Eudicots

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Eudicots
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous - recent
Two
seed leaves during germination (Brassica
sp.)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Streptophyta
Clade: Embryophytes
Clade: Polysporangiophytes
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Spermatophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clades (APG IV)
Arabis pollen has three colpi.

The eudicots, Eudicotidae, or eudicotyledons are a

evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton, to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots.[2]

Scores of familiar plants are eudicots, including many commonly cultivated and edible plants, numerous

buttercup (Ranunculus), maple (Acer) and macadamia (Macadamia). Most leafy, mid-latitude trees are also classified as eudicots, with notable exceptions being the magnolias and American tulip tree (Liriodendron)—which belong to the magnoliids—and Ginkgo biloba
, which is not an angiosperm.

Description

The close relationships among flowering plants with

shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis.[3]

Later

monophyletic
group.

Taxonomy

The earlier name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the

gymnosperms, the monocots and the paleodicots) produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus. The name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group.[5]

The name "eudicots" (plural) is used in the APG systems (from APG system, of 1998, to APG IV system, of 2016) for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a clade, a monophyletic group, which includes most of the (former) dicots.

"Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "

sulcus.[6][5]

Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain. These modifications include thinning, ridges and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi (singular colpus), which, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes.[7]

Subdivisions

The eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots.

paraphyletic group. The core eudicots are a monophyletic group.[9] A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called Pentapetalae, comprising all the remaining core eudicots.[10]

The Pentapetalae can be then divided into three clades:

This division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram:[11]

eudicots
basal eudicots

(paraphyletic group:

Trochodendrales, Buxales
)

core eudicots

Gunnerales

Pentapetalae

Dilleniales

superrosids

Saxifragales

rosids

Vitales

eurosids

fabids
(8 orders)

malvids
(8 orders)

superasterids

Santalales

Berberidopsidales

Caryophyllales

asterids

Cornales

Ericales

euasterids

campanulids
(7 orders)

lamiids
(8 orders)


The following is a more detailed breakdown according to

APG IV, showing within each clade and orders:[12]

References

  1. ^ "EUDICOTS". Basic Biology. Basic Biology 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  2. S2CID 39486751
    .
  3. .
  4. .
  5. ^ a b Judd & Olmstead 2004
  6. .
  7. ^ Davis, Owen (1999). "Pollen Aperture Definitions". University of Arizona - Geosciences. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  8. .
  9. .
  10. .
  11. ^ Based on:
    Stevens, P.F. (2001–2014). "Trees". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2014-11-17.
    Stevens, P.F. (2001–2016). "Eudicots". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2014-11-17.
  12. .

Bibliography

External links