Diet (nutrition)

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of

, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.

Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of

minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity


A healthy diet can improve and maintain health, which can include aspects of mental and physical health.[2] Specific diets, such as the DASH diet, can be used in treatment and management of chronic conditions.[2]

Dietary recommendations exist for many different countries, and they usually emphasise a balanced diet which is culturally appropriate. These recommendation are different from dietary reference values which provide information about the prevention of nutrient deficiencies.

Dietary choices

Exclusionary diets are diets with certain groups or specific types of food avoided, either due to health considerations or by choice.[2] Many do not eat food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g. flexitarianism, pescetarianism, vegetarianism, and veganism) for health reasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personal impact on the environment.[3][needs update] People on a balanced vegetarian or vegan diet can obtain adequate nutrition, but may need to specifically focus on consuming specific nutrients, such as protein, iron, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.[4][2][5] Raw foodism and intuitive eating are other approaches to dietary choices. Education, income, local availability, and mental health are all major factors for dietary choices.[2]

Weight management

A particular diet may be chosen to promote weight loss or weight gain. Changing a person's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance, and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body.


Eating disorders

An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by abnormal eating habits, and thoughts about food that may involve eating much more or much less than needed.[11] Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.[12] Eating disorders affect people of every gender, age, socioeconomic status, and body size.[12]

Religious and cultural dietary choices

Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only

Buddhists are generally vegetarians, the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects.[13] In Hinduism, vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains
are strictly vegetarian and in addition to that the consumption of any roots (ex: potatoes, carrots) is not permitted.

In Christianity there is no restriction on kinds of animals that can be eaten,[14][15] though various groups within Christianity have practiced specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.[16] The most common diets used by Christians are Mediterranean and vegetarianism.[17][18][19][20]

Diet classification table

Food type
Fruitarian Paleo Ketogenic
Islamic Hindu Jain
Alcoholic drinks
Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Maybe Maybe No Maybe No
Fruit Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Maybe
Berries Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No[a] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Greens Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe
Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nuts Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe Yes Maybe Yes Yes Yes Maybe
Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Maybe[b] No Yes Yes Yes Maybe
Grains Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Honey Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Dairy Yes Maybe[c] Maybe Maybe Maybe Maybe[d] No No No Maybe Yes[e] Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Maybe Yes Maybe Maybe[f] No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No
Insects Yes Yes No No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes No[g] No[g] Maybe No
Shellfish Yes Yes Yes No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes No Maybe[h] Maybe No
Fish Yes Yes Yes No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No
Poultry Yes Yes No Yes Sometimes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No
Yes Yes No No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No
Venison Yes Yes No No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No
Pork Yes Yes No No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes No No Maybe No
Beef Yes Yes No No Sometimes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe No


  1. ^ Some plants traditionally considered to be vegetables—such as tomatoes, eggplants, capsicums, and zucchinis—are permitted.
  2. sweet potatoes
  3. ^ Some variants of the diet are paleolithic-oriented and exclude dairy while other variants may include dairy products provided that they are ketogenic. Less strict approaches allow all animal sourced foods.
  4. ovo-lacto vegetarians, and Jain vegetarians
    permit dairy.
  5. ^ Dairy is permitted but is not to be cooked or consumed with any meats. Dairy may be prepared and eaten alongside pareve foods.
  6. ovo-lacto vegetarians
    permit eggs.
  7. ^ a b Locusts are sometimes permitted, depending on the religious denomination.
  8. crustaceans like crab are prohibited according to the Shi'a branch of Islam. The acceptability of shrimp/prawn
    is debated

See also


  1. ^ noun, def 1 Archived 2010-01-07 at the Wayback Machine –
  2. ^
    S2CID 249022627
  3. ^ The embodied energy of food: the role of diet DA Coley, E Goodliffe, J Macdiarmid (1998) Energy Policy 26 (6), 455-460
  4. PMID 27886704
  5. ^ "Vegetarian diet: How to get the best nutrition". Mayo Clinic. 2020-08-20. Retrieved 2022-12-12.
  6. ^ "Healthy Eating: How do you get started on healthy eating?". 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2011-12-11.
  7. PMID 20646282
  8. ^ "Diets". Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  9. PMID 35016648
  10. ^ "Body Weight". MedlinePlus. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  11. ^ "Eating Disorders". Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  12. ^ a b "NIMH » Eating Disorders". Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  13. .
  14. ^ Marcos 7:14-23
  15. ^ Mateo 15:10-20
  16. ^ "Code of Canon Law". Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  17. ^ James Tabor, The Jesus Dynasty p. 134 and footnotes p. 335, p. 134 – "The Greek New Testament gospels says John's diet consisted of "locusts and wild honey" but an ancient Hebrew version of Matthew insists that "locusts" is a mistake in Greek for a related Hebrew word that means a cake of some type, made from a desert plant, similar to the "manna" that the ancient Israelites ate in the desert on the days of Moses.(ref 9) Jesus describes John as "neither eating nor drinking," or "neither eating bread nor drinking wine." Such phrases indicate the lifestyle of one who is strictly vegetarian, avoids even bread since it has to be processed from grain, and shuns all alcohol.(ref 10) The idea is that one would eat only what grows naturally.(ref 11) It was a way of avoiding all refinements of civilization."
  18. . p. 102 – "Probably the most interesting of the changes from the familiar New Testament accounts of Jesus comes in the Gospel of the Ebionites description of John the Baptist, who, evidently, like his successor Jesus, maintained a strictly vegetarian cuisine."
  19. , pp. 19–21
  20. . p. 104 – "And when he had been brought to Archelaus and the doctors of the Law had assembled, they asked him who he is and where he has been until then. And to this he made answer and spake: I am pure; [for] the Spirit of God hath led me on, and [I live on] cane and roots and tree-food."

External links