|Groups (APG IV)|
Flowering plants are
Angiosperms are distinguished from the other
Agriculture is almost entirely dependent on angiosperms, and a small number of flowering plant families supply nearly all plant-based food and livestock feed. Rice, maize, and wheat provide half of the world's calorie intake, and all three plants are cereals from the Poaceae family (colloquially known as grasses). Other families provide materials such as wood, paper and cotton, and supply numerous ingredients for traditional and modern medicines. Flowering plants are also commonly grown for decorative purposes, with certain flowers playing a significant role in many cultures.
Out of the "Big Five"
Angiosperms are terrestrial vascular plants; like the gymnosperms, they have
|Reduced gametophytes, three cells in male, seven cells with eight nuclei in female||The gametophytes are smaller than those of gymnosperms.
fertilization, which in gymnosperms is up to a year.
|Endosperm||Endosperm forms after fertilization but before the zygote divides. It provides food for the developing embryo, the cotyledons, and sometimes the seedling.|
carpel enclosing the ovules.
|Once the ovules are fertilised, the carpels, often with surrounding tissues, develop into fruits. Gymnosperms have unenclosed seeds.|
|Xylem made of vessel elements||Open vessel elements are stacked end to end to form continuous tubes, whereas gymnosperm xylem is made of tapered|
a tree almost 100 m tall
Wolffia arrhiza, a rootless floating freshwater plant under 2 mm across
The largest angiosperms are Eucalyptus gum trees of Australia, and Shorea faguetiana, dipterocarp rainforest trees of Southeast Asia, both of which can reach almost 100 metres (330 ft) in height. The smallest are Wolffia duckweeds which float on freshwater, each plant less than 2 millimetres (0.08 in) across.
Considering their method of obtaining energy, some 99% of flowering plants are
Carnegiea gigantea, the saguaro cactus, grows in hot dry desertsin Mexico and the southern United States.
Dryas octopetala, the mountain avens, lives in cold arctic and montane habitats in the far north of America and Eurasia.
Nelumbo nucifera, the sacred lotus, grows in warm freshwater across tropical and subtropical Asia.
Zostera seagrass grows on the seabed in sheltered coastal waters.
In terms of their environment, flowering plants are cosmopolitan, occupying a wide range of
Some specialised angiosperms are able to flourish in extremely acid or alkaline habitats. The
As for their
The number of species of flowering plants is estimated to be in the range of 250,000 to 400,000.
The diversity of flowering plants is not evenly distributed. Nearly all species belong to the eudicot (75%), monocot (23%), and magnoliid (2%) clades. The remaining five clades contain a little over 250 species in total; i.e. less than 0.1% of flowering plant diversity, divided among nine families. The 25 most species-rich of 443 families, containing over 166,000 species between them in their APG circumscriptions, are:
|Group||Family||English name||No. of spp.|
|Eudicot||Asteraceae or Compositae||daisy||22,750|
|Eudicot||Fabaceae or Leguminosae||pea, legume||19,400|
|Monocot||Poaceae or Gramineae||
|Eudicot||Lamiaceae or Labiatae||mint||7,175|
|Eudicot||Apiaceae or Umbelliferae||parsley||3,780|
|Eudicot||Brassicaceae or Cruciferae||cabbage||3,710|
History of classification
The botanical term "angiosperm", from Greek words angeíon (
|Detailed Cladogram of the 2016 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) IV classification.|
The characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Its function is to ensure
Flowers produce two kinds of reproductive cells.
The flower may consist only of these parts, as in wind-pollinated plants like the willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. In insect- or bird-pollinated plants, other structures protect the sporophylls and attract pollinators. The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals (or tepals in flowers such as Magnolia where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other). The outer series (calyx of sepals) is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, especially the bud. The inner series (corolla of petals) is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure, and attracts pollinators by colour, scent, and nectar.
Most flowers are
Fertilisation and embryogenesis
Double fertilization requires two sperm cells to fertilise cells in the ovule. A pollen grain sticks to the stigma at the top of the pistil, germinates, and grows a long pollen tube. A haploid generative cell travels down the tube behind the tube nucleus. The generative cell divides by mitosis to produce two haploid (n) sperm cells. The pollen tube grows from the stigma, down the style and into the ovary. When it reaches the micropyle of the ovule, it digests its way into one of the synergids, releasing its contents including the sperm cells. The synergid that the cells were released into degenerates; one sperm makes its way to fertilise the egg cell, producing a diploid (2n) zygote. The second sperm cell fuses with both central cell nuclei, producing a triploid (3n) cell. The zygote develops into an embryo; the triploid cell develops into the endosperm, the embryo's food supply. The ovary develops into a fruit. and each ovule into a seed.
Fruit and seed
As the embryo and endosperm develop, the wall of the embryo sac enlarges and combines with the
Other parts of the flower often contribute to forming the fruit. For example, in the apple, the hypanthium forms the edible flesh, surrounding the ovaries which form the tough cases around the seeds.
Apomixis, setting seed without fertilization, is found naturally in about 2.2% of angiosperm genera. Some angiosperms, including many citrus varieties, are able to produce fruits through a type of apomixis called nucellar embryony.
Interactions with humans
Agriculture is almost entirely dependent on angiosperms, which provide virtually all plant-based food and livestock feed. Much of this food derives from a small number of flowering plant families. For instance, half of the world's calorie intake is supplied by just three plants - wheat, rice and maize.
|Family||English||Example foods from that family|
|Poaceae||Grasses, cereals||Most feedstocks, inc. |
sugar cane, sorghum
|Fabaceae||Legumes, pea family|
|Cucurbitaceae||Gourd family||Squashes, cucumbers, pumpkins, melons|
|Brassicaceae||Cabbage family||Cabbage and its varieties, e.g. Brussels sprout, broccoli; mustard; oilseed rape|
|Apiaceae||Parsley family||Parsnip, carrot, parsley, coriander, fennel, cumin, caraway|
|Rutaceae||Rue family||Oranges, lemons, grapefruits|
|Rosaceae||Rose family||Apples, pears, cherries, apricots, plums, peaches|
Flowering plants provide a diverse range of materials in the form of wood, paper, fibers such as cotton, flax, and hemp, medicines such as digoxin and opioids, and decorative and landscaping plants. Coffee and hot chocolate are beverages from flowering plants.
Both real and
Conservation in this context is the attempt to prevent extinction, whether
- APG 2016.
- Cronquist 1960.
- Reveal, James L. (2011) [or later]. "Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium – M". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
- Takhtajan 1964.
- Lindley, J. (1830). Introduction to the Natural System of Botany. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. xxxvi. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Takhtajan 1980.
- "Angiosperms | OpenStax Biology 2e". courses.lumenlearning.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- "Menara, yellow meranti, Shorea". Guinness World Records. 6 January 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2023.
yellow meranti (Shorea faguetiana) ... 98.53 m (323 ft 3.1 in) tall ... swamp gum (Eucalyptus regnans) ... In 2014, it had a tape-drop height of 99.82 m (327 ft 5.9 in)
- "The Charms of Duckweed". 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 25 November 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
- "Angiosperms". University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
- Goffinet, Bernard; Buck, William R. (2004). "Systematics of the Bryophyta (Mosses): From molecules to a revised classification". Monographs in Systematic Botany. 98: 205–239.
- APG 2009.
- Stevens, P. F. (2011). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (at Missouri Botanical Garden)". Archived from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
- "Kew Scientist 30" (PDF). October 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007.
- Chisholm 1911, p. 9.
- Chisholm 1911, p. 10.
- Chase & Reveal 2009.
- APG 2003.
- "As easy as APG III – Scientists revise the system of classifying flowering plants" (Press release). The Linnean Society of London. 8 October 2009. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- De Craene & P. 2010, p. 7.
- D. Mauseth 2016, p. 225.
- De Craene & P. 2010, p. 8.
- D. Mauseth 2016, p. 226.
- Lu, Anmin; Jeffrey, Charles. "Cucurbita Linnaeus". Flora of China. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "Fruit Anatomy". Fruit & Nut Research & Information Center. University of California. Archived from the original on 2 May 2023.
- McKie, Robin (16 July 2017). "Maize, rice, wheat: alarm at rising climate risk to vital crops". The Observer. Retrieved 30 July 2023.
- "Rutaceae". Botanical Dermatology Database. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019.
- "Flower Poems". Poem Hunter. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- "Nature's Song: Chinese Bird and Flower Paintings". Museum Wales. Archived from the original on 4 August 2022. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
- "The Language of Flowers". Folger Shakespeare Library. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- "Botanic Gardens and Plant Conservation". Botanic Gardens Conservation International. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Plant Conservation Around the World". Cambridge University Botanic Garden. 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
- "Updated Global Strategy for Plant Conservation 2011-2020". Convention on Biological Diversity. 3 July 2023. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
Articles, books and chapters
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Angiosperms". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
- Becker, Kenneth M. (February 1973). "A Comparison of Angiosperm Classification Systems". JSTOR 1218032.
- Bell, Adrian D. (2008) . Plant Form. An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-850-1.
- Bell, C.D.; S2CID 207613985.
- Chase, Mark W.; Reveal, James L. (2009). "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 122–127.
- De Craene, Ronse; P., Louis (2010). Floral Diagrams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-80671-1.
- Cromie, William J. (December 16, 1999). "Oldest Known Flowering Plants Identified By Genes". Harvard University Gazette.
- S2CID 43144314.
- ISBN 978-0-231-03880-5.
- Dilcher, D. (2000). "Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (13): 7030–7036. PMID 10860967.
- Heywood, V. H.; Brummitt, R. K.; Culham, A.; Seberg, O. (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.
- Hill, Christopher; Crane, Peter (January 1982). "Evolutionary Cladistics and the origin of Angiosperms". In Joysey, Kenneth Alan; Friday, A.E. (eds.). Problems of Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Special Volumes. Vol. 21. London: Systematics Association. pp. 269–361. ISBN 978-0-12-391250-3.
- Lersten, Nels R. (2004). Flowering plant embryology with emphasis on economic species. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 978-0-470-75267-8.
- D. Mauseth, James (2016). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 978-1-284-07753-7.
- Pooja (2004). Angiosperms. New Delhi: Discovery. ISBN 978-81-7141-788-9.
- Raven, P.H.; Evert, R.F.; Eichhorn, S.E. (2004). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). W.H. Freeman.
- Sattler, R. (1973). Organogenesis of Flowers. A Photographic Text-Atlas. University of Toronto Press.
- Simpson, Michael G. (2010). Plant Systematics (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-0-08-092208-9.
- PMID 27064530.
- JSTOR 1216134.
- S2CID 30764910.
- Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Renran; Kong, Hongzhi; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Hong (24 September 2014). "Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times". PMID 25249442.
- Cole, Theodor C.H.; Hilger, Harmut H.; Stevens, Peter F. (2017). "Angiosperm Phylogeny Poster – Flowering Plant Systematics" (PDF).
- Watson, L.; Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). "The Families of Flowering Plants: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval". 14 December 2000. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014.
- "Flowering plant" at the Encyclopedia of Life