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Final Solution

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Final Solution
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
and the Soviet Union

The Final Solution (German: die Endlösung, pronounced [diː ˈʔɛntˌløːzʊŋ] (listen)) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (German: Endlösung der Judenfrage, pronounced [ˈɛntˌløːzʊŋ deːɐ̯ ˈjuːdn̩ˌfʁaːɡə] (listen)) was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution to the Jewish question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, which was not restricted to the European continent.[1] This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin,[2] and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the murder of 90% of Polish Jews,[3] and two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.[4]

The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution is an intensely researched and debated aspect of the Holocaust. The program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp".

a naval blockade.[7] There were also preliminary plans to deport Jews to Palestine and Siberia.[8] In 1941, Raul Hilberg wrote that in the first phase of the mass-murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic murder of Jews.[9]

Background

Hitler's prophecy speech
in the Reichstag, 30 January 1939

The term "Final Solution" was a

Jewish people.[4] Some historians argue that the usual tendency of the German leadership was to be extremely guarded when discussing the Final Solution. For example, Mark Roseman wrote that euphemisms were "their normal mode of communicating about murder".[10] However, Jeffrey Herf has argued that the role of euphemisms in Nazi propaganda has been exaggerated, and in fact Nazi leaders often made direct threats against Jews.[11] For example, during his speech of 30 January 1939, Hitler threatened "the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe".[12]

From gaining power in January 1933 until the

Westerbork. After the Anschluss with Austria in 1938, Central Offices for Jewish Emigration were established in Vienna and Berlin to increase Jewish emigration, without covert plans for their forthcoming annihilation.[13]

The outbreak of war and the

naval blockade of Germany.[7] Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler became the chief architect of a new plan, which came to be called The Final Solution to the Jewish question.[19] On 31 July 1941, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring wrote to Reinhard Heydrich (Himmler's deputy and chief of the RSHA),[20][21] authorising him to make the "necessary preparations" for a "total solution of the Jewish question" and coordinate with all affected organizations. Göring also instructed Heydrich to submit concrete proposals for the implementation of the new projected goal.[22][23]

Broadly speaking, the extermination of Jews was carried out in two major operations. With the onset of

German-Soviet frontier was to be "regarded as a partisan". His new orders gave the SS and police leaders full authority for the mass-murder behind the front lines. By August 1941, all Jewish men, women, and children were shot.[24] In the second phase of annihilation, the Jewish inhabitants of central, western, and south-eastern Europe were transported by Holocaust trains to camps with newly built gassing facilities. Raul Hilberg wrote: "In essence, the killers of the occupied USSR moved to the victims, whereas outside this arena, the victims were brought to the killers. The two operations constitute an evolution not only chronologically, but also in complexity."[9] Massacres of about one million Jews occurred before plans for the Final Solution were fully implemented in 1942, but it was only with the decision to annihilate the entire Jewish population that extermination camps such as Auschwitz II Birkenau and Treblinka were fitted with permanent gas chambers to murder large numbers of Jews in a relatively short period of time.[25][26]

The villa at 56–58 Am Großen Wannsee, where the Wannsee Conference
was held, is now a memorial and museum.

The plans to exterminate all the Jews of Europe were formalized at the

After the end of World War II, surviving archival documents provided a clear record of the Final Solution policies and actions of Nazi Germany. They included the Wannsee Conference Protocol, which documented the co-operation of various German state agencies in the SS-led Holocaust, as well as some 3,000 tons of original German records captured by Allied armies,

Phase one: death squads of Operation Barbarossa

The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union codenamed Operation Barbarossa, which commenced on 22 June 1941, set in motion a "war of annihilation" which quickly opened the door to the systematic mass murder of European Jews.[33] For Hitler, Bolshevism was merely "the most recent and most nefarious manifestation of the eternal Jewish threat".[34] On 3 March 1941, Wehrmacht Joint Operations Staff Chief Alfred Jodl repeated Hitler's declaration that the "Jewish-Bolshevik intelligentsia would have to be eliminated" and that the forthcoming war would be a confrontation between two completely opposing cultures.[35] In May 1941, Gestapo leader Heinrich Müller wrote a preamble to the new law limiting the jurisdiction of military courts in prosecuting troops for criminal actions because: "This time, the troops will encounter an especially dangerous element from the civilian population, and therefore, have the right and obligation to secure themselves."[36]

Himmler and Heydrich assembled a force of about 3,000 men from

Orpo Reserve Police under Kurt Daluege, adding up to 11,000 men.[38] The explicit orders given to the Order Police varied between locations, but for Police Battalion 309 participating in the first mass murder of 5,500 Polish Jews in the Soviet-controlled Białystok (a Polish provincial capital), Major Weiss explained to his officers that Barbarossa is a war of annihilation against Bolshevism,[39] and that his battalions would proceed ruthlessly against all Jews, regardless of age or sex.[40]

After crossing the

HSSPF South, under the command of Friedrich Jeckeln, had reported the indiscriminate murder of more than 100,000 people.[46]

Polish Jews
is marked in yellow.

By the end of December 1941, before the Wannsee Conference, over 439,800 Jewish people had been murdered, and the Final Solution policy in the east became common knowledge within the SS.

Ostland? In Berlin, we were told: why all this trouble; we cannot use them in the Ostland or the Reichskommissariat either; liquidate them yourselves!"[48] Two days later, Himmler recorded the outcome of his discussion with Hitler. The result was: "als Partisanen auszurotten" ("exterminate them as partisans").[49] Israeli historian Yehuda Bauer wrote that the remark is probably as close as historians will ever get to a definitive order from Hitler for the genocide carried out during the Holocaust.[49] Within two years, the total number of shooting victims in the east had risen to between 618,000 and 800,000 Jews.[47][50]

Bezirk Bialystok and Reichskommissariat Ostland

Several scholars have suggested that the Final Solution began in the newly formed district of

Belarusian Auxiliary Police.[55]

An Israeli historian

formerly Polish Wilno) and about 175,000 by the end of 1941 according to official reports.[56]

Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Within one week from the start of

Zofjówka by the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police leading to the town's complete sweep from existence.[65]

Distrikt Galizien

Historians find it difficult to determine precisely when the first concerted effort at annihilation of all Jews began in the last weeks of June 1941 during Operation Barbarossa.

pogroms reportedly triggered by the NKVD prisoner massacre. The question of whether there was some coordination between the Lithuanian and Ukrainian militias remains open (i.e. collaborating for a joint assault in Kovno, Wilno, and Lwów).[66]

The murders continued uninterrupted. On 12 October 1941,

The conference at Wannsee gave impetus to the so-called second sweep of the Holocaust by the bullet in the east. Between April and July 1942 in Volhynia, 30,000 Jews were murdered in death pits with the help of dozens of newly formed Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft.[70] Owing to good relations with the Ukrainian Hilfsverwaltung,[71] these auxiliary battalions were deployed by the SS also in Russia Center, Russia South, and in Byelorussia; each with about 500 soldiers divided into three companies.[72] They participated in the extermination of 150,000 Volhynian Jews alone, or 98 percent of the Jewish inhabitants of the entire region.[73] In July 1942 the Completion of the Final Solution in the General Government territory which included Distrikt Galizien, was ordered personally by Himmler. He set the initial deadline for 31 December 1942.[74]

Phase two: deportations to extermination camps

Nazi-Soviet line
in red

When the Wehrmacht invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the area of the

Kulmhof extermination camp. Victims were misled under the deceptive guise of "Resettlement in the East", organised by SS Commissioners,[76] which was also tried and tested at Chełmno. By the time the European-wide Final Solution was formulated two months later, Heydrich's RSHA had already confirmed the effectiveness of industrial murder by exhaust fumes, and the strength of deception.[77]

Construction work on the first killing centre at

Aktion Reinhard camps used lethal exhaust gases from captured tank engines.[84]

The Holocaust by bullets (as opposed to the Holocaust by gas)

Belarusian Auxiliary Police before the ghetto's closure.[87] During the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (the largest single revolt by Jews during World War II), 13,000 Jews were killed in action before May 1943.[88] Numerous other uprisings were quelled without impacting the pre-planned Nazi deportations actions.[89]

About two-thirds of the overall number of victims of the Final Solution were murdered before February 1943,

Poznan) of 6 October 1943 in occupied Poland. Himmler explained why the Nazi leadership found it necessary to murder Jewish women and children along with the Jewish men. The assembled functionaries were told that the Nazi state policy was "the extermination of the Jewish people" as such.[95]

We were faced with the question: what about the women and children?–I have decided on a solution to this problem. I did not consider myself justified to exterminate the men only—in other words, to kill them or have them killed while allowing the avengers, in the form of their children, to grow up in the midst of our sons and grandsons. The difficult decision had to be made to have this people disappear from the earth.

On 19 October 1943, five days after the prisoner revolt in

the single largest German massacre of Jews in the entire war carried out on 3 November 1943; with approximately 43,000 prisoners shot one-by-one simultaneously in three nearby locations by the Reserve Police Battalion 101 hand-in-hand with the Trawniki men from Ukraine.[98] Auschwitz alone had enough capacity to fulfill the Nazis' remaining extermination needs.[82]

Auschwitz II Birkenau

Unlike Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and

Lublin-Majdanek,[99] which were built in the occupied General Government territory inhabited by the largest concentrations of Jews,[100] the killing centre at Auschwitz subcamp of Birkenau operated in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany directly. The new gas chambers at Bunker I were finished around March 1942 when the Final Solution was officially launched at Belzec. Until mid-June 20,000 Silesian Jews were murdered there using Zyklon B. In July 1942, Bunker II became operational. In August, another 10,000–13,000 Polish Jews from Silesia were murdered,[101] along with 16,000 French Jews declared 'stateless',[102] and 7,700 Jews from Slovakia.[101]

The infamous 'Gate of Death' at

Theresienstadt, and the last 23,000 Jews from the General Government.[107] Auschwitz was liberated by the Red Army on 27 January 1945, when the gassing had already stopped.[108]

Historiographic debate about the decision

Historians disagree as to when and how the Nazi leadership decided that the European Jews should be exterminated. The controversy is commonly described as the

functionalism versus intentionalism debate which began in the 1960s, and subsided thirty years later. In the 1990s, the attention of mainstream historians moved away from the question of top executive orders triggering the Holocaust and focused on factors that were overlooked earlier, such as personal initiative and ingenuity of countless functionaries in charge of the killing fields. No written evidence of Hitler ordering the Final Solution has ever been found to serve as a "smoking gun", and therefore, this one particular question remains unanswered.[109]

Hitler made numerous predictions regarding the Holocaust of the Jews of Europe prior to the beginning of World War II. During a speech given on 30 January 1939, on the sixth anniversary of his accession to power, Hitler said:

Today I will once more be a prophet: If the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevization of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!

— Adolf Hitler, 1939[110]

Raul Hilberg, in his book The Destruction of the European Jews, was the first historian to systematically document and analyse the Nazi project to murder every Jew in Europe. The book was initially published in 1961, and issued in an enlarged version in 1985.[111]

Hilberg's analysis of the steps that led to the destruction of European Jews revealed that it was "an administrative process carried out by bureaucrats in a network of offices spanning a continent".[112] Hilberg divides this bureaucracy into four components or hierarchies: the Nazi Party, the civil service, industry, and the Wehrmacht armed forces—but their cooperation is viewed as "so complete that we may truly speak of their fusion into a machinery of destruction".[113] For Hilberg, the key stages in the destruction process were: definition and registration of the Jews; expropriation of property; concentration into ghettoes and camps; and, finally, annihilation.[114] Hilberg gives an estimate of 5.1 million as the total number of Jews murdered. He breaks this figure down into three categories: Ghettoization and general privation: over 800,000; open-air shootings: over 1,300,000; extermination camps: up to 3,000,000.[115]

With respect to the "functionalism versus intentionalism" debate about a master plan for the Final Solution, or the lack thereof, Hilberg posits what has been described as "a kind of structural determinism".[111] Hilberg argues that "a destruction process has an inherent pattern" and the "sequence of steps in a destruction process is thus determined". If a bureaucracy is motivated "to inflict maximum damage upon a group of people", it is "inevitable that a bureaucracy—no matter how decentralized its apparatus or how unplanned its activities—should push its victims through these stages", culminating in their annihilation.[116]

In his monograph, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942,

invasion of Poland implied policies of mass expulsion and massive loss of Jewish lives; and in spring 1941, when preparation for Operation Barbarossa involved the planning of mass execution, mass expulsion, and starvation—to dwarf what had happened in Jewish Poland.[117]

Browning believes that the "Final Solution as it is now understood—the systematic attempt to murder every last Jew within the German grasp"

Browning describes the creation of the extermination camps, which were responsible for the largest number of murders in the Final Solution, as bringing together three separate developments within

RSHA for "Jewish affairs and evacuations".[119]

Peter Longerich argues that the search for a finite date on which the Nazis embarked upon the extermination of the Jews is futile, in his book Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews (2011). Longerich writes: "We should abandon the notion that it is historically meaningful to try to filter the wealth of available historical material and pick out a single decision" that led to the Holocaust.[120][121]

Auschwitz for the murder of the Jews of Silesia".[121] Longerich suggests that it "was only in the summer of 1942, that mass killing was finally understood as the realization of the Final Solution, rather than as an extensively violent preliminary to some later program of slave labor and deportation to the lands of a conquered USSR". For Longerich, to see mass-murder as the Final Solution was an acknowledgement by the Nazi leadership that there would not be a German military victory over the USSR in the near future.[121]

David Cesarani emphasises the improvised, haphazard nature of Nazi policies in response to changing war time conditions in his overview, Final Solution: The Fate of the European Jews 1933–49 (2016). "Cesarani provides telling examples", wrote Mark Roseman, "of a lack of coherence and planning for the future in Jewish policy, even when we would most expect it. The classic instance is the invasion of Poland in 1939, when not even the most elementary consideration had been given to what should happen to Poland's Jews either in the shorter or longer term. Given that Poland was home to the largest Jewish population in the world, and that, in a couple of years, it would house the extermination camps, this is remarkable."[122]

Whereas Browning places the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews in the context of the Wehrmacht victories on the Eastern front, Cesarani argues that the German subsequent realisation that there would be no swift victory over the Soviet Union "scuppered the last territorial 'solution' still on the table: expulsion to Siberia".[123] Germany's declaration of war on the United States on 11 December 1941, "meant that holding European Jews hostage to deter the US from entering the conflict was now pointless".[123][124] Cesarani concludes, the Holocaust "was rooted in anti-Semitism, but it was shaped by war".[123] The fact that the Nazis were, ultimately, so successful in murdering between five and six million Jews was not due to the efficiency of Nazi Germany or the clarity of their policies. "Rather, the catastrophic rate of killing was due to German persistence ... and the duration of the murderous campaigns. This last factor was largely a consequence of allied military failure."[125]

The entry of the U.S. into the War is also crucial to the time-frame proposed by Christian Gerlach, who argued in his 1997 thesis[126] that the Final Solution decision was announced on 12 December 1941, when Hitler addressed a meeting of the Nazi Party (the Reichsleiter) and of regional party leaders (the Gauleiter).[127][a] The day after Hitler's speech, on 13 December 1941 Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary:[129]

With respect of the Jewish Question, the Führer has decided to make a clean sweep. He prophesied to the Jews that if they again brought about a world war, they would see their annihilation in it. That wasn't just a catch-word. The world war is here and the annihilation of the Jews must be the necessary consequence.[129][130]

Cesarani notes that by 1943, as the military position of the German forces deteriorated, the Nazi leadership became more openly explicit about the Final Solution. In March, Goebbels confided to his diary: "On the Jewish question especially, we are in it so deeply that there is no getting out any longer. And that is a good thing. Experience teaches that a movement and a people who have burned their bridges fight with much greater determination and fewer constraints than those that have a chance of retreat."[131]

When Himmler addressed senior SS personnel and leading members of the regime in the Posen speeches on 4 October 1943, he used "the fate of the Jews as a sort of blood bond to tie the civil and military leadership to the Nazi cause".[131]

Today, I am going to refer quite frankly to a very grave chapter. We can mention it now among ourselves quite openly and yet we shall never talk about it in public. I'm referring to the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people. Most of you will know what it's like to see 100 corpses side by side or 500 corpses or 1,000 of them. To have coped with this and—except for cases of human weakness—to have remained decent, that has made us tough. This is an unwritten—never to be written—and yet glorious page in our history.[131]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Commenting on Gerlach, Christopher Browning writes: "What he interprets as Hitler's basic decision, I see as an official initiation of party leaders to a decision taken several months earlier."[128]

References

  1. ^ Browning, Christopher (2007). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942. University of Nebraska Press. In a brief two years between the autumn of 1939 and the autumn of 1941, Nazi Jewish policy escalated rapidly from the pre-war policy of forced emigration to the Final Solution as it is now understood—the systematic attempt to murder every last Jew within the German grasp.
  2. ^ a b "Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  3. .
  4. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia. "'Final Solution': Overview". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
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  6. ^ a b Browning (2004), p. 213.
  7. ^ – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Niewyk & Nicosia 2000, p. 76.
  9. ^ a b Hilberg (1985), p. 273.
  10. ^ Roseman (2002), p. 87.
  11. ^ Herf 2005, p. 54.
  12. ^ Herf 2005, p. 56.
  13. ^ a b Roseman (2002), pp. 11–12.
  14. ^ a b Browning (2004), (2007 ed.: pp. 179, 181–12). "The Gypsy question".
  15. ^ .
  16. .
  17. ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia. "German Invasion of Poland: Jewish Refugees, 1939". Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  18. .
  19. ^ Browning (2004), pp. 35–36.
  20. ^ Roseman (2002), pp. 14–15.
  21. ^ Hilberg (1985), p. 278.
  22. .
  23. ^ Göring, Hermann (31 July 1941). "Authorization letter of Hermann Göring to Heydrich, 31 July 1941" (PDF). House of the Wannsee Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  24. ^ Longerich (2012), pp. 525–33.
  25. ^ Browning (2004), pp. 352–56.
  26. ^ . Hitler exterminated the Jews of Europe. But he did not do so alone. The task was so enormous, complex, time-consuming, and mentally and economically demanding that it took the best efforts of millions of Germans.
  27. ^ Longerich (2012), p. 555.
  28. ^ Roseman (2002), pp. 65–67.
  29. ^ Cesarani (2005), pp. 110–11.
  30. ^ "Protocol of Conference on the final solution (Endlösung) of the Jewish question" (PDF). House of the Wannsee Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
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  32. ^ a b "Combating Holocaust Denial: Evidence of the Holocaust Presented at Nuremberg". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
  33. ^ Browning (2004), p. 216.
  34. ^ Browning (2004), p. 224.
  35. ^ Hilberg (1985), p. 281.
  36. ^ Browning (2004), p. 219.
  37. ^ Browning (2004), p. 217.
  38. ^ Browning (2004), p. 229.
  39. ^ Browning (1998), p. 11: On the eve of Operation Barbarossa, Major Weiss disclosed to his men the directives of Hitler's 'Barbarossa Decree'.
  40. ^ Browning (2004), p. 232.
  41. ^ Browning (2004), p. 260.
  42. ^ Browning (2004), p. 261.
  43. ^ . The Vileyka massacres by Einsatzkommando 9 at the end of July marked the transition to genocide.[p. 60] Entire Jewish population of town, at least 450 Jewish men, women and children, were killed.[p.72]
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  45. ^ Laqueur & Baumel (2001), p. 51.
  46. ^ Browning (2004), pp. 291–92.
  47. ^ .
  48. ^ Browning (2004), pp. 408–09.
  49. ^ .
  50. ^ Browning (2004), p. 244.
  51. White Russia (excluding Bialystok): 446,484, and in USSR: 5,000,000. Estonia was listed in the minutes as being already Judenfrei (see Wannsee Protocol
    , Nuremberg)."
  52. ^ a b Browning (1998), p. 12.
  53. ^
    Museum of the History of Polish Jews. p. 6, paragraph #3. According to records, about 5,000 Jews died at that time.[7.2] See: Browning (1998), p. 12 – Weis and his officers subsequently submitted a false report of the events to [General] Pfugbeil ... 2,000 to 2,200 Jews had been killed.[8]. Archived from the original
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  57. . and Kwiet, Konrad (4 December 1995). The Onset of the Holocaust: The Massacres of Jews in Lithuania in June 1941. J. B. and Maurice Shapiro Senior Scholar-in-Residence at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Annual lecture). Published under the same title, but expanded in Bonnell, Andrew, ed. (1996). Power, Conscience and Opposition: Essays in German History in Honour of John A Moses. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 107–21.
  58. – via Google Books.
  59. .
  60. .
  61. – via Google Books.
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  63. ^
    Dnipropetrovsk and 12,000 Jews murdered in Kharkiv
    .
  64. .
  65. ^ Beit Tal (2010). "Zofiówka". POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2016. Also in: Beit Tal (2014). "Truchenbrod – Lozisht". The Nahum Goldmann Museum of the Jewish Diaspora. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014.
  66. ^ .
  67. ^ Löw, Andrea (10 June 2013). "Stanislawów (now Ivano-Frankivsk)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2016. From The USHMM Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945.
  68. ^ a b Pohl, Dieter. Hans Krueger and the Murder of the Jews in the Stanislawow Region (Galicia) (PDF). pp. 12–13, 17–18, 21 – via Yad Vashem.org. It is impossible to determine what Krueger's exact responsibility was in connection with 'Bloody Sunday' [massacre of 12 October 1941]. It is clear that a massacre of such proportions under German civil administration was virtually unprecedented.
  69. ^ a b "Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  70. .
  71. ^ Eikel, Markus (2013). "The local administration under German occupation in central and eastern Ukraine, 1941–1944" (PDF). The Holocaust in Ukraine: New Sources and Perspectives. Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. pp. 110–22 in PDF. Ukraine differs from other parts of the Nazi-occupied Soviet Union, whereas the local administrators have formed the Hilfsverwaltung in support of extermination policies in 1941 and 1942, and in providing assistance for the deportations to camps in Germany mainly in 1942 and 1943.
  72. ^ Wendel, Marcus (9 June 2013). "Schutzmannschaft Bataillone". Axis History Books. Internet Archive, 6 January 1914 capture. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  73. .
  74. .
  75. .
  76. .
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  81. .
  82. ^ a b Arad (1987), p. 640.
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  84. .
  85. . Excerpt from episode "Apocalypse: The Second World War". NGC Europe Limited.
  86. ^ Longerich (2010), pp. 198, 238, 347. See also Lawrence Bush (28 June 2010). "June 29: The Slonim Massacres". Jewish Currents. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  87. ^ Berkhoff, Karel C. Ray Brandon; Wendy Lower (eds.). The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University Press. p. 290. Also in: Barbara N. Łopieńska; Ryszard Kapuściński (2003). "Człowiek z bagna" [A man from the marshes]. Interview. Przekrój nr 28/3029. Reprint: Ryszard Kapuściński.info. Further info: Virtual Shtetl. "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland". POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Gedeon. "Getta Żydowskie". Michael Peters. "Ghetto List". Deathcamps.org.
  88. ^ SS Gruppenführer Jürgen Stroop (May 1943). "Stroop Report". Jewish Virtual Library.
  89. Łuck Ghetto uprising quelled on 12 December 1942 with the help of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, see: Yad Vashem, Łuck, December 1942 on YouTube; testimony of Shmuel Shilo. "The forgotten December". Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. The Łachwa Ghetto uprising was suppressed on 3 September 1942, the Częstochowa Ghetto uprising on 30 June 1943, the Sosnowiec Ghetto uprising on 3 August 1943, and the Białystok Ghetto uprising on 17 August 1943. {{cite web}}: External link in |quote= (help
    )
  90. ^ Paula Lerner (2007). "Statistical Report on the "Final Solution", known as the Korherr Report of 23 March 1943" (PDF). Die Endlösung by Gerald Reitlinger. German History in Documents and Images, GHDI. 7. Nazi Germany, 1933–1945.
  91. .
  92. . Bureaucrats in the Reichsbahn performed important functions that facilitated the movement of trains. They constructed and published timetables, collected fares, and allocated cars and locomotives. In sending Jews to their death, they did not deviate much from the routine procedures they used to process ordinary train traffic.
  93. ^ Hecht, Ben; Messner, Julian (31 December 1969). "Holocaust: The Trains". Aish.com Holocaust Studies. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.
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    ISBN 978-1473855410. While the numbers considerably reduced through June and July [1944], nearly 440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to Auschwitz in less than eight weeks; 320,000 were murdered. — Rawson, 144. {{cite book}}: External link in |quote= (help) Also in: S.J.; Carmelo Lisciotto (2007). "The Destruction of the Jews of Hungary"
    . H.E.A.R.T. Of the 381,600 Jews who left Hungary between 15 May 1944 and 30 June 1944 it is probable that 200,000 – 240,000 were gassed or shot on 46 working days.
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  105. . Retrieved 22 May 2022.
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  129. ^ .
  130. ^ Gord McFee. "When did Hitler decide on the Final Solution?". Holocaust-history.org. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Research in this area is hampered by the fact that no written Hitler-Order launching the Final Solution has ever been found, and that if there ever was one, it most likely was destroyed.
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Bibliography

External links