Foreign relations of Sweden

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The foreign policy of

2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine. In 2002, Sweden revised its security doctrine. The security doctrine at that point still stated that "Sweden pursues a policy of non-participation in military alliances," but permitted cooperation in response to threats against peace and security. The government also seeks to maintain Sweden's high standard of living. These two objectives required heavy expenditures for social welfare, defence spending at rates considered low by Western European standards (around 1.2% of GNP prior to 2022),[1] and close attention to foreign trade opportunities and world economic cooperation. In 2024, Sweden formally became part of a military alliance for the first time since the end of the War of the Sixth Coalition by joining NATO
.

Foreign policy

The foreign policy of Sweden encompasses a range of themes over the centuries. Some of the main issues include:[2][3][4][5]

  • Sweden has historically pursued a policy of neutrality, aiming to avoid involvement in conflicts between major powers. This neutrality allowed Sweden to navigate the tumultuous European political landscape and maintain its sovereignty. It dropped the neutrality policy in 2022–2024 in response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and joined NATO on 7 March, 2024.
  • Sweden has sought to maintain a balance of power in Northern Europe, acting as a counterweight to dominant regional powers. This approach aimed to prevent any single power from gaining excessive influence and threatening Swedish interests.
  • Sweden's historical dominance in the Baltic Sea region played a crucial role in shaping its diplomatic history. Through territorial expansion, Sweden established control over strategic territories, such as present-day Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and parts of Russia, impacting its relations with neighboring states.
  • During the 17th and 18th centuries, Sweden emerged as a major European power, participating in conflicts such as the Thirty Years' War and the Great Northern War. Its diplomatic efforts were often influenced by power struggles with other European great powers, such as Russia and Poland.
  • Sweden has actively engaged in peace mediation efforts, seeking to resolve conflicts and broker peace agreements. Notable examples include the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War, and various mediation efforts during the 20th century.
  • Sweden has a longstanding tradition of promoting international cooperation, human rights, and humanitarian initiatives. It has been involved in the establishment of international organizations such as the League of Nations and the United Nations, and has championed causes such as humanitarian aid and disarmament.
  • Sweden has pursued close ties and cooperation with its neighboring Nordic countries, particularly Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway. This commitment to Scandinavian unity has been reflected in diplomatic initiatives, trade agreements, and cultural exchanges.
  • Sweden's relationship with the European Union (EU) has been a significant theme in its recent diplomatic history. While Sweden joined the EU in 1995, it has maintained a somewhat reserved approach, often balancing its national interests with EU membership.
  • Sweden has been an advocate for global development and has provided substantial aid to developing countries. It has sought to address global inequalities and promote sustainable development through its aid programs, often challenging neocolonial practices.
  • In the 21st century, Sweden has gained attention for its feminist foreign policy approach, which aims to integrate gender equality into its diplomatic efforts. Sweden has been a leading advocate for women's rights globally, emphasizing the inclusion and empowerment of women in peacebuilding, conflict resolution, and development processes.

United Nations

Sweden has been a member of the United Nations since November 19, 1946, and participates actively in the activities of the organization, including as an elected member of the Security Council (1957–1958, 1975–1976, 1997–1998 and 2017–2018), providing Dag Hammarskjöld as the second elected Secretary-General of the UN, etc. The strong interest of the Swedish Government and people in international cooperation and peacemaking has been supplemented in the early 1980s by renewed attention to Nordic and European security questions.

Sweden decided not to sign the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[6]

European Union

  EU members in 1995
  Sweden, Austria and Finland

After the then Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson had submitted Sweden's application in July 1991 the negotiations began in February 1993. Finally, on January 1, 1995, Sweden became a member of the European Union. While some argued that it went against Sweden's historic policy of neutrality, where Sweden had not joined during the Cold War because it was seen as incompatible with neutrality, others viewed the move as a natural extension of the economic cooperation that had been going on since 1972 with the EU.[citation needed] Sweden addressed this controversy by reserving the right not to participate in any future EU defence alliance. In membership negotiations in 1993–1994, Sweden also had reserved the right to make the final decision on whether to join the third stage of the EMU "in light of continued developments." In a nationwide referendum in November 1994, 52.3 percent of participants voted in favour of EU membership. Voter turnout was high, 83.3 percent of the eligible voters voted. The main Swedish concerns included winning popular support for EU cooperation, EU enlargement, and strengthening the EU in areas such as economic growth, job promotion, and environmental issues.

In polls taken a few years after the referendum, many Swedes indicated that they were unhappy with Sweden's membership in the EU. However, after Sweden successfully hosted its first presidency of the EU in the first half of 2001, most Swedes today have a more positive attitude towards the EU. The government, with the support of the

Center Party
, decided in spring 1997 to remain outside of the EMU, at least until 2002. A referendum was held on September 14, 2003. The results were 55.9% for no, 42.0% yes and 2.1% giving no answer ("blank vote").

Nordic Council

Swedish foreign policy has been the result of a wide consensus. Sweden cooperates closely with its Nordic neighbors, formally in economic and social matters through the Nordic Council of Ministers and informally in political matters through direct consultation.

Nonalignment

Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven with Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, February 11, 2017

Swedish neutrality and nonalignment policy in peacetime may partly explain how the country could stay out of wars since 1814. Swedish governments have not defined nonalignment as precluding outspoken positions in international affairs. Government leaders have favored national liberation movements that enjoy broad support among developing world countries, with notable attention to Africa. During the Cold War, Sweden was suspicious of the superpowers, which it saw as making decisions affecting small countries without always consulting those countries. With the end of the Cold War, that suspicion has lessened somewhat, although Sweden still chooses to remain nonaligned. Sweden has devoted particular attention to issues of disarmament, arms control, and nuclear nonproliferation and has contributed importantly to UN and other international peacekeeping efforts, including the NATO-led peacekeeping forces in the Balkans. It sat as an observer in the Western European Union from 1995 to 2011, but it is not an active member of NATO's Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Sweden's engagement with NATO was especially strengthened during the term of Anders Fogh Rasmussen.[7]

Sweden's nonalignment policy has led it to serve as the

Salman Rushdie affair
, and the 2011 storming of the British embassy in Tehran), Sweden served as the protecting power for the UK.

In May 2022, Sweden formally applied to join the

Russia's invasion of Ukraine on February 24 of the same year.[8]

Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said in March 2022 that her government would have to respond if Sweden became a NATO member.[9] However, in June 2022 President Vladimir Putin contradicted the statement, claiming that Sweden and Finland can "join whatever they want" on the condition that there will be no NATO military deployment in either country.[10]

Military

Sweden has employed its military on numerous occasions since the end of the Cold War, from Bosnia and Congo to Afghanistan and Libya. According to one study, "this military activism is driven both by the Swedish internationalist tradition of "doing good" in the world, but also for instrumental purposes. These include a desire for political influence in international institutions, an interest in collective milieu shaping, and a concern to improve the interoperability and effectiveness of the Swedish military."[11]

Participation in international organizations

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union See 1995 enlargement of the European Union

Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995.

 NATO See Sweden–NATO relations

Sweden joined NATO as a full member on 7 March 2024.

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Sweden maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  Denmark 6 June 1523[12]
2  France October 1541[13]
3  Turkey 1603[14]
4  Netherlands April 1614[15]
5  Portugal 29 July 1641[16]
6  Spain 1651[17]
7  United Kingdom 23 December 1653[18]
8  Austria 1682[19]
9  Russia 15 March 1722[20]
10  United States 29 April 1818[21]
11  Brazil 1826[22]
12  Greece 24 January 1833[23]
13  Belgium 23 February 1837[24]
14  Venezuela 5 September 1839[25]
15  Italy 23 December 1859[26]
16  Ethiopia 1866[27]
17  Japan 11 January 1868[28]
18  Thailand 18 May 1868[29]
19  Argentina 6 June 1872[30]
20  Colombia 11 December 1874[31]
21  El Salvador 1 October 1876[32]
22  Costa Rica 1883[33]
23  Mexico 29 July 1885[34]
24   Switzerland 1887[35]
25  Chile 14 June 1895[36]
26  Iran 5 September 1897[37]
27  Cuba 20 November 1902[38]
28  Norway 18 November 1905[39]
29  Uruguay 6 August 1906[40]
30  Bulgaria 6 July 1914[41]
31  Romania 18 March 1916[42]
32  Serbia 1 November 1917[43]
33  Finland 10 January 1918[44]
34  Poland 2 August 1919[45]
35  Hungary 12 November 1920[46]
36  Czech Republic 18 November 1920[47]
37  Egypt 25 November 1922[48]
38  Luxembourg 25 January 1923[49]
39  Paraguay 24 February 1923[50]
40  Guatemala 9 December 1930[51]
41  Ecuador 21 September 1931[52]
42  Bolivia 2 February 1932[53][54]
43  South Africa 30 November 1934[55][56]
44  Honduras 1936[57][58]
45  Iraq 1936[59]
46  Nicaragua 1936[60][61]
47  Panama 3 July 1937[62]
48  Peru 11 February 1938[63]
49  Iceland 27 July 1940[64]
50  Afghanistan 22 November 1940[65]
51  Haiti 31 March 1941[66]
52  Dominican Republic 16 July 1942[67]
53  Canada 4 August 1944[68]
54  Lebanon 7 February 1946[69]
55  Ireland 18 July 1946[70]
56  Philippines 17 January 1947[71]
57  Syria 24 June 1947[72]
58  Sri Lanka 18 November 1949[73]
59  Pakistan 24 November 1949[74]
60  India 1949[75]
61  New Zealand 1949[76]
62  China 9 May 1950[77][78]
63  Israel 12 July 1950[79]
64  Indonesia 23 November 1950[80]
65  Germany 4 April 1951[81]
66  Myanmar 1956[82]
67  Tunisia 1956[83]
68  Sudan 27 October 1957[84]
69  Jordan 1957[85]
70  Saudi Arabia 1957[86]
71  Liberia 6 June 1958[87]
72  Malaysia 6 June 1958[88]
73  Morocco 1958[89]
74  South Korea 11 March 1959[90]
75    Nepal 10 June 1960[91]
76  Somalia 13 July 1960[92]
77  Cyprus 12 December 1960[93]
78  Libya 1960[94]
79  Senegal 8 May 1961[95]
80  Nigeria 3 October 1961[96]
81  Benin 21 November 1961[97]
82  Madagascar 1961[98]
83  Ghana 27 April 1962[99]
84  Guinea 26 November 1962[100]
85  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1962[101]
86  Sierra Leone 1962[102]
87  Algeria 19 July 1963[103]
88  Ivory Coast 31 December 1963[104]
89  Australia 1963[105]
90  Kenya January 1964[106]
91  Uganda 9 April 1964[107]
92  Tanzania 29 May 1964[108]
93  Mongolia 30 June 1964[109]
94  Cameroon 24 September 1964[110]
95  Laos 10 October 1964[111]
96  Kuwait 22 December 1964[112]
97  Niger 1964[113]
98  Zambia 1964[114]
99  Mali 25 January 1965[115]
100  Burundi 7 December 1965[116]
101  Republic of the Congo 1965[117]
102  Gabon 1965[118]
103  Malawi 1965[119]
104  Singapore 8 February 1966[120]
105  Trinidad and Tobago July 1966[121]
106  Gambia 1968[122]
107  Lesotho 1968[123]
108  Vietnam 11 January 1969[124][125]
109  Albania 20 June 1969[126]
110  Malta June 1969[127]
111  Burkina Faso 1969[128][129]
112  Equatorial Guinea 1969[130]
113  Yemen 29 September 1970[131][132]
114  Mauritania 14 December 1970[133]
115  Botswana 19 December 1970[134]
116  Bangladesh 12 April 1972[135]
117  United Arab Emirates 1972[136]
118  Qatar 29 March 1973[137]
119  North Korea 7 April 1973[138]
120  Mauritius 1973[139]
121  Eswatini 1973[140]
122  Tonga 21 January 1974[141]
123  Bahrain 25 January 1974[142]
124  Jamaica 5 February 1974[143]
125  Oman 15 March 1974[144]
126  Rwanda 1974[145]
127  Guinea-Bissau 14 March 1975[146]
128  Guyana 16 June 1975[147]
129  Mozambique 25 June 1975[148]
130  Barbados 19 March 1976[149]
131  Papua New Guinea 10 November 1976[150]
132  Cape Verde 4 December 1976[151]
133  Comoros 1977[152]
134  Samoa 1977[153]
135  São Tomé and Príncipe 1977[154]
136  Suriname 15 March 1978[155]
137  Togo 15 March 1978[156]
138  Angola 22 March 1978[157]
139  Bahamas 9 May 1978[158]
140  Maldives 21 August 1978[159]
141  Fiji 3 April 1979[160]
142  Seychelles 14 August 1979[161]
143  Solomon Islands 24 October 1979[162]
144  Djibouti 20 February 1980[163]
145  Zimbabwe 30 April 1980[164]
146  Grenada 4 December 1980[165]
147  Vanuatu September 1981[166]
148  Saint Lucia 1981[167]
149  Antigua and Barbuda 11 June 1982[168]
 Holy See 2 August 1982[169]
150  Belize 17 November 1982[170]
151  Central African Republic 1983[171]
152  Dominica 3 May 1984[172]
153  Brunei 1984[173]
154  Bhutan 27 August 1985[174]
155  San Marino 13 December 1988[175]
156  Namibia 21 March 1990[176]
157  Cambodia 27 April 1991[177]
158  Estonia 28 August 1991[178]
159  Latvia 28 August 1991[179]
160  Lithuania 28 August 1991[180]
161  Ukraine 13 January 1992[181]
162  Belarus 14 January 1992[182]
163  Croatia 29 January 1992[183]
164  Slovenia 29 January 1992[184]
165  Marshall Islands 12 February 1992[185]
166  Kyrgyzstan 25 March 1992[186]
167  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2 April 1992[187]
168  Saint Kitts and Nevis 3 April 1992[188]
169  Kazakhstan 7 April 1992[189]
170  Uzbekistan 8 April 1992[190]
171  Turkmenistan 10 April 1992[191]
172  Azerbaijan 8 May 1992[192]
173  Moldova 12 June 1992[193]
174  Armenia 10 July 1992[194]
175  Federated States of Micronesia 26 August 1992[195]
176  Georgia 19 September 1992[196]
177  Tajikistan 9 December 1992[197]
178  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11 December 1992[198]
179  Slovakia 1 January 1993[199]
180  Eritrea 24 June 1993[200]
181  North Macedonia 20 December 1993[201]
182  Andorra 16 March 1995[202]
183  Chad 3 August 1995[203]
184  Palau 9 August 1995[204]
185  Liechtenstein 24 October 2001[205]
186  East Timor 20 May 2002[206]
187  Montenegro 26 June 2006[207]
 Kosovo 28 March 2008[208]
188  Monaco 30 January 2009[209]
189  South Sudan 9 July 2011[210]
190  Tuvalu 24 August 2012[211]
191  Kiribati 28 September 2012[212]
192  Nauru 28 September 2012[213]
 State of Palestine 30 October 2014[214]

Africa

Region Formal relations began Notes
 Egypt 25 November 1922 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 November 1922 when Harald Bildt take up the post of first Swedish Minister to Egypt.[215]
  • Egypt has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Cairo.
 Mozambique 25 June 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 June 1975[148]
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Maputo.
 Nigeria 3 October 1961 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1961[216]
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Abuja.
 South Africa See
South Africa-Sweden relations
 Sudan 27 October 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 October 1957 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Sweden to Sudan (Resident in Addis Ababa) Dr. Bjorn Axel Eyvind Bratt.[84]
  • Sudan has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Khartoum.
 Tanzania 29 May 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 May 1964 when Mr. Otto Gustaf Rathsman presented his credentials as Sweden's Ambassador to the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar to President Nyerere.[108]
  • Sweden has an embassy in Dar es Salaam.
  • Tanzania has an embassy in Stockholm.
 Zimbabwe 30 April 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 April 1980 when first Ambassador of Mozambique to Zimbabwe presented his credentials.[217]

Americas

Region Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina See Argentina–Sweden relations
 Belize 17 November 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 November 1982[218]
  • Belize has an honorary consulate in Stockholm.
  • Sweden is accredited to Belize from its embassy in Guatemala City and maintains an honorary consulate in Belmopan.
 Bolivia 2 February 1932 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 February 1932[53][54]
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in La Paz.
 Brazil See Brazil–Sweden relations
  • Brazil has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Brasília.
 Canada See Canada–Sweden relations

Relations with Canada are close, positive and constructive. Both countries have strong commitments to peacekeeping, UN reform, development assistance, environmental protection, sustainable development, and the promotion and protection of human rights.

Canadians of Swedish descent.[220]

 Chile 1827 See Chile–Sweden relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Stockholm and a consulate in Gothenburg.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 11 December 1874
  • Colombia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Bogotá.
  • Sweden is the 6th largest trade partner of Colombia in the European Union.
 Guyana 16 June 1975

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 June 1975[221]

  • Guyana has an honorary consulate in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an ambassador accredited to Guyana based in Stockholm.
 Mexico 1850[222] See Mexico–Sweden relations.
 Peru 11 February 1938 See Peru–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1938.[223]

  • Peru has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.[224]
 United States 29 April 1818 See Sweden–United States relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 April 1818[225]

Sweden and the United States have had strong ties since the 18th century.

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia 10 July 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 July 1992[226]
 Azerbaijan 8 May 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 May 1992[229]
  • The embassy of Sweden in Baku opened in 2014.
  • Azerbaijani opened an embassy in Stockholm.[citation needed]
  • Currently, approximately 10 thousand Azerbaijanis live in Sweden, and in addition about 30 thousand Azerbaijanis from Iran.[230]
  • In 2006, a diaspora organization called «Odlar yurdu» was established in Sweden.[230]
  • In 2010, the Congress of Swedish Azerbaijanis was established.[231]
 China See China–Sweden relations
  • China has an embassy in Stockholm and a consulate-general in Gothenburg.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Sweden, signed a joint letter to the

Xinjiang re-education camps.[232][233]

 Georgia 19 September 1992 See
Georgia–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 September 1992[234]

 India See India–Sweden relations.
 Indonesia See Indonesia–Sweden relations.
 Iran 5 September 1897 See Iran–Sweden relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 September 1897 when has been accredited first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Persia to Sweden with residence in St. Peterbourg Mirza Reza Khan Ar Faed-Doouleh.[37]

 Iraq See Iraq–Sweden relations.

The Swedish Embassy in Iraq is permanently closed after attacks by protesters over Quran Burning on the Swedish Embassy in Baghdad. Iraq severed ties with Sweden since July 2023, after Swedish authorities allowed a man to burn the Iraqi flag and the Quran in front of the Iraqi Embassy, Stockholm.[235][236][237]

 Israel See Israel–Sweden relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949. Israel has an embassy in Stockholm.[238] Sweden has an embassy in Tel Aviv.[239]

 Japan 1868 See Japan–Sweden relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1868 by signing the Swedish-Japanese Treaty in 1868,.[240]

 Kazakhstan 7 April 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 April 1992[241]
  • Sweden has an embassy in Astana.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Stockholm.
 Kuwait 22 December 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 December 1964 when Sweden opens its Embassy in Kuwait.[112]
 Malaysia See Malaysia–Sweden relations.

Diplomatic relations were established in 1958.[88] Sweden has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Stockholm. As of 2009, 90 Swedish companies are present in Malaysia and about 450 Swedish citizens live in Malaysia.

 North Korea April 7, 1973[242] See North Korea–Sweden relations
 Palestine October 30, 2014 See Palestine–Sweden relations.
 Saudi Arabia 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1957[86]
 South Korea 11 March 1959 See South Korea–Sweden relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between South Korea and Sweden began on March 11, 1959[90]

 Syria 24 June 1947 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 1947 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Sweden to Syria with residence in Cairo Mr. Widar Bagge.[243]
 Turkey See Sweden–Turkey relations.

Europe

Region Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 20 June 1969 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 June 1969[126]
 Austria
  • Austria has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Vienna.
  • There are 7,000 Austrians living in Sweden.
  • There are 2,000 Swedes living in Austria.
  • Both countries became members of the European Union in 1 January 1995.
 Belarus 14 January 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 January 1992[246]

There are 3,000 Belarusian living in Sweden and above 1,000 Swedes living in Belarus.

 Belgium 23 February 1837 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 February 1837 when has been accredited Chargé d'Affaires of Belgium to Sweden baron T. Vander Straten Ponthoz.[24]

There is an ethnic group of Walloons living in Sweden making up the 8,000 Belgians living in Sweden and 5,000 Swedes living in Belgium.

  • Belgium has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an ambassador accredited to Belgium based in Stockholm.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 15 December 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1992[247]
 Bulgaria July 6, 1914 There are approximately 3,000 Swedes living in Bulgaria and
 Croatia 29 January 1992 See Croatia–Sweden relations.
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 January 1992[248]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Croatia joined on 1 July 2013.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Sweden relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Cyprus joined on 1 May 2004.
 Czech Republic 1 January 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 January 1993[249]
 Denmark See Denmark–Sweden relations.

Today, both countries are separated by the Øresund, which links the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, of the Council of Europe, and of the European Union. There are around 21,000 Swedes living in Denmark and there are around 42,000 Danes living in Sweden.

 Estonia 28 August 1991 See Estonia–Sweden relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 1991[250]

Estonia was under Swedish occupation between 1561 and 1721. Sweden re-recognized Estonia on August 27, 1991.

 Finland See Finland–Sweden relations.

Finnish–Swedish relations have a long history (Sweden and Finland were the same country for several hundred years), due to the close relationship between Finland and Sweden. Particularly in Finland, the issue emerges in frequent exposés of Finnish history, and in motives for governmental proposals and actions as reported in Finnish news broadcasts in English or other foreign languages. In Sweden, this relationship is a recurrent important theme of 20th-century history, although maybe by most Swedes considered to be an issue of purely historical relevance now that both countries have been members of the European Union since 1995.

 France See France–Sweden relations.
 Germany See Germany–Sweden relations
 Greece 24 January 1833 See Greece–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 January 1833 when Carl Peter von Heidenstam (until then Consul General) has been appointed as Chargé d'Affaires of the Kingdom of Sweden and Norway in Greece.[23]

 Hungary See Hungary–Sweden relations

Diplomacy relations between the two countries started on December 28, 1945.

  • Hungary has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Hungary joined on 1 May 2004.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Iceland See Iceland–Sweden relations
  • Iceland has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Reykjavík.
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
 Ireland 18 July 1946 See Ireland–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 July 1946[251] Ireland has an embassy in Stockholm.

 Italy 23 December 1859 See Italy–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 December 1859 when has been appointed first interim Chargé d'Affaires Giov. Antonio Migliorati.[26]

 Kosovo See Kosovo–Sweden relations

Sweden recognized Kosovo on March 4, 2008.[252] Liaison Office of Sweden in Pristina, subordinated to the Embassy in Skopje, North Macedonia.[253] On March 8, 2008, the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs Carl Bildt became the first foreign minister to officially visit Kosovo since it declared its independence.[254] Sweden currently has 243 troops serving in Kosovo as peacekeepers in the NATO led Kosovo Force.[255]

  • Kosovo has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Pristina.
 Latvia 28 August 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 1991[256]
  • Latvia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Riga.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Latvia joined on 1 May 2004.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Lithuania 28 August 1991 See Lithuania–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 1991[257]

  • Lithuania has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Vilnius.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Lithuania joined on 1 May 2004.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Moldova 12 June 1992 See Moldova–Sweden relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 June 1992[258]

Sweden is one of Moldova's top donors. From 1996, Sweden provided Moldova with technical assistance worth 30 million dollars, which significantly helped strengthen sectors such as: protection of human rights, democracy,

Swedish International Development Agency.[259][260] In 2007, the Swedish Government established the 2007–2010 strategy of cooperation with Moldova, which sees 11 million euros in financial assistance annually for three important sectors: good governance, strengthening of com petitiveness in the rural area and reduction of vulnerability in the energy sector.[259]

 The Netherlands See Netherlands–Sweden relations
 Norway See Norway–Sweden relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are members of NATO.
 Poland See Poland–Sweden relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Poland joined on 1 May 2004.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal See Portugal–Sweden relations
 Romania 1 November 1916
  • Romania has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Sweden joined the European Union as a full member on 1 January 1995, while Romania joined on 1 January 2007.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.
 Russia See Russia–Sweden relations.
 Serbia See Serbia–Sweden relations.
 Spain See Spain–Sweden relations
  Switzerland
  • Sweden has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Both countries are members of the Council of Europe.
 Ukraine 13 January 1992 See Sweden–Ukraine relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 January 1992[261]

A Ukrainian information bureau was opened 1916 in Stockholm by Volodymyr Stepankivskyi and M. Zaliznyak. In 1918 an official diplomatic mission from the Ukrainian People's Republic headed by K. Lossky was opened in Stockholm.[262] Diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Sweden were established on January 13, 1992.

  • Sweden has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Both countries are members of the Council of Europe.
  • Sweden is an
    member and Ukraine is an candidate
    .
 United Kingdom See Sweden–United Kingdom relations.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia See Australia–Sweden relations.
  • Australia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Canberra and eight honorary consulates: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darin, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney.
 Fiji 3 April 1979 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 April 1979[263]
 New Zealand See New Zealand–Sweden relations

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Elgström, Ole, and Magnus Jerneck. "Activism and adaptation: Swedish security strategies, 1814–85." Diplomacy and Statecraft 8.3 (1997): 210–236.
  • Grimberg, Carl. A History of Sweden (1935) online free
  • Horn, David Bayne. Great Britain and Europe in the eighteenth century (1967) covers 1603–1702; pp 236–69.
  • Lindström, Peter, and Svante Norrhem. Flattering Alliances: Scandinavia, Diplomacy and the Austrian-French Balance of Power, 1648–1740 (Nordic Academic Press, 2013).
  • Makko, Aryo. Ambassadors of Realpolitik: Sweden, the CSCE and the Cold War (2016) excerpt
  • Nordstrom, Byron J. The History of Sweden (2002) excerpt and text search; also full text online free to borrow
  • Salmon, Patrick. Scandinavia and the great powers 1890–1940 (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  • Sevin, Efe. Public diplomacy and the implementation of foreign policy in the US, Sweden and Turkey (Springer International Publishing, 2017).

External links