonymous with the informal terms early Permian or lower Permian. It corresponds approximately with the Wolfcampian in southwestern North America.
The series saw the appearance of beetles and flies and was a relatively stable warming period of about 21 million years.
Name and background
The Cisuralian is the first series or epoch of the Permian. The Cisuralian was preceded by the last Pennsylvanian epoch (Gzhelian) and is followed by the Permian Guadalupian Epoch.
The name "Cisuralian" was proposed in 1982, and approved by the International Subcommission on Permian Stratigraphy in 1996. The Cisuralian Epoch is named after the western slopes of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan.
Limestones on the edge of
The International Chronostratigraphic Chart (v2018/07) provides a numerical age of 298.9 ± 0.15 – 272.3 ± 0.5 Mya.
The base of the Cisuralian series and the Permian
At the start of the Permian, the Late Palaeozoic Ice Age, which began in the Carboniferous, was at its peak. Glaciers receded over the course of the late Cisuralian as the Earth's climate gradually warmed, particularly during the Artinskian Warming Event, drying the continent's interiors. The pan-tropical belt of Pangaea experienced particularly significant aridification during this epoch.
The swampy fringes were mostly ferns, seed ferns, and
The coal swamps from the
Early Permian terrestrial faunas were dominated by pelycosaurs, diadectids, and amphibians, The pelycosaurs appeared during the Late Carboniferous, and reached their apex in the Cisuralian remaining the dominant land animals for some 40 million years. A few continued into the Capitanian. They were succeeded by the therapsids.
Dimetrodon, a pelycosaur, was at the top of the food chain in the Cisuralian
Helicoprion bessonovi with characteristic 'tooth-whorl' at front of jaw
- Asselian stage (298.9 ± 0.15 – 294.6 ± 0.8 Mya)
- Sakmarian stage (294.6 ± 0.8 – 290.1 ± 0.7 Mya)
- Artinskian stage (290.1 ± 0.7 – 283.5 ± 0.7 Mya)
- Kungurian stage (283.5 ± 0.7 – 272.3 ± 0.5 Mya)
- New Zealand
- Telfordian (289 – 278 Mya)
- Mangapirian (278 – 270.6 Mya)
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- ^ Ganelin, V.G.; Goman'kov, A.V.; Grunt, T.A.; Durante, M.V. (January 1997). "On the revised stratigraphic scale for the Permian System adopted at the Second Guadalupian Symposium, alpine, Texas, USA, April 1996". Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation. 5 (2): 126–130.
- ^ a b c d e f g Ross, June R.P.; Ross, Charles A. (16 October 2018). "Permian Period". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- ^ a b c d e Kazlev, M. Alan (4 May 2002). "The Cisuralian Epoch". palaeos.com. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
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- ^ International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSPs". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- ^ Davydov, V.I.; Glenister, B.F.; Spinosa, C.; Ritter, S.M.; Chernykh, V.V.; Wardlaw, B.R. and Snyder, W.S.; 1998: Proposal of Aidaralash as Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for base of the Permian System, Episodes 21(1): pp 11–18.
- S2CID 245892961. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
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- . Retrieved 30 October 2022.
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- S2CID 133713470. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
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- ^ Huttenlocker, A. K., and E. Rega. 2012. The Paleobiology and Bone Microstructure of Pelycosaurian-grade Synapsids. Pp. 90–119 in A. Chinsamy (ed.) Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation, Histology, Biology. Indiana University Press.
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