Education is the transmission of
There are many types of education.
Education socializes children into society by teaching cultural values and norms. It equips them with the skills needed to become productive members of society. This way, it stimulates economic growth and raises awareness of local and global problems. Organized institutions affect many aspects of education. For example, governments set education policies. They determine when school classes happen, what is taught, and who can or must attend. International organizations, like UNESCO, have been influential in promoting primary education for all children.
Many factors influence whether education is successful. Psychological factors include motivation, intelligence, and personality. Social factors, like socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and gender, are often linked to discrimination. Further factors include educational technology, teacher quality, and parent involvement.
The main field investigating education is called
Theorists from various fields have tried to define education. Many agree that education is a purposeful activity trying to achieve certain aims. These aims include the transmission of knowledge, skills, and character traits. However, there are deep disagreements about its exact nature besides these general features. According to some theorists, it is primarily a process that occurs during events like schooling, teaching, and learning. Others understand it not as a process but as the product caused by this process. This means that education is what educated persons have. It includes the mental states and dispositions that are characteristic of them. The term may also refer to an academic field. This discipline studies the methods and processes taking place during teaching and learning. It examines the social institutions involved in these processes. The term "education" is derived from the Latin term educare. It means "bring up, rear, educate", primarily in relation to the mind. It is also connected to the Latin term educere. It means "bring out, lead forth" and refers to the bodily level.
Some theorists provide precise definitions by giving the exact features that are shared by all forms of education and only by them. According to
There is disagreement in the academic literature on whether education is an evaluative concept. This means that being good in some sense is part of the definition of education. So-called thick definitions affirm this. They may claim, for example, that an improvement of the learner is a requirement of education. Different thick definitions may still disagree among themselves on what kind of improvement is needed. Thin definitions, on the other hand, try to give a value-neutral account of education. A closely related distinction is that between descriptive and prescriptive conceptions. Descriptive conceptions aim to describe how the term is actually used by regular speakers. Prescriptive conceptions try to express what good education is or how it should be done.
Many thick and prescriptive conceptions rely on the
Some theorists focus on a single overarching purpose of education and see the more specific aims as means to this end.
Education can be characterized from the teacher's or the student's perspective. Teacher-centered definitions focus on the perspective and role of the teacher. They may claim, for example, that education is the transmission of knowledge and skills in a morally appropriate way. Student-centered definitions, on the other hand, see education from the student's experience in the learning process. For example, they may define it as a process that transforms and enriches their subsequent experience. Definitions taking both perspectives into account are also possible. This can take the form of describing the process as the shared experience of a common world. This shared experience involves discovery as well as posing and solving problems.
There are many classifications of education. It depends on the institutional framework whether education is formal, non-formal, or informal. Levels of education are distinguished based on factors like the student's age and the complexity of the content. Some classifications focus on the learner or the topic. Others rely on the teaching method, the medium used, or the funding.
Formal, non-formal, and informal
Education is often divided into types. The most common division is between formal,
Non-formal and informal education take place outside the formal schooling system. Non-formal education is a middle ground. Like formal education, it is organized, systematic, and carried out with a clear purpose in mind. Examples are tutoring, fitness classes, and the scouting movement. Informal education, on the other hand, happens in an unsystematic way through daily experiences and exposure to the environment. Unlike formal and non-formal education, there is usually no designated authority figure responsible for teaching. Informal education is present in many settings. It happens throughout one's life, mostly in a spontaneous way. This is how children learn their mother tongue from their parents or how people learn to prepare a dish by cooking together.
Some theorists distinguish the three types based on the location of learning. Formal education takes place in school. Informal education occurs in places of everyday routines. Non-formal education happens in places that are occasionally visited. There are also differences in the source of motivation. Formal education is mainly driven by extrinsic motivation for external rewards. Non-formal and informal education are closely linked to intrinsic motivation because the learning itself is enjoyed. The distinction between the three types is normally clear for the typical cases. But some forms of education do not easily fall into one category.
Formal education plays a central role in modern civilization. But in
Types of education are often divided into levels or stages. The most influential framework is the
Early childhood education is also known as
Primary (or elementary) education usually starts at the age of five to seven and lasts for four to seven years. It does not have any further entry requirements. Its main goal is to teach the basic skills in the fields of reading, writing, and mathematics. But it also covers the core knowledge in other fields, like
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. It usually covers the ages of 12 to 18 years. It is commonly divided into lower secondary education (
Upper secondary education aims to provide students with the skills and knowledge needed for employment or tertiary education. Its requirement is usually the completion of lower secondary education. Its subjects are more varied and complex. The students can often choose between a few subjects. Its successful completion is commonly tied to a formal qualification in the form of a high school diploma. There are some types of education after secondary education that do not belong to tertiary education. They are often similar in complexity to secondary education. But they tend to focus more on vocational training to prepare students for the job market.
Tertiary education is also referred to as
Short-cycle tertiary education focuses on practical matters. It includes advanced vocational and professional training to prepare students for the job market in specialized professions.
Many other types of education are discussed in the academic literature, like the distinction between traditional and alternative education. Traditional education concerns long-established and mainstream schooling practices. It uses teacher-centered education and takes place in a well-regulated school environment. Regulations cover many aspects of education, such as the curriculum and the timeframe when classes start and end.
Alternative education is an umbrella term for forms of schooling that differ from the mainstream traditional approach. For example, they may use a different learning environment, teach different subjects, or promote a different teacher-student relationship. Alternative schooling is characterized by voluntary participation, relatively small class and school sizes, and personalized instruction. This often results in a more welcoming and emotionally safe atmosphere. It encompasses many types like
Other distinctions are based on who receives education. Categories by the age of the learner are childhood education, adolescent education, adult education, and elderly education.
Some classifications focus on the teaching method. In
Forms of education can also be categorized by the subject and the medium used. Types based on the subject include
A further distinction is based on the type of funding.
Compulsory education is education that people are legally required to receive. It concerns mainly children who need to visit school up to a certain age. It contrasts with voluntary education, which people pursue by personal choice without a legal requirement.
Evidence-based education uses well-designed scientific studies to determine which methods of education work best. Its goal is to maximize the effectiveness of educational practices and policies. This is achieved by ensuring that they are informed by the best available empirical evidence. It includes evidence-based teaching, evidence-based learning, and school effectiveness research.
Role in society
Education plays various roles in society, including in social, economic, and personal fields. On a social level, education makes it possible to establish and sustain a stable
A further issue is to enable people to become productive members of society by learning how to contribute to it. Through education, individuals acquire the technical and analytical skills needed to pursue their profession, produce goods, and provide services to others. In early societies, there was little specialization and each child would generally learn most of the tasks relevant to help their group. Modern societies are increasingly complex and many professions are only mastered by relatively few people who receive specialized training in addition to general education. Some of the skills and tendencies learned to function in society may conflict with each other and their value depends on the context of their usage. For example, fostering a questioning mind is necessary to develop the ability of critical thinking but in some cases, obedience to an authority is required to ensure social stability.
By helping people become productive members of society, education can stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty. It helps workers become more skilled and thereby increases the quality of the produced goods and services, which in turn leads to prosperity and increased competitiveness. In this regard, public education is often understood as a long-term investment to benefit society as a whole. The rate of return is especially high for investments in primary education. Besides increasing economic prosperity, it can also lead to technological and scientific advances as well as decrease unemployment while promoting social equity.
Education can prepare a country to adapt to changes and successfully face new challenges. For example, it can help raise awareness and contribute to the solution of
On a more individual level, education promotes
The social importance of education is recognized in the annual International Day of Education on January 24. The year 1970 was declared International Education Year.
Role of institutions
Organized institutions play a key role for various aspects of education. Institutions like schools, universities,
Many aspects of formal education are regulated by the
Some influential organizations are not intergovernmental but non-governmental. For example, the International Association of Universities promotes the exchange of colleges and universities around the world. The International Baccalaureate offers international diploma programs. Many institutions, like the Erasmus Programme, facilitate student exchanges between countries.
Factors of educational success
Many factors influence educational achievement. They include psychological factors, which concern the student as an individual, and sociological factors, which pertain to the student's social environment. Further factors include access to educational technology, teacher quality, and parent involvement. Many of these factors overlap and influence each other.
On a psychological level, relevant factors include motivation, intelligence, and personality. Motivation is the internal force propelling people to engage in learning. Motivated students are more likely to interact with the content to be learned by participating in classroom activities like discussions, which often results in a deeper understanding of the subject. It can also help students overcome difficulties and setbacks. An important distinction is between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsically motivated students are driven by an interest in the subject and the learning experience itself. Extrinsically motivated students seek external rewards. They may strive for good grades and recognition by their peers. It is often claimed that intrinsic motivation is more beneficial by leading to increased creativity and engagement as well as long-term commitment. Educational psychologists try to discover how to increase motivation. This can be achieved by encouraging some competition among students. Another factor is to balance positive and negative feedback in the form of praise and criticism.
Intelligence is another important factor in how people respond to education. It is a mental quality linked to the ability to learn from experience, to understand, and to employ knowledge and skills to solve problems. Those who have higher scores in intelligence metrics tend to perform better at school and go on to higher levels of education.
A closely related factor concerns
Unlike psychological factors, sociological factors focus not on the mental attributes of learners but on their social status and environment. They include
Socioeconomic status depends on
Ethnic background is linked to cultural differences and language barriers, which make it more difficult for students to adapt to the school environment and follow classes. Additional factors are explicit and implicit biases and discrimination toward
Historically, gender has been a central factor in education since the roles of males and females were defined differently in many societies. Education tended to strongly favor males, who were expected to provide for the family. Females, on the other hand, were expected to manage the household and rear children, which severely hampered the educational opportunities available to them. And while these inequalities have improved in most modern societies, there are still gender differences in education. Among other things, this concerns biases and stereotypes linked to the role of gender in education. An example is that subjects like science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are often presented as male fields. This discourages female students to follow them.
One aspect of many social factors is given by the expectations associated with stereotypes. On the one hand, they work on an external level based on how people react to a person belonging to a certain group. On the other hand, they also affect the internal level because the person internalizes them and acts accordingly. In this sense, the expectations may turn into
Technology and others
Technology plays another significant role in educational success. Educational technology is commonly associated with the use of modern digital devices, like computers. But understood in the broadest sense, it involves a wide range of resources and tools for learning, including basic aids that do not involve the use of machines, like regular books and worksheets.
Educational technology can benefit learning in various ways. In the form of media, it often takes the role of the primary supplier of information in the classroom. This means that the teacher can focus their time and energy on other tasks, like planning the lesson and guiding students as well as assessing educational performance.
A closely related issue concerns the effects of school infrastructure. It includes various physical aspects of the school, like its location and size as well as the available school facilities and equipment. For example, a healthy and safe environment, well-maintained classrooms, and suitable classroom furniture as well as the availability of a library and a canteen tend to contribute to educational success.
The quality of the teacher also has an important impact on educational success. For example, skilled teachers are able to motivate and inspire students and are able to adjust their instructions to the students' abilities and needs. Important in this regard are the teacher's own education and training as well as their past teaching experience.
An additional factor to boost educational achievement is parent involvement. It can make children more motivated and invested if they are aware that their parents care about their educational efforts. This tends to lead to increased self-esteem, better attendance rates, and more constructive behavior at school. Parent involvement also includes communication with teachers and other school staff, for example, to make other parties aware of current issues and how they may be resolved. Further relevant factors sometimes discussed in the academic literature include historical, political, demographic, religious, and legal aspects.
The main discipline investigating education is called education studies, also referred to as education sciences. It tries to determine how people transmit and acquire knowledge by studying the methods and forms of education. It is interested in its aims, effects, and value as well as the cultural, societal, governmental, and historical contexts that shape education. Education theorists integrate insights from many other fields of inquiry, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, economics, history, politics, and international relations. Because of these influences, some theorists claim that education studies is not an independent academic discipline like physics or history since its method and subject are not as clearly defined. Education studies differs from regular training programs, such as teacher training, since its focus on academic analysis and critical reflection goes beyond the skills needed to be a good teacher. It is not restricted to the topic of formal education but examines all forms and aspects of education.
Education studies encompasses various subfields like
The term "pedagogy" is sometimes used as a synonym for education studies but when understood in a more restricted sense, it refers to the subfield interested in
The psychology of education studies how education happens on the mental level, specifically how new knowledge and skills are acquired as well as how personal growth takes place. It studies the factors responsible for successful education and how these factors may differ from person to person. Important factors include intelligence, motivation, and personality. A central topic in this field is the interplay between
The sociology of education is concerned with how social factors influence education and how it leads to socialization. Social factors differ from mental factors studied by psychology and include aspects like socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and gender. The sociology of education studies how these factors, together with the dominant
The economics of education is the field of inquiry studying how education is produced, distributed, and consumed. It tries to determine how resources should be used to improve education. An example is the question to what extent the quality of teachers is increased by raising their salary. Other questions are how smaller class sizes affect educational success and how to invest in new educational technologies. In this regard, it helps policy-makers decide how to distribute the limited resources most efficiently to benefit society as a whole. It also tries to understand what long-term role education plays for the economy of a country by providing a highly skilled labor force and increasing its competitiveness. A closely related issue concerns the economic advantages and disadvantages of different systems of education.
Comparative education is the discipline that examines and contrasts systems of education. Comparisons can happen from a general perspective or focus on specific factors, like social, political, or economic aspects. It is often applied to different countries to assess the similarities and differences of their educational institutions and practices as well as to evaluate the consequences of the distinct approaches. It can be used to learn from other countries which education policies work and how one's own system of education may be improved.
The history of education examines the evolution of educational practices, systems, and institutions. It discusses various key processes, their possible causes and effects, and their relations to each other.
Aims and ideologies
A central topic in education studies concerns questions like why people should be educated and what goals should guide this process. Many aims of education have been suggested. On a basic level, education is about the acquisition of knowledge and skills but may also include personal development and fostering of character traits. Common suggestions encompass features like
Educational ideologies are systems of basic philosophical assumptions and principles. They cover various additional issues besides the aims of education, like what topics are learned and how the learning activity is structured. Other topics include the role of the teacher and how the results are to be assessed. They also include claims on how to structure the institutional framework and policies. There are many ideologies and they often overlap in various ways. For example, teacher-centered ideologies place the main emphasis on the teacher's role in transmitting knowledge to students. Student-centered ideologies give a more active role to the students in the process. Product-based ideologies discuss education from the perspective of the result to be achieved. They contrast with process-based ideologies, which focus on the processes of teaching and learning themselves. Another classification contrasts
Learning theories and teaching
The teaching method concerns the way the content is presented by the teacher, for example, whether group work is used instead of a focus on individual learning. There are many teaching methods available. Which one is most efficient in a case depends on various factors, like the subject matter as well as the learner's age and
Further aspects of teaching methods include the instructional media used, such as books, worksheets, and audio-visual recordings, and having some form of test or assessment to evaluate the learning progress. An important pedagogical aspect in many forms of modern education is that each lesson is part of a larger educational enterprise governed by a syllabus. It often covers several months or years. According to Herbartianism, teaching is divided into phases. The initial phase consists of preparing the student's mind for new information. Next, new ideas are first presented to the learner and then associated with ideas with which the learner is already familiar. In later phases, the understanding shifts to a more general level behind the specific instances and the ideas are then put into concrete practice.
The history of education studies the processes, methods, and institutions involved in teaching and learning. It tries to explain how they have interacted with each other and shaped educational practice until the present day.
Another key aspect of ancient education was the establishment of formal education. This became necessary since the amount of knowledge grew as civilizations evolved and informal education proved insufficient to transmit all knowledge from one generation to the next. Teachers would act as specialists to impart knowledge and education became more abstract and further removed from daily life. Formal education was still quite rare in ancient societies and was restricted to the intellectual elites. It happened in the form of training
In the medieval period, religious authorities had a lot of influence over formal education. This applied specifically to the role of the
The invention and popularization of the
These changes prepared the rise of public education in the 18th and 19th centuries. This period saw the establishment of publicly funded schools with the aim of providing education for all. This contrasts with earlier periods, where formal education was primarily provided by private institutions, religious institutions, and individual tutors. Aztec civilization was an exception in this regard since formal education was mandatory for the youth regardless of social class as early as the 14th century. Closely related changes were to make education compulsory and free of charge for all children up to a certain age. Initiatives to promote public education and universal access to education made significant progress in the 20th and the 21st centuries and were promoted by intergovernmental organizations like the UN. Examples include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Education for All initiative, the Millennium Development Goals, and the Sustainable Development Goals. These efforts resulted in a steady rise of all forms of education but affected primary education in particular. For example, in 1970, 28% of all primary-school-age children worldwide did not attend school while by 2015, this number dropped to 9%.
A side effect of the establishment of public education was the introduction of standardized curricula for public schools as well as standardized tests to assess the students' progress. It also affected teachers by setting in place institutions and norms to guide and oversee teacher training, for example, by establishing certification standards for teaching at public schools.
A further influence on contemporary education was the emergence of new educational technologies. For example, the widespread availability of computers and the internet dramatically increased access to educational resources and made new types of education possible, such as online education. This was of particular relevance during the
- Bildung – German tradition of self-cultivation
- Co-teaching – teaching approach involving two educators
- Educational institution – Institution that provides education
- Glossary of education terms
- Index of education articles
- List of education articles by country
- Mixed-sex education – System of education where males and females are educated together
- Outline of education – Overview of and topical guide to education
- School – Institution for the education of students by teachers
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