Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
|Motto: Unidade, Acção, Progresso (Portuguese)|
"Unity, Action, Progress"
|Anthem: Pátria (Portuguese)|
and largest city
28 November 1975
|17 July 1976|
|25 October 1999|
|20 May 2002|
|14,874 km2 (5,743 sq mi) (154th)|
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
• 2015 census
|78/km2 (202.0/sq mi) (137th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2023 estimate|
|$5.0 billion  (173rd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2023 estimate|
|$1.98 billion (183rd)|
• Per capita
medium · 140th
|Currency||United States dollarb
|ISO 3166 code||TL|
East Timor (
East Timor was settled by waves of Austronesian and Papuan peoples, which are reflected in the country's diverse mix of cultures and languages reflecting its links to Southeast Asia and Melanesia despite its small area. East Timor came under Portuguese influence in the sixteenth century, remaining a Portuguese colony until 1975. Internal conflict preceded a unilateral declaration of independence and an Indonesian invasion and annexation. Resistance continued throughout Indonesian rule, and, in 1999, a United Nations–sponsored act of self-determination led to Indonesia relinquishing control of the territory. On 20 May 2002, as Timor-Leste, it became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century. That same year, relations with Indonesia were established and normalized, with Indonesia also supporting East Timor's accession into ASEAN.
The national government runs on a
The total population is over 1.1 million, and is heavily skewed towards young people due to a high fertility rate. Education has led to increasing literacy over the past half-century, especially in the two official languages of Portuguese and Tetum. High ethnic and linguistic diversity is reflected by the 30 indigenous languages spoken in the country. The majority of the population is Catholic, which coexists alongside strong local traditions and beliefs, especially in rural areas.
"Timor" is derived from timur, meaning 'east' in
The official names under its constitution are "Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste" in English, "República Democrática de Timor-Leste" in Portuguese, and "Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste" in Tetum. The official short form of the name is "Timor-Leste", and it uses the ISO codes TLS & TL.
Prehistory and Classical era
Cultural remains at
While information is limited about the political system of Timor during this period, the island had developed an interconnected series of polities governed by customary law. Small communities, centred around a particular sacred house, were part of wider sucos (or principalities), which were themselves part of larger kingdoms led by a liurai. Authority within these kingdoms was held by two individuals, with the worldly power of the liurai balanced by the spiritual power of a rai nain, who was generally associated with the primary sacred house of the kingdom. These polities were numerous and saw shifting alliances and relations, but many were stable enough that they survived from initial European documentation in the 16th century until the end of Portuguese rule.: 11–15
From perhaps the thirteenth century, the island exported sandalwood,: 267 which was valued both for its use in crafting and as a source of perfume. Timor was included in Southeast Asian, Chinese, and Indian trading networks by the fourteenth century, exporting sandalwood, honey, and wax. The island was recorded by the Majapahit Empire as a source of tribute.: 89 It was sandalwood that attracted European explorers to the island in the early sixteenth century. Early European presence was limited to trade, with the first Portuguese settlement being on the nearby island of Solor.: 90
Portuguese era (1769–1975)
Early Portuguese presence on Timor was very limited; trade was directed through Portuguese settlements on nearby islands. Only in the 17th century did they establish a more direct presence on the island, a consequence of being driven out of other islands by the Dutch.: 267 After Solor was lost in 1613 the Portuguese moved to Flores. In 1646 the capital moved to Kupang on Timor's west, before Kupang too was lost to the Dutch in 1652. The Portuguese then moved to Lifau, in what is now East Timor's Oecusse exclave.: 90 Effective European occupation in the east of the island only began in 1769, when the city of Dili was founded, although actual control remained highly limited. A definitive border between the Dutch and Portuguese parts of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in 1914 and remains the international boundary between the successor states Indonesia and East Timor, respectively.
For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post, with minimal investment in infrastructure and education, until the late nineteenth century. Even when Portugal established actual control over the interior of its colony, investment remained minimal.: 269, 273 Sandalwood continued to be the main export crop and coffee exports became significant in the mid-nineteenth century.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering domestic economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, which was met with East Timorese resistance. The colony was seen as an economic burden during the Great Depression and received little support or management from Portugal.: 269
During World War II, Dili was occupied by the
Portugal began investment in the colony in the 1950s, funding education and promoting coffee exports, but the economy did not improve substantially and infrastructure improvements were limited.: 269 Growth rates remained low, near 2%. Following the 1974 Portuguese revolution, Portugal effectively abandoned its colony in Timor, and civil war between East Timorese political parties broke out in 1975.
Indonesian occupation (1975–1999)
On 30 August 2001, the East Timorese voted in their first election organised by the UN to elect members of the Constituent Assembly. On 22 March 2002, the Constituent Assembly approved the Constitution. By May 2002, more than 205,000 refugees had returned. On 20 May 2002, the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of East Timor came into force and East Timor was recognised as independent by the UN. The Constituent Assembly was renamed the National Parliament, and Xanana Gusmão was elected as the country's first president. On 27 September 2002 the country became a UN member state.
Francisco Guterres of the centre-left Fretilin party became president in May 2017. The leader of Fretilin, Mari Alkatiri, formed a coalition government after the July 2017 parliamentary election. This government soon fell, leading to a second general election in May 2018. In June 2018, former president and independence fighter, Taur Matan Ruak, became the new prime minister. José Ramos-Horta again became president on 20 May 2022 after winning the April 2022 presidential election runoff against Francisco Guterres.
Politics and government
The political system of East Timor is
The head of state of East Timor is the president of the republic, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term,: 244 and can serve a maximum of two terms. Formally, the directly elected president holds relatively limited powers compared to those in similar systems, with no power over the appointment and dismissal of the prime minister and the council of ministers. However, as they are directly elected, past presidents have wielded great informal power and influence.: 175 The president does have the power to veto government legislation, initiate referendums, and to dissolve parliament in the event that it is unable to form a government or pass a budget.: 244 If the president vetoes a legislative action, the parliament can overturn the veto with a two-thirds majority.: 10 The prime minister is chosen by the parliament, with the president appointing the leader of the majority party or coalition as prime minister of East Timor and the cabinet on the proposal of the latter.: 10  As head of government, the prime minister presides over the cabinet.
Representatives in the
Candidates in parliamentary elections run in a single national district in a party-list system. One in three of all candidates presented by political parties must be women. This system promotes a diversity of political parties, but gives voters little influence over the individual candidates selected by each party.: 175–176 Women hold more than a third of parliamentary seats, with parties required by law to run female candidates, but they are less prominent at other levels and within party leadership.
Political divisions exist along class lines and along geographical lines. There is broadly a divide between eastern and western areas of the country, stemming from differences that arose under Indonesian rule. Fretilin in particular is strongly linked to the Eastern areas.: 176–177 Political parties are more closely associated with prominent personalities more than with ideology.: 16  The National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction became the main opposition to Fretilin, following its establishment to allow Xanana Gusmão to run for Prime Minister in the 2007 parliamentary elections.: 168–169  While both major parties have been relatively stable, they remain led by an "old guard" of individuals who came to prominence during the resistance against Indonesia.: 175 : 10–11 
Politics and administration is centred in the capital Dili, with the national government responsible for most civil services.: 9, 36 Oecusse, separated from the rest of the country by Indonesian territory, is a special administrative region with some autonomy.: 180 The National Police of East Timor and Timor Leste Defence Force have held a monopoly on violence since 2008 and very few guns are present outside of these organisations.: 8 While there are allegations of abuse of power, there is some judicial oversight of police and public trust in the institution has grown. An active civil society functions independently of the government, as do media outlets.: 11–12 Civil society organisations are concentrated in the capital, including student groups. Due to the structure of the economy, there are no powerful trade unions.: 17 The Catholic Church has strong influence in the country.: 40
Foreign relations and military
International cooperation has always been important to East Timor; donor funds made up 80% of the budget before oil revenues began to replace them.: 42–44 International forces also provided security, with five UN missions sent to the country from 1999. The final one, the United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor, began after the 2006 East Timorese crisis and concluded in 2012.: 4, 14
East Timor formally applied to join ASEAN in 2011,: 42–44  and was granted observer status and accepted "in principle" in November 2022. Despite the nationalist political leadership promoting closer ties with Melanesian states, the country has targeted ASEAN membership since before its independence, with its leaders stating that joining Pacific bodies would have precluded ASEAN membership. ASEAN membership was sought for economic and security reasons, including to improve the relationship with Indonesia. Nonetheless, the process has been slow due to a lack of support from some ASEAN states.: 10–11 East Timor is thus an observer to the Pacific Islands Forum and the Melanesian Spearhead Group. More broadly, the country is a leader within the Group of Seven Plus (g7+), an organisation of fragile states. It is also a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.: 42–44 
Continuing bilateral donors include Australia, Portugal, Germany, and Japan, and East Timor has a reputation for effectively and transparently using donor funds. Good relations with Australia and with Indonesia are a policy goal for the government, despite historical and more-recent tensions. These countries are important economic partners and provide most transport links to the country.: 42–44 China has also increased its presence by contributing to infrastructure in Dili.: 12
The relationship with Australia was dominated from before independence by disputes over
The Timor Leste Defence Force (F-FDTL) was established in 2001, replacing Falintil, and was restructured following the events of 2006. It is responsible not only for safeguarding against external threats, but also for addressing violent crime, a role it shares with the National Police of East Timor. These forces remain small: 2,200 soldiers in the regular army and 80 in a naval component. A single aircraft and seven patrol boats are operated, and there are plans to expand the naval component. There is some military cooperation with Australia, Portugal, and the United States.
East Timor is divided into fourteen municipalities, which in turn are subdivided into 64 administrative posts, 442 sucos (villages), and 2,225 aldeias (hamlets). The municipalities are: Aileu, Ainaro, Atauro, Baucau, Bobonaro, Cova Lima, Dili, Ermera, Lautém, Liquiçá, Manatuto, Manufahi, Oecusse, and Viqueque.
The existing system of municipalities and administrative posts was established during Portuguese rule.: 3 While decentralisation is mentioned in the constitution, administrative powers generally remain with the national government operating out of Dili.: 2 Upon independence there was debate about how to implement decentralisation; various proposed models would create different levels of administration between the sucos and the central government. In most proposals, there were no specific provisions for suco-level governance, and they were expected to continue to exist as mostly traditional spaces, identifying communities rather than being part of the civil administration. In the end, the existing districts were kept and renamed municipalities in 2009, and received very few powers.: 88–92 In 2016 changes were made so that each municipality is led by a civil servant appointed by the central government. This civil servant is advised by locally elected leaders.: 4, 7 The isolated Oecusse municipality, which has a strong identity and is fully surrounded by Indonesian territory, is specified by Articles 5 and 71 of the 2002 constitution to be governed by a special administrative policy and economic regime. Law 3/2014 of 18 June 2014 implemented this constitutional provision, which went into effect in January 2015, turning Oecusse into a Special Administrative Region. The region began operating its own civil service in June 2015. In January 2022 the island of Atauro, formerly an Administrative Post of Dili, became its own municipality.
Administration in the lowest levels of the administrative system of East Timor, the aldeias and sucos, generally reflects traditional customs,: 1 reflecting community identity and relationships between local households.: 4 Sucos generally contain 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants. Their long persistence and links to local governance means the sucos are the level of government that is linked to community identities, rather than any high level of administration.: 89 Such relationships, however, are associated specifically with the kinship groups within that land, rather than the land itself.: 52–53 Relationships between sucos also reflect customary practices, for example through the reciprocal exchanging of support for local initiatives.: 9 Laws passed in 2004 provided for the election of some suco officials, but assigned these positions no formal powers. An updated law in 2009 established the expected mandate of these positions, although it continued to leave them outside of the formal state system, reliant on municipal governments to provide formal administration and services.: 94–97 Further clarification was given in 2016, which entrenched the treatment of sucos and aldeias more as communities than formal levels of administration. Despite this lack of formal association with the state, suco leaders hold great influence and are often seen by their community as representatives of the state. They have responsibilities usually associated with civic administration.: 7–10
Located in between Southeast Asia and the South Pacific,
The interior of the country is mountainous,: 2 with ridges of inactive volcanic mountains extending along the island.: 2 Almost half of the country has a slope of at least 40%. The south is slightly less mountainous, and has some plains near the coastline.: 2 The highest point is Tatamailau (also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 metres (9,721 ft). Most rivers dry up at least partially during the dry season.: 2 Outside of some coastal areas and river valleys, the soil is shallow and prone to erosion, and its quality is poor.: 13 : 2 The capital and largest city is Dili. The second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau.: 22
The climate is tropical with relatively stable temperatures throughout the year. A wet season lasts from December to May throughout the country, and lasts slightly longer in the south: 5 and the interior due to the effect of a monsoon from Australia.: 2 During this period, rainfall can reach 222–252 millimetres (8.7–9.9 in) per month. In the dry season, it drops to 12–18 millimetres (0.47–0.71 in).: 5 The country is vulnerable to flooding and landslides that occur as a result of heavy rain, especially when rainfall levels are increased by the La Niña effect.: 13 The mountainous interior is cooler than the coasts. Coastal areas are heavily dependent on groundwater, which faces pressure from mismanagement, deforestation, and climate change.: 14 While the temperature is thought to have experienced a small increase due to climate change, there has been little change in annual rainfall.: 6
Coastal ecosystems around the country are diverse and varied, with vary spatially between the north and south coastlines, as well as between the eastern tip and areas more to the west. These ecosystems include
There are around 41,000 terrestrial plant species in the country. Forests covered 35% of East Timor's land in the mid 2010s.: 1 The forests of the northern coast, central uplands, and southern coast are distinct.: 2 East Timor is home to the Timor and Wetar deciduous forests ecoregion. There is some environmental protection in law, but it has not been a government priority.: 27 : 10–14 In addition to climate change, local ecosystems are threatened by deforestation, land degradation, overfishing, and pollution.: 2–3
The economy of East Timor is a market economy, although it is dependent upon the export of a few commodities and has a large public sector. Internally, market operations are limited by widespread poverty.: 20 The country uses the United States dollar, producing its own coins to facilitate smaller transactions. The economy is generally open to foreign investment, although a prohibition on foreigners owning land means many require a local partner in the country.: 20 Competition is limited by the small size of the economy, rather than any government barriers. There are far more imports than exports,: 21 and prices for goods are often higher than in nearby countries.: 27 Inflation is strongly affected by government spending.: 257 Growth has been slow, averaging just 2.5% per year from 2011 to 2021.: 24
Most of the country is very poor, with just more than 40% living under the national poverty line. This poverty is especially prevalent in rural areas, where many are subsistence farmers or fishermen. Even in urban areas, the majority are poor. Overall, women are poorer than men, often being employed in lower-paying careers.: 18 Malnutrition is common, with over half of children showing stunted growth.: 255 While 91% of married working age (15–49) men were employed as of 2016, only 43% of married working age women were. There are small disparities in favour of men in terms of home and land ownership and owning a bank account.: 14 The eastern three municipalities, which contain around a quarter of the population, has less poverty than the western areas, which contain 50% of the population.: 214
Sixty-six per cent of families are in part supported by subsistence activities; however, the country as a whole does not produce enough food to be self-sustaining, and thus relies on imports.
This poverty belies significant wealth in terms of natural resources, which at the time of independence had per capita value equivalent to the wealth of an upper-middle income country. Over half of this was in oil, and over a quarter natural gas. The Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund was established in 2005 to turn these non-renewable resources into a more sustainable form of wealth.: 4–6 From 2005 to 2021, $23 billion earned from oil sales has entered the fund. $8 billion has been generated from investments, while $12 billion has been spent.: 30 A decrease in oil and gas reserves led to decreasing HDI beginning in 2010.: 18–19 Eighty per cent of government spending comes from this fund, which as of 2021 had $19 billion, 10 times greater than the size of the national budget. As oil income has decreased, the fund is at risk of being exhausted. Withdrawals have exceeded sustainable levels almost every year since 2009.: 23 Resources within the Bayu-Undan field are expected to soon run out, while extracting those within the so far undeveloped Greater Sunrise field has proven technically and politically challenging. Remaining potential reserves are also losing value as oil and gas become less favoured sources of energy.: 264–272 
The country's economy is dependent on government spending and, to a lesser extent, assistance from foreign donors. Government spending decreased beginning in 2012, which had knock-on effects in the private sector over the following years. The government and its state-owned oil company often invest in large private projects. Decreasing government spending was matched with a decrease in GDP growth.: 18 After the petroleum fund, the second largest source of government income is taxes. Tax revenue is less than 8% of GDP, lower than many other countries in the region and with similarly sized economies. Other government income comes from 23 "autonomous agencies", which include port authorities, infrastructure companies, and the National University of East Timor.: 13, 28–309 Overall, government spending remains among the highest in the world,: 12 although investment into education, health, and water infrastructure is negligible.: 260
Private sector development has lagged due to human capital shortages, infrastructure weakness, an incomplete legal system, and an inefficient regulatory environment. Property rights remain ill-defined, with conflicting titles from Portuguese and Indonesian rule, as well as needing to accommodate traditional customary rights.: 23 As of 2010, 87.7% of urban (321,043 people) and 18.9% of rural (821,459 people) households have electricity, for an overall average of 38.2%. The private sector shrank between 2014 and 2018, despite a growing working age population. Agriculture and manufacturing are less productive per capita than at independence.: 255–256 Non-oil economic sectors have failed to develop, and growth in construction and administration is dependent on oil revenue.: 256 The dependence on oil shows some aspects of a resource curse. Coffee made up 90% of all non-fossil fuel exports from 2013 to 2019, with all such exports totalling to around US$20 million annually.: 257 In 2017, the country was visited by 75,000 tourists.
East Timor recorded a population of 1,183,643 in its 2015 census. The population lives mainly along the coastline, where all urban areas are located.: 27 Those in urban areas generally have more formal education, employment prospects, and healthcare. While a strong gender disparity exists throughout the country, it is less severe in the urban capital. The wealthy minority often go abroad for health, education and other purposes.: 25 The population is young, with the median age being under 20.: 29 In particular, a large proportion of the population (almost 45% in 2015) are males between the ages of 15 and 24, the third largest male 'youth bulge' in the world.: 212
The Government of Timor-Leste's website lists the English-language demonym for East Timor as Timorese. Other reference sources list it as East Timorese. The word Maubere formerly used by the Portuguese to refer to native East Timorese and often employed as synonymous with the illiterate and uneducated, was adopted by Fretilin as a term of pride.
Largest cities and towns in East Timor
Ethnicity and language
Timorese communities are not strictly defined by ethnic background or linguistic group. Separate communities may share ethnicity or language, and many areas show overlaps and hybridisation between ethnic and linguistic groups.
Likely reflecting the mixed origins of the different ethnolinguistic groups of the island, the indigenous languages fall into two language families:
East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum. In addition, English and Indonesian are designated by the constitution as "working languages".: 3  This is within the Final and Transitional Provisions, which do not set a final date. In 2012, 35% could speak, read, and write Portuguese, which is up significantly from less than 5% in the 2006 UN Development Report. Portuguese is recovering as it has now been made the main official language of Timor, and is being taught in most schools. The use of Portuguese for government information and in the court system provides some barriers to access for those who do not speak it. Tetum is also not understood by everyone in the country.: 11 According to the Observatory of the Portuguese Language, the East Timorese literacy rate was 77.8% in Tetum, 55.6% in Indonesian, and 39.3% in Portuguese, and that the primary literacy rate increased from 73% in 2009 to 83% in 2012. According to the 2015 census, 50% of the population between the ages of 14 and 24 can speak and understand Portuguese. The 2015 census found around 15% of those over the age of five were literate in English.
East Timor's adult literacy rate was 68% among adults, and 84% among those aged 15–24, as of 2021. It is slightly higher among women than men.: 27 More girls than boys attend school, although some drop out upon reaching puberty.: 25 As of 2016 22% of working age women (15–49) and 19% of working age men had no education, 15% of women and 18% of men had some primary education, 52% of women and 51% of men had some secondary education, and 11% of women and 12% of men had higher education. Overall, 75% of women and 82% of men were literate.: 2 Primary schools exist throughout the country, although the quality of materials and teaching is often poor. Secondary schools are generally limited to municipal capitals. Education takes up 10% of the national budget.: 27 The country's main university is the National University of East Timor. There are also four colleges.
Since independence, both
While the Constitution of East Timor enshrines the principles of freedom of religion and separation of church and state, Section 45 Comma 1 also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble. Upon independence, the country joined the Philippines to become the only two predominantly Catholic states in Asia, although nearby parts of eastern Indonesia such as Flores and parts of Western New Guinea also have Catholic majorities.
According to the 2015 census, 97.57% of the population is
The number of churches grew from 100 in 1974 to more than 800 in 1994,
The many cultures within East Timor stem from the several waves of
The preservation of traditional beliefs in the face of Indonesian attempts to suppress them became linked to the creation of the country's national identity.: 7–13 This national identity only began to emerge at the very end of Portuguese rule, and further developed during Indonesian rule.: 134–136 Following independence, a civic identity began to develop. This was most clearly expressed through enthusiasm for national-level democracy,: 155–156 and was reflected in politics through a shift from resistance narratives to development ones.: 3 The capital has developed a more cosmopolitan culture, while rural areas maintain stronger traditional practices.: 30 Internal migration into urban areas, especially Dili, creates cultural links between these areas and rural hinterlands. Those in urban areas often continue to identify with a specific rural area, even those with multiple generations born in Dili.: 53–54
The presence of so many ethnic and linguistic groups means cultural practices vary across the country.: 11 These practices reflect historical social structures and practices, where political leaders were regarded as having spiritual powers. Ancestry was an important part of cultural practices, and partly signified leadership. Leaders often had influence over land use, and these leaders continue to play an informal role in land disputes and other aspects of community practice today. An important traditional concept is lulik, or sacredness. Some lulik ceremonies continue to reflect animist beliefs, for example through divination ceremonies which vary throughout the country. Sacred status can also be associated with objects, such as Portuguese flags which have been passed down within families.: 7–13
Community life is centred around sacred houses (Uma Lulik), physical structures which serve as a representative symbol and identifier for each community.: 47–49 The architectural style of these houses varies between different parts of the country, although following widespread destruction by Indonesian forces many were rebuilt with cheap modern materials.: 22–25 The house as a concept extends beyond the physical object to the surrounding community.: 92–93, 96 Kinship systems exist within and between houses. Traditional leaders, who stem from historically important families, retain key roles in administering justice and resolving disputes through methods that vary between communities.: 47–49 Such leaders are often elected to official leadership positions, merging cultural and historical status with modern political status.: 52 The concept of being part of a communal house has been extended to the nation, with Parliament serving as the national sacred house.: 96
Art styles vary throughout the various ethnolinguistic groups of the island. Nonetheless, similar artistic motifs are present throughout, such as large animals and particular geometric patterns. Some art is traditionally associated with particular genders. For example, the Tais textiles that play a widespread role in traditional life throughout the island are traditionally handwoven by women. Different tais patterns are associated with different communities, and more broadly with linguistic groups.: 137 Many buildings within central Dili maintain historical Portuguese architecture.: I-5
Traditional rituals remain important, often mixed in with more modern aspects.: 137 A strong oral history is highlighted in individuals able to recite long stories or poetry. This history, or Lia nain, passes down traditional knowledge.: 16 There remains a strong tradition of poetry. Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a distinguished poet, earning the moniker "poet warrior".
In the field of cinema, East Timor released its first feature-length film, a period thriller titled Beatriz's War, in 2013. Shot with a limited budget by a mix of local filmmakers and a volunteer Australian film crew, the film depicted East Timorese life under Indonesian occupation in the 1970s, with producer Lurdes Pires acknowledging their aim to diverge from the government's "friendship and forgiveness" policy for its past conflicts by telling a story of truth-seeking and justice.
- Outline of East Timor
- Index of East Timor-related articles
- List of topics on the Portuguese Empire in the East
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- "Population by Age & Sex". Government of Timor-Leste. 25 October 2015. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. October 2022. Archived from the original on 24 October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
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- "TL". ISO. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
- "tetun.org". tetun.org. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
- "Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste" (PDF). Government of Timor-Leste. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "UNGEGN list of country names" (PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 2–6 May 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Constituição da República Democrática de Timor" (PDF). Government of Timor-Leste. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Konstituisaun Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste" (PDF). Government of Timor-Leste. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "The Portuguese Colonization and the Problem of East Timorese Nationalism". Archived from the original on 23 November 2006.
- Deeley, Neil (2001). The International Boundaries of East Timor. p. 8.
- "Department of Defence (Australia), 2002, "A Short History of East Timor"". Archived from the original on 3 January 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "Operations and Evacuation of the 2/4th". Western Australian Museum. Archived from the original on 23 October 2022. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
- "About Timor-Leste > Brief History of Timor-Leste: A History". Timor-Leste.gov.tl. Archived from the original on 29 October 2008.
- Jardine, pp. 50–51.
- "Official Web Gateway to the Government of Timor-Leste – Districts". Government of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- "Chega! The report of the commission for reception, truth, and reconciliation Timor-Leste". reliefweb. 28 November 2005. Archived from the original on 24 October 2022. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
- Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999" (PDF). A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). pp. 2–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 December 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
- Lutz, Nancy Melissa (20 November 1991). "Colonization, Decolonization and Integration: Language Policies in East Timor, Indonesia". Australian National University. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
- "Howard pushed me on E Timor referendum: Habibie". ABC News. 15 November 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2022. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
- "One Man's Legacy in East Timor". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
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- Etan/Us (15 February 2000). "UN takes over East Timor command". Etan.org. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Security Council (31 October 2001). "Council Endorses Proposal to Declare East Timor's Independence 20 May 2002". United Nations (Press release). Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "East Timor: More than 1,000 refugees return since beginning of month". ReliefWeb. 10 May 2002. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Constitution of the Democratic Republic of East Timor". refworld. 20 May 2002. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Unanimous Assembly decision makes Timor-Leste 191st United Nations member state" (Press release). United Nations. 27 September 2002. Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "UN wraps up East Timor mission". ABC News (Australia). 30 December 2012. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "East Timor May Be Becoming Failed State". London. 13 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008.
- Ana Gomes (11 April 2007). "Delegation to Observe the Presidential Elections in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste" (PDF). European Parliament. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2022. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
- "Shot East Timor leader 'critical'". BBC News. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "East Timor profile – Timeline". BBC News. 26 February 2018. Archived from the original on 31 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
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Struggle for Independence
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