Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Coordinates: 59°N 26°E / 59°N 26°E / 59; 26

Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik (Estonian)
Ethnic groups (2022)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Alar Karis
Kaja Kallas
Independence restored
20 August 1991
1 May 2004
€) (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+372
ISO 3166 codeEE
Internet TLD.eeb
  1. According to the Constitution of Estonia, Estonian is the sole official language.
  2. Also .eu, shared with other member states of the European Union.

Estonia,[a] formally the Republic of Estonia,[b] is a country by the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland, the larger islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, and over 2,200 other islands and islets on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea,[9] covering a total area of 45,339 square kilometres (17,505 sq mi).[2] The capital city Tallinn and Tartu are the two largest urban areas of the country. The Estonian language is the autochthonous and the official language of Estonia; it is the first language of the majority of its population, as well as the world's second most spoken Finnic language.

The land of what is now modern Estonia has been inhabited by

USSR as an administrative subunit (Estonian SSR). After the loss of its de facto independence to the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. Following the bloodless Estonian "Singing Revolution" of 1988–1990, the nation's de facto independence was restored on 20 August 1991

Estonia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy, ranking very highly in the Human Development Index.[11] The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic, administratively subdivided into 15 maakond (counties). With a population of just over 1.3 million, it is one of the least populous members of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the Schengen Area, and NATO. Estonia is nowadays often considered to be one of the three "Baltic countries" or "Baltic states" — a geopolitical grouping which also includes Latvia and Lithuania. Estonia has consistently ranked highly in international rankings for quality of life,[12] education,[13] press freedom, digitalisation of public services[14][15] and the prevalence of technology companies.[16]


The name Estonia (

Scandinavian sagas referring to Eistland are the earliest known sources to use the name indisputably for a geographic area overlapping with what is now Estonia.[19] The toponym Estland/Eistland has been linked to Old Norse eist, austr meaning "the east".[20]


Prehistory and Viking Age

Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000-11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last

river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in southwest Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating, it was settled around 11,000 years ago.[21]

The earliest human habitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing.[22] Around 4900 BC, ceramics appear of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture.[23] Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared; this included new activities like primitive agriculture and animal husbandry.[24]

Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna[25]

The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements.[26] A transition from hunter-fisher subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, and was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC.[21][27] The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes.[28]


Kievan Rus led by Yaroslav the Wise defeated Estonians and established a fort in modern-day Tartu. This foothold may have lasted until ca 1061 when an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it, followed by their raid on Pskov.[31][32][33][34] Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians. In 1187 Estonians (Oeselians), Curonians or/and Karelians sacked Sigtuna, which was a major city of Sweden at the time.[35][36]

Estonia could be divided into two main cultural areas. The coastal areas of Northern and Western Estonia had close overseas contacts with Scandinavia and Finland, while inland Southern Estonia had more contacts with Balts and Pskov.[37] The landscape of Ancient Estonia featured numerous hillforts.[38] Prehistoric or medieval harbour sites have been found on the coast of Saaremaa.[38] Estonia also has a number of graves from the Viking Age, both individual and collective, with weapons and jewellery including types found commonly throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia.[38][39]

In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (Estonian: kihelkond) and the county (Estonian:

Ugandi, and Virumaa; and six minor, single-parish counties: Alempois, Jogentagana, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Soopoolitse, and Vaiga. Counties were independent entities and engaged only in a loose cooperation against foreign threats.[40][41]

Little is known of medieval Estonians' spiritual and religious practices before

sacred groves, especially groves of oak trees, having served as places of "pagan" worship.[42][43]

Crusades and the Catholic Era

In 1199, Pope

Reval, but the crusaders soon resumed their offensive, and in 1227, Saaremaa was the last maakond (county) to surrender.[47][48]

After the crusade, the territory of present-day Southern Estonia and Latvia was named

St. George's Night Uprising, encompassing the whole area of northern Estonia and Saaremaa. The Teutonic Order finished suppressing the rebellion in 1345, and the next year the Danish king sold his possessions in Estonia to the Order.[51][52] The unsuccessful rebellion led to a consolidation of power for the upper-class German minority.[53] For the subsequent centuries Low German remained the language of the ruling elite in both Estonian cities and the countryside.[54]

Livonian Confederation Agreement was signed on 4 December 1435.[58]

Post-Reformation Era

The Reformation began in central Europe in 1517, and soon spread northward to Livonia despite some opposition by the Livonian Order.[59] Towns were the first to embrace Protestantism in the 1520s, and by the 1530s the majority of the landowners and rural population had adopted Lutheranism as well.[60][61] Church services were now conducted in vernacular language, which initially meant Low German, but already from the 1530s onward the regular religious services were also held in the Estonian language.[60][62]

During the 16th century, the expansionist monarchies of Muscovy, Sweden, and Poland–Lithuania consolidated power, posing a growing threat to decentralised Livonia weakened by disputes between cities, nobility, bishops, and the Order.[60][63]

In 1558, Tsar Ivan the Terrible of Russia (Muscovy) invaded Livonia, starting the Livonian War. The Livonian Order was decisively defeated in 1560, prompting Livonian factions to seek foreign protection. The majority of Livonia accepted Polish rule, while Reval and the nobles of Northern Estonia swore loyalty to the Swedish king, and the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his lands to the Danish king. Russian forces gradually conquered the majority of Livonia, but in the late 1570s the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies started their own offensives and the bloody war finally ended in 1583 with Russian defeat.[63][64] As a result of the war, Northern Estonia became Swedish Duchy of Estonia, Southern Estonia became Polish Duchy of Livonia, and Saaremaa remained under Danish control.[65]

In 1600, the

Polish–Swedish War broke out, causing further devastation. The protracted war ended in 1629 with Sweden gaining Livonia, including the regions of Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia.[66] Danish Saaremaa was transferred to Sweden in 1645.[67] The wars had halved the population of Estonia from about 250–270,000 people in the mid 16th century to 115–120,000 in the 1630s.[68]

While many peasants remained in the status of

Printing presses were also established in both towns. In the 1680s the beginnings of Estonian elementary education appeared, largely due to efforts of Bengt Gottfried Forselius, who also introduced orthographical reforms to written Estonian.[70] The population of Estonia grew rapidly for a 60–70-year period, until the Great Famine of 1695–97 in which some 70,000–75,000 people died – about 20% of the population.[71]

In 1700, the Great Northern War started, and by 1710 the whole of Estonia was conquered by the Russian Empire.[72] The war again devastated the population of Estonia, with the 1712 population estimated at only 150,000–170,000.[73] In 1721, Estonia was divided into two governorates: the governorate of Estonia, which includes the northern part of Estonia (such as the Tallinn area), and the southern governorate of Livonia, which extends to the northern part of Latvia.[74] Russian administration restored all the political and landholding rights of Baltic Germans.[75] The rights of local farmers reached their lowest point, as serfdom completely dominated agricultural relations during the 18th century.[76] Serfdom was formally abolished in 1816–1819, but this initially had very little practical effect; major improvements in farmers' rights started with reforms in the mid-19th century.[77]

National Awakening

The Estonian national awakening began in the 1850s as several leading figures started promoting an Estonian national identity among the general populace. Widespread farm buyouts by Estonians and the resulting rapidly growing class of land-owning farmers provided the economic basis for the formation of this new "Estonian identity". In 1857 Johann Voldemar Jannsen started publishing the first Estonian language daily newspaper and began popularising the denomination of oneself as eestlane (Estonian).[78] Schoolmaster Carl Robert Jakobson and clergyman Jakob Hurt became leading figures in a national movement, encouraging Estonian farmers to take pride in their ethnic Estonian identity.[79] The first nationwide movements formed, such as a campaign to establish the Estonian language Alexander School, the founding of the Society of Estonian Literati and the Estonian Students' Society, and the first national song festival, held in 1869 in Tartu.[80][81][82] Linguistic reforms helped to develop the Estonian language.[83] The national epic Kalevipoeg was published in 1862, and 1870 saw the first performances of Estonian theatre.[84][85] In 1878 a major split happened in the national movement. The moderate wing led by Hurt focused on development of culture and Estonian education, while the radical wing led by Jacobson started demanding increased political and economical rights.[81]

At the end of the 19th century, Russification began, as the central government initiated various administrative and cultural measures to tie Baltic governorates more closely to the empire.[80] The Russian language replaced German and Estonian in most secondary schools and universities, and many social and cultural activities in local languages were suppressed.[85] Still, some administrative changes aimed at reducing the power of Baltic German institutions did prove useful to Estonians.[80] In the late 1890s, there was a new surge of nationalism with the rise of prominent figures like Jaan Tõnisson and Konstantin Päts. In the early 20th century, Estonians started taking over control of local governments in towns from Germans.[86]

During the 1905 Revolution, the first legal Estonian political parties were founded. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded the unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification. The unrest was accompanied by both peaceful political demonstrations and violent riots with looting in the commercial district of Tallinn and in a number of wealthy landowners' manors in the Estonian countryside. The Tsarist government responded with a brutal crackdown; some 500 people were executed and hundreds more jailed or deported to Siberia.[87][88]


In 1917, after the

seized power in Estonia in November 1917, and disbanded the Provincial Assembly. However, the Provincial Assembly established the Salvation Committee, and during the short interlude between Russian retreat and German arrival, the committee declared the independence of Estonia on 24 February 1918, and formed the Estonian Provisional Government. German occupation immediately followed, but after their defeat in World War I the Germans were forced to hand over power to the Provisional Government on 19 November 1918.[90][91]

On 28 November 1918

Tartu Peace Treaty was signed by Estonia and Soviet Russia, with the latter pledging to permanently give up all sovereign claims to Estonia.[93][95]

In April 1919, the

era of silence", when the parliament did not reconvene and the newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political movement for the time being.[102] A new constitution was adopted in a referendum, and elections were held in 1938. Both pro-government and opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, as all political parties remained suspended under continued state of emergency.[103] The Päts régime was relatively benign compared to other authoritarian régimes in interwar Europe, and the régime never used violence against political opponents.[104]

Estonia joined the League of Nations in 1921.[105] Attempts to establish a larger alliance together with Finland, Poland, and Latvia failed, with only a mutual-defence pact being signed with Latvia in 1923, and later was followed up with the Baltic Entente of 1934.[106][107] In the 1930s, Estonia also engaged in secret military co-operation with Finland.[108] Non-aggression pacts were signed with the Soviet Union in 1932, and with Germany in 1939.[105][109] In 1939, Estonia declared neutrality, but this proved futile in World War II.[110]

World War II, Soviet and German Occupations

Nazi-Soviet Pact
"the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)

On 23 August 1939,

Estonian SSR.[115]

The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty

The USSR established an oppressive regime. Most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards. Soviet repressions culminated on 14 June 1941 with

Forest Brothers"[118]) began against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 in the form of the "Summer War" (Estonian: Suvesõda), around 34,000 young Estonian men were forcibly drafted into the Red Army, fewer than 30% of whom survived the war. Soviet destruction battalions initiated a scorched earth policy. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD.[119][120] Many Estonians went into the forest, starting an anti-Soviet guerrilla campaign. In July, German Wehrmacht reached south Estonia. The USSR evacuated Tallinn in late August with massive losses, and capture of the Estonian islands was completed by German forces in October.[121]

The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front
in March 1944

Initially, many Estonians were hopeful that Germany would help to restore Estonia's independence, but this soon proved to be in vain. Only a puppet

Soviet prisoners of war perished.[123] German occupation authorities started recruiting men into small volunteer units but, as these efforts provided meagre results and military situation worsened, a forced conscription was instituted in 1943, eventually leading to formation of the Estonian Waffen-SS division.[124] Thousands of Estonians who did not want to fight in the German military secretly escaped to Finland, where many volunteered to fight together with Finns against Soviets.[125]

The Red Army reached the Estonian borders again in early 1944, but its advance into Estonia was stopped in

a major offensive from the south, forcing the Germans to abandon mainland Estonia in September, with the Estonian islands being abandoned in November.[126] As German forces were retreating from Tallinn, the last pre-war prime minister Jüri Uluots appointed a government headed by Otto Tief in an unsuccessful attempt to restore Estonia's independence.[128] Tens of thousands of people, including most of the Estonian Swedes, fled westwards to avoid the new Soviet occupation.[129]

Overall, Estonia lost about 25% of its population through deaths, deportations and evacuations in World War II.

Second Soviet occupation (1944–1991)

Thousands of Estonians opposing the second Soviet occupation joined a guerrilla movement known as the "

Forest Brothers". The armed resistance was heaviest in the first few years after the war, but Soviet authorities gradually wore it down through attrition, and resistance effectively ceased to exist in the mid-1950s.[132] The Soviets initiated a policy of collectivisation, but as farmers remained opposed to it a campaign of terror was unleashed. In March 1949 about 20,000 Estonians were deported to Siberia. Collectivization was fully completed soon afterwards.[116][133]

The Russian-dominated occupation authorities under the Soviet Union began

Finnish television in the northern parts of the country due to a good signal range, thus getting a better picture of the way of life behind the Iron Curtain. Watching Finnish television was unauthorized, but nevertheless it was watched with a special device made for this purpose.[141]

The United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the majority of other Western countries

diplomatic representatives which Western governments continued to recognise.[143][144]

Restoration of independence

The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann
tower on February 24, 1989.

The introduction of

Soviet authorities recognised Estonian independence on 6 September, and on 17 September Estonia was admitted into the

Russian army left Estonia in 1994.[154]

In 1992 radical economic reforms were launched for switching over to a market economy, including privatisation and currency reform.[155] Estonia has been a member of the WTO since 13 November 1999.[156]

21st century

The foreign ministers of the NATO
countries in Tallinn in April 2010

Since regaining independence in 1991, Estonian foreign policy has been aligned with other

In 2021, during the 2021–2022 Belarus–European Union border crisis, Estonia strengthened its border with Russia by fencing it with 40 kilometres (25 mi) of barbed wire and inviting almost 1,700 reservists to a preparedness exercise.[161][162]

In August 2022, half a year later after Russia launched its invasion of Ukraine, Estonia began removing Soviet-era monuments, beginning with a T-34 tank in Narva, saying it was necessary for public order and internal security.[163][164]


Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland, on the level northwestern part of the East European Plain between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only 50 metres (164 ft) and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at 318 metres (1,043 ft). There are 3,794 kilometres (2,357 mi) of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. Estonia's number of islands and islets in the Baltic Sea is estimated at some 2,222, and the country has 2,355 including those in lakes. Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa.[165][166] A small, recent cluster of meteorite craters, the largest of which is called Kaali, is found on Saaremaa.

Estonia has over

bogs. Forest land covers 50% of Estonia.[168] The most common tree species are pine, spruce and birch.[169]

Phytogeographically, Estonia is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Estonia belongs to the ecoregion of Sarmatic mixed forests.[170]

Baltic peoples (Lithuanians and Latvians), the majority in Estonia (Estonians) are culturally and linguistically Finnic.[171]


Estonia is situated in the northern part of the

maritime and continental climate
. The climate is more continental in the eastern part of the country and more maritime in the western part, especially on the islands. Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from 17.8 °C (64.0 °F) on the islands to 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) inland in July, the warmest month, and from −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) on the islands to −5.3 °C (22.5 °F) inland in February, the coldest month. The average annual temperature in Estonia is 6.4 °C (43.5 °F).[172] Annual average precipitation is 662 mm.[173] The average for the year is 1829.6 hours of sunshine.[174] The duration of sunshine is highest in coastal areas and lowest inland in northern Estonia.[citation needed]


Many species extinct in most other European countries can be still found in Estonia. Large

national bird of Estonia.[179]

territorial sea. There are 6 national parks, 159 nature reserves, and many other protection areas.[180] It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.05/10, ranking it 152nd globally out of 172 countries.[181]

Clearcutting is the dominant logging method in Estonia, used in 95% of total felling. And logging, in part for biomass, is contributing to the devastation of some of the world's most precious conservation areas. Between 2001 and 2019, Estonia's Natura 2000 areas lost an area more than twice the size of Manhattan, due in part to demand for biomass. Investigations show that companies like Graanul Invest—Europe's biggest pellet producer—and its subsidiaries (including Valga Puu), have clearcut large areas (the size of 17 football fields) of forests in both Estonia's Haanja and Otepää nature reserves. Estonian NGOs also report that industry actively lobbies for the weakening of Estonian regulations protecting these reserves.[182] At the same time, Estonia's current Minister of the Environment Erki Savisaar has announced that the Estonian government intends to dispute Estonia's obligations to reduce logging in accordance with the European Commission's climate package.[183]

As a result of loss of biodiversity, there are around 100,000 breeding pairs of birds less in Estonia than in previous years. Approximately half of Estonia's territory is covered with forests, but in fact, only one to two per cent of it can be considered truly natural old-growth forests – the rest is young and managed.[184] Species that need old forest habitats are also not doing well, with lynx and the flying squirrel moved down one endangerment category. Species that require wild meadow habitats are not doing well either.[185]

Across Estonia, between 2001 and 2019, Natura 2000 areas lost more than 15,000 hectares (37,000 acres) of forest cover. The last five years account for 80% of that loss. Further alterations to rules in other Estonian national parks are planned. This practice is also being pursued by RMK,[186] the state forest management company, which manages around half of Estonian forests.[187]

European Commission recently initiated infringement proceedings against Estonia for failing to properly implement the environmental impact assessment requirements laid down in EU law when permitting logging at Natura 2000 sites. Foreign media has also drawn attention to increasingly extensive logging in protected Estonian forests. For example, an investigative article published in Ingenioren, a Danish weekly newspaper specializing in engineering topics, highlighted that Estonian and Latvian wood pellets come from Natura 2000 protected areas and the annual increase in felling volumes is due to demand from other countries, including Denmark, for heating with CO2-neutral biomass.[188] The activities of the Estonian Ministry of the Environment directly violate EU measures to restrict protected forests, in particular the requirements and principles of the European Habitats Directive.[189]

Amidst the other concern with regards to loss of biodiversity, there are now proposals put forward by the Estonian Ministry of Environment to slash water body shoreline protected zones to 20 meters.[190] The legal amendment, if it were to pass, would particularly affect Estonia's islands, where protected zones are 200 meters from the shore, causing concern in nature conservationists.[191]


Estonia is a unitary parliamentary republic. The unicameral parliament Riigikogu serves as the legislative and the government as the executive.[192]

Estonian parliament Riigikogu is elected by citizens over 18 years of age for a four-year term by proportional representation, and has 101 members. Riigikogu's responsibilities include approval and preservation of the national government, passing legal acts, passing the state budget, and conducting parliamentary supervision. On proposal of the president Riigikogu appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the chairman of the board of the Bank of Estonia, the Auditor General, the Legal Chancellor, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces.[193][194]

The Government of Estonia is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia at recommendation of the President, and approved by the Riigikogu. The government, headed by the Prime Minister, represent the political leadership of the country and carry out domestic and foreign policy. Ministers head ministries and represent its interests in the government. Sometimes ministers with no associated ministry are appointed, known as ministers without portfolio.[195] Estonia has been ruled by coalition governments because no party has been able to obtain an absolute majority in the parliament.[192]

Toompea Castle pink stucco three-story building with red hip roof
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle

The head of the state is the President who has primarily representative and ceremonial role. There are no referendums on the election of the president, but the president is elected by the Riigikogu, or by a special electoral college.[196] The President proclaims the laws passed in the Riigikogu, and has right to refuse proclamation and return law in question for a new debate and decision. If Riigikogu passes the law unamended, then the President has right to propose to the Supreme Court to declare the law unconstitutional. The President also represents the country in international relations.[192][197]

The Constitution of Estonia also provides possibility for direct democracy through referendum, although since adoption of the constitution in 1992 the only referendum has been the referendum on European Union membership in 2003.[198]

Estonia has pursued the development of the e-government, with 99 percent of the public services being available on the web 24 hours a day.[199] In 2005 Estonia became the first country in the world to introduce nationwide binding Internet voting in local elections of 2005.[200] In 2019 parliamentary elections 44% of the total votes were cast over the internet.[201]

In the most recent

new government was a two-party coalition between the country's two biggest political parties Reform Party and Centre Party.[204] In July 2022, Prime Minister Kaja Kallas formed a new three-party coalition by her liberal Reform Party, the Social Democrats, and the conservative Isamaa party. Her previous government had lost its parliamentary majority after the centre-left Centre Party left the coalition.[205]


Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu

The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law, establishing the constitutional order based on five principles: human dignity, democracy, rule of law, social state, and the Estonian identity.[206] Estonia has a civil law legal system based on the Germanic legal model.[207] The court system has a three-level structure. The first instance are county courts which handle all criminal and civil cases, and administrative courts which hear complaints about government and local officials, and other public disputes. The second instance are district courts which handle appeals about the first instance decisions.[208] The Supreme Court is the court of cassation, and also conducts constitutional review, it has 19 members.[209] The judiciary is independent, judges are appointed for life, and can be removed from office only when convicted by court for a criminal deed.[210] The Estonian justice system has been rated among the most efficient in the European Union by the EU Justice Scoreboard.[211]

Foreign relations

Estonia was a member of the

European Union Agency for large-scale IT systems is based in Tallinn, which started operations at the end of 2012.[214] Estonia held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second half of 2017.[215]

Since the early 1990s, Estonia has been involved in active trilateral

Nordic Battle Group, and in 2011 were invited to co-operate with Nordic Defence Cooperation in selected activities.[223][224][225][226]

Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga
, 2016

The beginning of the attempt to redefine Estonia as "Nordic" was seen in December 1999, when then Estonian foreign minister (and President of Estonia from 2006 until 2016) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs,[227] with potential political calculation behind it being wish to distinguish Estonia from more slowly progressing southern neighbours, which could have postponed early participation in European Union enlargement for Estonia too.[228] Andres Kasekamp argued in 2005, that relevance of identity discussions in Baltic states decreased with their entrance into EU and NATO together, but predicted, that in the future, attractiveness of Nordic identity in Baltic states will grow and eventually, five Nordic states plus three Baltic states will become a single unit.[228]

Other Estonian international organisation memberships include

IMF, the Council of the Baltic Sea States,[213][229][230] and on 7 June 2019, was elected a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council for a two-year term that began on 1 January 2020.[231]

Relations with Russia remain generally cold, though there is some practical co-operation.[232]

Estonia has very actively supported Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, providing highest support relative to its gross domestic product.[233]


The Estonian Defence Forces consist of land forces, navy, and air force. The current national military service is compulsory for healthy men between ages of 18 and 28, with conscripts serving 8 or 11-month tours of duty, depending on their education and position provided by the Defence Forces.[234] The peacetime size of the Estonian Defence Forces is about 6,000 persons, with half of those being conscripts. The planned wartime size of the Defence Forces is 60,000 personnel, including 21,000 personnel in high readiness reserve.[235] Since 2015 the Estonian defence budget has been over 2% of GDP, fulfilling its NATO defence spending obligation.[236]

The Estonian Defence League is a voluntary national defence organisation under management of Ministry of Defence. It is organised based on military principles, has its own military equipment, and provides various different military training for its members, including in guerilla tactics. The Defence League has 16,000 members, with additional 10,000 volunteers in its affiliated organisations.[237][238]

Estonia co-operates with Latvia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives. As part of Baltic Air Surveillance Network (BALTNET) the three countries manage the Baltic airspace control center, Baltic Battalion (BALTBAT) has participated in the NATO Response Force, and a joint military educational institution Baltic Defence College is located in Tartu.[239]

Estonia joined NATO in 2004. NATO

Russian war in Ukraine, since 2017 NATO Enhanced Forward Presence battalion battle group has been based in Tapa Army Base.[241] Also part of NATO Baltic Air Policing deployment has been based in Ämari Air Base since 2014.[242] In European Union Estonia participates in Nordic Battlegroup and Permanent Structured Cooperation.[243][244]

Since 1995 Estonia has participated in numerous international security and peacekeeping missions, including: Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, Kosovo, and Mali.[245] The peak strength of Estonian deployment in Afghanistan was 289 soldiers in 2009.[246] 11 Estonian soldiers have been killed in missions of Afghanistan and Iraq.[247]

Administrative divisions

Estonia is a unitary country with a single-tier local government system. Local affairs are managed autonomously by local governments. Since administrative reform in 2017, there are in total 79 local governments, including 15 towns and 64 rural municipalities. All municipalities have equal legal status and form part of a maakond (county), which is an administrative subunit of the state.[248] Representative body of local authorities is municipal council, elected at general direct elections for a four-year term. The council appoints local government, headed by a mayor. For additional decentralization the local authorities may form municipal districts with limited authority, currently those have been formed in Tallinn and Hiiumaa.[249]

Separately from administrative units, there are also settlement units: village, small borough, borough, and town. Generally, villages have less than 300, small boroughs have between 300 and 1000, boroughs and towns have over 1000 inhabitants.[249]


As a member of the European Union, Estonia is considered a high-income economy by the World Bank. The GDP (PPP) per capita of the country was $29,312 in 2016 according to the International Monetary Fund.[6] Because of its rapid growth, Estonia has often been described as a Baltic Tiger beside Lithuania and Latvia. Beginning 1 January 2011, Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state.[250]

According to Eurostat, Estonia had the lowest ratio of government debt to GDP among EU countries at 6.7% at the end of 2010.[251] A balanced budget, almost non-existent

and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's market economy.

Estonia produces about 75% of its consumed electricity.

Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities.[citation needed] The railroad serves as a conduit between the West, Russia, and other points.[citation needed

aerial view of high rises at sunset
The central business district of Tallinn

Because of the

global economic recession that began in 2007, the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.4% in the 2nd quarter of 2008, over 3% in the 3rd quarter of 2008, and over 9% in the 4th quarter of 2008. The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu. The revenue of the budget was decreased for 2008 by EEK 6.1 billion and the expenditure by EEK 3.2 billion.[257] In 2010, the economic situation stabilised and started a growth based on strong exports. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Estonian industrial output increased by 23% compared to the year before. The country has been experiencing economic growth ever since.[258]

According to Eurostat data, Estonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 67% of the EU average in 2008.[259] In 2017, the average monthly gross salary in Estonia was €1221.[260]

However, there are vast disparities in GDP between different areas of Estonia; currently, over half of the country's GDP is created in Tallinn.[261] In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average,[262] which makes the per capita GDP of Tallinn as high as 115% of the European Union average, exceeding the average levels of other counties.

The unemployment rate in March 2016 was 6.4%, which is below the EU average,[260] while real GDP growth in 2011 was 8.0%,[263] five times the euro-zone average. In 2012, Estonia remained the only euro member with a budget surplus, and with a national debt of only 6%, it is one of the least indebted countries in Europe.[264]

Economic indicators

Estonia's economy continues to benefit from a transparent government and policies that sustain a high level of

Ease of Doing Business Index by the World Bank Group places the country 16th in the world.[268] The strong focus on the IT sector through its e-Estonia program has led to much faster, simpler and efficient public services where for example filing a tax return takes less than five minutes and 98% of banking transactions are conducted through the internet.[269][270] Estonia has the 13th lowest business bribery risk in the world, according to TRACE Matrix.[271]

Estonia is a

maternity leave in the OECD.[278] One of the world's most digitally-advanced societies,[279]
in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the

Historic development

In 1928, a stable currency, the kroon, was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. The word kroon (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈkroːn], "crown") is related to that of the other Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona and the Danish and Norwegian krone). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was used until 1940. After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992.[citation needed]


Land Value Tax is levied which is used to fund local municipalities. It is a state-level tax, but 100% of the revenue is used to fund Local Councils. The rate is set by the Local Council within the limits of 0.1–2.5%. It is one of the most important sources of funding for municipalities.[283] The Land Value Tax is levied on the value of the land only with improvements and buildings not considered. Very few exemptions are considered on the land value tax and even public institutions are subject to the tax.[283] The tax has contributed to a high rate (~90%)[283] of owner-occupied residences within Estonia, compared to a rate of 67.4% in the United States.[284]

In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991, largely because of the impact of the

OECD in 2010.[285]



Tallinn Stock Exchange. It was the first time in nearly 20 years in Estonia when a state-owned company went public in Estonia. It was also the 2nd largest IPO in Nasdaq Tallinn in the number of retail investors participating. The Republic of Estonia remains the largest shareholder and holds 67% of the company.[286]

Owned by



Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport in Tallinn is the largest airport in Estonia and serves as a hub for the national airline Nordica, as well as the secondary hub for AirBaltic[287] and LOT Polish Airlines.[288] Total passengers using the airport has increased on average by 14.2% annually since 1998. On 16 November 2012 Tallinn Airport has reached two million passenger landmark for the first time in its history.[289]


total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.[291][292]

Although Estonia is in general resource-poor, the land still offers a large variety of smaller resources. The country has large oil shale and limestone deposits, along with forests that cover 48% of the land.[293] In addition to oil shale and limestone, Estonia also has large reserves of phosphorite, pitchblende, and granite that currently are not mined, or not mined extensively.[294]

Significant quantities of

loparite mining at Sillamäe.[295] Because of the rising prices of rare earths, extraction of these oxides has become economically viable. The country currently exports around 3000 tonnes per annum, representing around 2% of world production.[296]

Since 2008, public debate has discussed whether Estonia should build a nuclear power plant to secure energy production after closure of old units in the Narva Power Plants, if they are not reconstructed by 2016.[297][298]

Industry and environment

Rõuste wind turbines next to wetland
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish

Food, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia's industry.[

Ida-Viru county
and around Tallinn.

The oil shale-based

sulphur dioxide from the mining industry the Soviet Union rapidly developed in the early 1950s. In some areas, coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe industrial complex.[301]

Estonia is dependent on other countries for energy. In recent years, many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources.[

MW; another roughly 399 MW worth of projects are currently being developed and more than 2800 MW being proposed in the Lake Peipus area and coastal areas of Hiiumaa.[302][303][304]

Currently[when?], there are plans to renovate some older units of the Narva Power Plants, establish new power stations, and provide higher efficiency in oil shale-based energy production.[305] Estonia liberalised 35% of its electricity market in April 2010; the electricity market as whole was to be liberalised by 2013.[306]

Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country considered participating in constructing the

Fukushima disaster and bad example of Olkiluoto plant), Eesti Energia shifted its main focus to shale oil production, seen as far more profitable.[309]

The Estonian electricity network forms a part of the

Estonia has a strong information technology

e-residency program
began offering those services to non-residents in Estonia.

Wise (formerly known as TransferWise). It has been reported that Estonia has the highest startups per person ratio in the world.[313] As of January 2022, there are 1,291 startups from Estonia, seven of which are unicorns, equalling nearly 1 startup per 1,000 Estonians.[314][315]


Estonia has had a

public debt

In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which was pegged to the Euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries. Estonia exports mainly machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products.[318] Estonia also exports 1.562 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[318] At the same time Estonia imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products and transportation equipment.[318] Estonia imports 200 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[318]

Between 2007 and 2013, Estonia received 53.3 billion kroons (3.4 billion euros) from various European Union Structural Funds as direct supports, creating the largest foreign investments into Estonia.[319] Majority of the European Union financial aid will be invested into the following fields: energy economies, entrepreneurship, administrative capability, education, information society, environment protection, regional and local development, research and development activities, healthcare and welfare, transportation and labour market.[320] Main sources of foreign direct investments to Estonia are Sweden and Finland (As of 31 December 2016 48.3%).[321]


Residents of Estonia by ethnicity (2021)[322]
The population of Estonia, from 1960 to 2019, with a peak in 1990.
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.[323]

Before World War II, ethnic


The share of Baltic Germans in Estonia had fallen from 5.3% (~46,700) in 1881 to 1.3% (16,346) by 1934,[324][325] mainly due to emigration to Germany in the light of general Russification at the end of the 19th century[citation needed] and the independence of Estonia in the 20th century.

Between 1945 and 1989, the share of ethnic Estonians in the population resident within the currently defined boundaries of Estonia dropped to 61%, caused primarily by the Soviet occupation and programme promoting mass immigration of urban industrial workers from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, as well as by wartime emigration and Joseph Stalin's mass deportations and executions.[326] By 1989, minorities constituted more than one-third of the population, as the number of non-Estonians had grown almost fivefold.

At the end of the 1980s, Estonians perceived their demographic change as a

russify Estonia – administrative and military immigration of non-Estonians from the USSR coupled with the deportation of Estonians to the USSR.[citation needed] In the decade after the reconstitution of independence, large-scale emigration by ethnic Russians and the removal of the Russian military bases in 1994 caused[citation needed
] the proportion of ethnic Estonians in Estonia to increase from 61% to 69% in 2006.

Modern Estonia is a fairly ethnically homogeneous country, but this historical homogeneity is a feature of 13 of the country's 15 maakond (counties). The mostly Russian-speaking immigrant population is concentrated in urban areas which administratively belong to two counties. Thus 13 of Estonia's 15 counties are over 80% ethnic Estonian, the most homogeneous being

immigrant minority makes up about 24% of the country's total population now, but accounts for 35% of the population in Harju county and for a near 70% majority in Ida-Viru county.

The Estonian Cultural Autonomy law that was passed in 1925 was unique in Europe at that time.

Soviet occupation, the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was reinstated in 1993. Historically, large parts of Estonia's northwestern coast and islands have been populated by the indigenous ethnic group of rannarootslased
("Coastal Swedes").

In recent years the number of Swedish residents in Estonia has risen again, numbering in 2008 almost 500 people, owing to the property reforms at the beginning of the 1990s. In 2004, the

Ingrian Finnish minority in Estonia elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy. The Estonian Swedes minority similarly received cultural autonomy in 2007.[328]
During the Russo-Ukrainian war of 2022, tens of thousands of Ukrainian refugees have arrived in Estonia.


Among Post-Soviet states, Estonia is one of the strongest Westernised countries.[329] Estonian society has undergone considerable changes over the last twenty years, one of the most notable being the increasing level of stratification, and the distribution of family income. The Gini coefficient has held steadily higher than the European Union average (31 in 2009),[330] although it has clearly dropped. The registered unemployment rate in January 2021 was 6.9%.[331]

Modern Estonia is a multinational country in which 109 languages are spoken, according to a 2000 census. 67.3% of Estonian citizens speak

quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in 2015.[335]

Ethnic distribution in Estonia is very homogeneous at a county level; in most counties, over 90% of residents are ethnic Estonians. In contrast, in the capital city Tallinn and the urban areas of Ida-Viru county (which neighbours Russia) ethnic Estonians account for around 60% of the population and the remainder is mostly composed of Russian and Ukrainian immigrants, who mostly arrived in Estonia during the period of Soviet occupation (1944–1991), however now also includes over 30,000 (ca 3% of total population) war refugees from Ukraine who have settled in Estonia in 2022.[citation needed]

A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar

The 2008 United Nations Human Rights Council report called "extremely credible" the description of the citizenship policy of Estonia as "discriminatory".[336] According to surveys, only 5% of the Russian community have considered returning to Russia in the near future. Estonian Russians have developed their own identity – more than half of the respondents recognized that Estonian Russians differ noticeably from the Russians in Russia. When compared with results from a 2000 survey, Russians had a more positive attitude toward the future.[337]

Estonia was the first post-Soviet republic to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples, with a law approved in October 2014.[338] Political disagreements delayed adoption of the necessary implementing legislation, and same-sex couples were not able to sign cohabitation agreements until January 1, 2016.


Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia, and lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. There are 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the country. In total, there are 47 linna, with "linn" in English meaning both "cities" and "towns". More than 70% of the population lives in towns.

Largest cities or towns in Estonia
County Pop. Rank
County Pop.
1 Tallinn Harju 438,341 11 Sillamäe Ida-Viru 12,230
2 Tartu Tartu 95,430 12 Valga Valga 11,792
3 Narva Ida-Viru 53,424 13 Võru Võru 11,533
4 Pärnu Pärnu 40,228 14 Paide Järva 10,285
5 Kohtla-Järve Ida-Viru 32,577 15 Jõhvi Ida-Viru 10,130
6 Viljandi Viljandi 16,875 16 Keila Harju 10,078
7 Maardu Harju 15,284 17 Saue Harju 5,831
8 Rakvere Lääne-Viru 14,984 18 Elva Tartu 5,616
9 Haapsalu Lääne 12,883 19 Tapa Lääne-Viru 5,168
10 Kuressaare Saare 12,698 20 Põlva Põlva 5,115


Religion in Estonia (2011)[340][341]

  Unaffiliated (64.87%)

Estonia has a diverse religious history, but in recent years it has become increasingly secular, with either a plurality or a majority of the population declaring themselves nonreligious in recent censuses, followed by those who identify as religiously "undeclared". The largest minority groups are the various Christian denominations, principally Lutheran and Orthodox Christians, with very small numbers of adherents in non-Christian faiths, namely Judaism, Islam and Buddhism. Other polls suggest the country is broadly split between Christians and the non-religious / religiously undeclared.

In ancient Estonia, prior to Christianization and according to Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Tharapita was the predominant deity for the Oeselians.[342]

Estonia was Christianised by the

Lutheran,[343][344][345] followed by Calvinism and other Protestant branches. Many Estonians profess not to be particularly religious because religion through the 19th century was associated with German feudal rule.[346] There has historically been a small but noticeable minority of Russian Old-believers near the Lake Peipus area in Tartu county

Today, Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion.

Gallup poll found similar results, with only 16% of Estonians describing religion as "important" in their daily lives, making Estonia the most irreligious of the nations surveyed.[349]

New polls about religiosity in the

Atheist accounts for 15%, and undeclared accounts for 15%.[350]

The most recent

Traditionally, the largest religious denomination in the country was Lutheranism, which was adhered to by 160,000 Estonians (or 13% of the population) according to the 2000 census, principally ethnic Estonians. According to the Lutheran World Federation, the historic Lutheran denomination has 180,000 registered members.[354] Other organisations, such as the World Council of Churches, report that there are as many as 265,700 Estonian Lutherans.[355] Additionally, there are between 8,000 and 9,000 members abroad. However, the 2011 census indicated that

Eastern Orthodoxy
had surpassed Lutheranism, accounting for 16.5% of the population (176,773 people).

Eastern Orthodoxy is practised chiefly by the Russian minority. The

Ecumenical Patriarchate, claims another 20,000 members.[citation needed

Roman Catholics are a small minority in Estonia. They are organised under the Latin Apostolic Administration of Estonia.

According to the census of 2000 (data in table to the right), there were about 1,000 adherents of the



The official language,

Indo-European. Unlike Estonian and Finnish, the languages of their nearest geographical neighbouring countries, Swedish, Latvian
, and Russian, are all Indo-European languages.

Although the Estonian and

). The percentage of Low Saxon and High German loanwords can be estimated at 22–25 percent, with Low Saxon making up about 15 percent.

Seto. The languages are spoken in South-Eastern Estonia, are genealogically distinct from northern Estonian: but are traditionally and officially considered as dialects and "regional forms of the Estonian language", not separate language(s).[360]

Russian is the most spoken minority language in the country. There are towns in Estonia with large concentrations of Russian speakers and there are towns where Estonian speakers are in the minority (especially in the northeast, e.g.

Estonian SSR from 1944 to 1990 and was taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era. In the period between 1990 and 1995, the Russian language was granted an official special status according to Estonian language laws.[361] In 1995 it lost its official status. In 1998, most first- and second-generation industrial immigrants from the former Soviet Union (mainly the Russian SFSR) did not speak Estonian.[362] However, by 2010, 64.1% of non-ethnic Estonians spoke Estonian.[363] The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city of Tallinn and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Viru county

From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands (e.g., Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Ruhnu; in Swedish, known as Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, respectively) along the Baltic sea, communities which today have almost disappeared. From 1918 to 1940, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of World War II, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1944. Only a handful of older speakers remain. Apart from many other areas the influence of Swedish is distinct in the

Lääne county where there are many villages with bilingual Estonian and/or Swedish names and street signs.[364][365]

The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German, and French. Other popular languages include Finnish, Spanish, and Swedish.[366]

Education and science

gray stucco building three-story building with grey slate hip roof, central portico and pediment
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.[367]

The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries when the first

Gustav II Adolf
in 1632. In 1919, university courses were first taught in the Estonian language.

Today's education in Estonia is divided into general, vocational, and hobby. The education system is based on four levels: pre-school, basic, secondary, and higher education.[369] A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. The Estonian education system consists of state, municipal, public, and private institutions. There are currently 589 schools in Estonia.[370]

Estonia started connecting all its schools to the internet very early. Tiigrihüpe (Estonian for Tiger Leap) was a project undertaken by the state to heavily invest in the development and expansion of computer and network infrastructure in Estonia, with a particular emphasis on education.[371]

In the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) report, Estonia's students rank 1st in Europe. In the world, Estonia's students rank 5th in reading, 8th in mathematics and 4th in sciences.[372][373] Additionally, around 89% of Estonian adults aged 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, one of the highest rates in the industrialised world.[374]

House of the Estonian Students' Society, built in 1901–1902 in Tartu, and considered the first example of the Estonian style of urban architecture.[375]

Academic higher education in Estonia is divided into three levels: bachelor's, master's, and doctoral studies. In some specialties (basic medical studies, veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architect-engineer, and a classroom teacher programme) the bachelor's and master's levels are integrated into one unit.[376] Estonian public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions. In addition to organising the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget, approve the development plan, elect the rector, and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets.[377] Estonia has a moderate number of public and private universities. The largest public universities are the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonian Academy of Arts; the largest private university is Estonian Business School.


Research and Development, compared to an EU average of around 2.0%.[380] Estonia was ranked 18th in the Global Innovation Index in 2022.[381]

Some of the best-known scientists related to Estonia include astronomers

Jakob von Uexküll, chemists Wilhelm Ostwald and Carl Schmidt, economist Ragnar Nurkse, mathematician Edgar Krahn, medical researchers Ludvig Puusepp and Nikolay Pirogov, physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck, political scientist Rein Taagepera, psychologist Endel Tulving and Risto Näätänen, semiotician Juri Lotman

According to New Scientist, Estonia will be the first nation to provide personal genetic information service sponsored by the state. They aim to minimise and prevent future ailments for those whose genes make them extra prone to conditions like adult-onset diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The government plans to provide lifestyle advice based on the DNA for 100,000 of its 1.3 million citizens.[382]


The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Germany, Sweden and Russia, for this reason it aspires more to be considered a Nordic state.[383][384]

Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with a popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. The

summer cottage

The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music. In 2010, there were 245 museums in Estonia whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects.[385]


The earliest mention of Estonian singing dates back to

Baltic Finns. Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18th century, when rhythmic folk songs began to replace them.[387]

Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, and are now becoming more commonly played once more. Other instruments, including the fiddle, zither, concertina, and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music. The kannel is a native instrument that is again becoming more popular in Estonia. A Native Music Preserving Centre was opened in 2008 in Viljandi.[388]

The tradition of

the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) have hosted the event every five years in July. The last festival took place in July 2019. In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held every four or five years, the latest taking place in 2017.[389]

Professional Estonian musicians and composers such as Aleksander Eduard Thomson, Rudolf Tobias, Miina Härma, Mart Saar, Artur Kapp, Juhan Aavik, Aleksander Kunileid, Artur Lemba and Heino Eller emerged in the late 19th century. Currently, the most well-known Estonian composers are Arvo Pärt, Eduard Tubin, and Veljo Tormis.[390] In 2014, Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer for the fourth year in a row.[391]

In the 1950s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer.[392]

In popular music, Estonian artist

Kerli Kõiv has become popular in Europe, also gaining in popularity in North America. She provided music for the 2010 Disney film Alice in Wonderland and the television series Smallville in the United States of America.[citation needed

Estonia won the

Rändajad" by Urban Symphony was the first song in Estonian to chart in the UK, Belgium and Switzerland.[citation needed


Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names.[394] Many folk tales are told to this day and some have been written down and translated to make them accessible to an international readership.[395] ABD ehk Luggemise-Ramat Lastele, an Estonian-language alphabet book by Otto Wilhelm Masing, was published in 1795.[396][397]

The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterised by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity. Apart from a few, albeit remarkable, exceptions, this archaic form has not been widely employed in later times. One of the most outstanding achievements in the field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level, the traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis.

Oskar Luts was the most prominent prose writer of early Estonian literature and is still widely read today, particularly his lyrical school novel Kevade (Spring).[398] A. H. Tammsaare's social epic and psychological realist pentalogy, Truth and Justice, captured the evolution of Estonian society from a poor farmer community to an independent nation.[399][400] In modern times, Jaan Kross and Jaan Kaplinski are Estonia's best-known and most-translated writers.[401] Among the most popular writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are Tõnu Õnnepalu and Andrus Kivirähk, who uses elements of Estonian folklore and mythology, deforming them into the absurd and grotesque.[402]



Gustav V's visit to Tallinn.[403]
The first public TV broadcast in Estonia was in July 1955. Regular, live radio broadcasts began in December 1926. Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of the 1990s. The first licences for private TV broadcasters were issued in 1992. The first private radio station went on the air in 1990.

The most internationally known Estonian films include Those Old Love Letters, The Heart of the Bear, Names in Marble, The Singing Revolution, Autumn Ball, 1944, and The Fencer. Internationally known Estonian film actors include Lembit Ulfsak, Jaan Tätte, and Elmo Nüganen, who also known as a film director.

Estonian media sector has a large number of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. Estonia has been internationally recognised for its high rate of press freedom, having been ranked 3rd in the 2012 Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.[404]

Estonia has two news agencies. The Baltic News Service (BNS), founded in 1990, is a private regional news agency covering Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The ETV24 is an agency owned by Eesti Rahvusringhääling which is a publicly funded radio and television organisation created on 30 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio and Eesti Televisioon under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act.[405][406]


A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style

The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. Worth mentioning is especially the architectural ensemble that makes out the medieval old town of Tallinn, which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

hill forts dating from pre-Christian times,[408][409] a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches,[410][411][412]
while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of wooden manor houses from earlier centuries.


The Estonian

National Day is the Independence Day celebrated on 24 February, the day the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued. As of 2013, there are 12 public holidays (which come with a day off) and 12 national holidays celebrated annually.[413][414]


Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.[415]

Historically, the cuisine of Estonia has been dependent on seasons and the simple food from the local farms and the sea. Today, it also includes many "global" foods. The most typical foods in modern Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products.[416] Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables, and everything else that comes straight from the garden. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer.

A cardamom-spiced bread roll with almond paste vastlakukkel is a traditional Estonian sweet roll, especially popular from Christmas to Easter.[417]

Traditionally in winter, jams, preserves, and pickles are brought to the table. Gathering and preserving fruits, mushrooms, and vegetables for winter has always been popular, but today gathering and preserving is becoming less common because everything can be bought from stores. However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside.


Estonia first competed as an independent nation at the 1920 Summer Olympics. Estonian athletes took part in the 1952–1988 Olympic Games under the Soviet flag, as the country had been occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. The 1980 Summer Olympics Sailing regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn. After regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has participated in all Olympics. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics, weightlifting, wrestling, and cross-country skiing. Estonia has been one of the most successful nations at the Olympics in terms of medals won per capita.[418] Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the total medals' table at the 1936 Summer Olympics, and 12th at the 2006 Winter Olympics.

Estonia has many indoor and outdoor facilities dedicated to various sports branches.[419]

Kiiking, a relatively new sport, was invented in 1993 by Ado Kosk in Estonia. Kiiking involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around 360 degrees.

See also


  1. ^ Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)
  2. ^ Estonian: Eesti Vabariik


  1. ^ "PHC 2011: over a quarter of the population are affiliated with a particular religion". Statistics Estonia. 29 April 2013. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Information About Estonia 2021". {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  3. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Population Figure". Statistics Estonia. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  5. ^ "Population census: Estonia's population and the number of Estonians have grown". Statistics Estonia. 1 June 2022. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". International Monetary Fund. October 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  7. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". EU-SILC survey. Eurostat. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  9. ^ Matthew Holehouse Estonia discovers it's actually larger after finding 800 new islands The Telegraph, 28 August 2015
  10. ^ "Country Profile – LegaCarta". Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Estonia" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2020.
  12. ^ "Estonia (Ranked 21st)". Legatum Prosperity Index 2020.
  13. ^ "Pisa rankings: Why Estonian pupils shine in global tests". BBC News. 2 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Estonia among top 3 in the UN e-Government Survey 2020". e-Estonia. 24 July 2020.
  15. ^ Harold, Theresa (30 October 2017). "How A Former Soviet State Became One Of The World's Most Advanced Digital Nations". Alphr. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  16. ^ "Number of start-ups per capita by country".
  17. .
  18. ^ Harrison, D. & Svensson, K. (2007). Vikingaliv. Fälth & Hässler, Värnamo. ISBN 91-27-35725-2
  19. ISSN 1736-3810
    . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
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