Dahlia pinnata

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Dahlia pinnata
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Dahlia
Species:
D. pinnata
Binomial name
Dahlia pinnata
Cav. 1791[1]
Synonyms
  • Bidens variabilis (Willd.) Baill.
  • Dahlia barkeriae Knowles & Westc.
  • Dahlia crocata Lag.
  • Dahlia rosea Cav.
  • Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf.
  • pinnate dahlia

Dahlia pinnata (D. × pinnata) is a species in the genus Dahlia, family Asteraceae, with the common name garden dahlia. It is the type species of the genus and is widely cultivated.

Description

Dahlia pinnata is a

leaves
are usually simple, with leaflets that are ovate and 5–10 centimetres (2–4 in) long. The plant is slightly shaggy.

Between July and October, atop stems 5 to 15 cm in length are two to eight flower heads, 6 to 10 cm in diameter. The eight florets have a length of 3 to 5 cm, are ovate and coloured pink to deep purple.[2]

Taxonomy

Hansen and Hjerting in (1996)[3] demonstrated that Dahlia pinnata should more properly be designated D. x pinnata. D. x pinnata was shown to actually be a variant of D. sorensenii that had acquired hybrid qualities before it was introduced to Europe in the sixteenth century and formally named by Cavanilles.[4] The original wild D. pinnata is presumed extinct.

Distribution and habitat

It is geographically located in Central America, tending to grow at borders. The plant occurs in Mexico in the mountains around Mexico City.

Ecology

Dahlias tend to attract quite a bit of insects, some which are dangerous and harmful to their survival. Insects like slugs, earwigs, the red spider, snails, caterpillars, aphids, and thrips threaten dahlias because they can eat the petals, leave slime trials, leave tattered petals, etc. Dahlias can also become infected with the following diseases: Sclerotinia disease, fungal diseases, mildew, Botrytis, Crown Gall, etc. If dahlias do become infected with these they can wilt, have spots on the leaves, the leaves can get irregular coloring/ patterning, etc.[5]

A study on Dahlia pinnata showed that this D. pinnata was able to accumulate high levels of arsenic from the soil through its roots.[6]

Cultivation

Used as an

hybridisation between D. pinnata and D. coccinea. As cutflowers, dahlias have a long lifespan.[7]

Besides being used for their outside appearance, dahlias tend to be used for their medicinal properties as well. According to Glenn Ross Whitley, this plant's roots contain some

pre-Columbian Indians of central Mexico, Yucatan and Guatemala".[8]

Dahlias prefer rich soil (pH level estimated at around 6.5–7.5) with enough organic matter. The roots must be kept moist since they are very shallow rooted which means they usually become dry fairly frequently and quickly. They bloom around mid-summer through the beginning of winter, they are able to survive a light frost, but anything colder/harsher than that, they will not be able to keep thriving. When the harsh weather of winter is approaching, the dahlias should be dug up and stored in a safer place for them.[7]

Many dahlia pinnata types can grow from seeds but more often they are cultivated by division of the tuberous roots or by stem cuttings. Providing the flower with some kind of plant food (mulch, growing media, nutrient food, etc.) can really make the dahlia healthier and more likely to survive.[9]

Uses

The plant's

phytostabilization properties regarding arsenic could lower the risk of the harmful carcinogen to humans.[6]

References

  1. ^ Icon 1: 57 (t. 80).
  2. ^ Hansen, H. V. and J. P. Hierting. 1996. Observations on chromosome numbers and biosystematics in Dahlia (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) with an account on the identity of D. pinnata, D.rosea and D. coccinea. Nordic Journal of Botany 16: 445-455.
  3. ^ Cavanilles, A. J. 1791. Icones et Descriptiones Plantarum 1: 57.
  4. ^ Nash, Kim Ruddock-last modified by June. "Pests & Diseases". National Dahlia Society. Archived from the original on 2020-08-09.
  5. ^ a b Raza, A., Khan, A. H. A., Nawaz, I., Qu, Z., Yousaf, S., Ali, M. A., ... & Iqbal, M. (2019). Evaluation of arsenic-induced stress in Dahlia pinnata Cav.: morphological and physiological response. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 28(7), 716-728.
  6. ^ a b Iannotti, Marie (2020). "Dahlias - Season Ending Stunners". The Spruce. DOTDASH. Archived from the original on 2019-03-24.
  7. PMID 3910964
    .
  8. ^ Waseem, Kashif; Kiran, Mehwish; Baloch, Jalal-ud-Dain; Jilani, Muhammad Saleem; Khan, Muhammad Qasim (2007). "Effect of Different Growing Media on theGrowth and Development of Dahlia (Dahlia pinnata) Under the Agro-Climatic Condition of Dera Ismail Khan". research gate.net. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External links