Coordinates: 50°06′38″N 08°40′56″E / 50.11056°N 8.68222°E / 50.11056; 8.68222
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

New Old Town; old town of the district Höchst; and Römerberg
Coat of arms of Frankfurt
Location of Frankfurt within Hesse
Frankfurt is located in Hesse
Coordinates: 50°06′38″N 08°40′56″E / 50.11056°N 8.68222°E / 50.11056; 8.68222
Lord Mayor (Caretaker)
Nargess Eskandari-Grünberg (acting)[1] (Greens)
 • Governing partiesGreens / SPD / FDP / Volt
 • City248.31 km2 (95.87 sq mi)
112 m (367 ft)
 • City759,224
 • Density3,100/km2 (7,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
60306–60599, 65929–65936
Dialling codes069, 06101, 06109
Vehicle registrationF Edit this at Wikidata

Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (German:

geographic center of the EU at Gadheim in Lower Franconia. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect

Frankfurt was a

14th wealthiest city
in the world.

Frankfurt is a global hub for commerce, culture, education, tourism and transportation, and rated as an

trade fairs. Major fairs include the Music Fair and the Frankfurt Book Fair
, the world's largest book fair.

Frankfurt is home to influential

Frankfurt Zoo. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top-tier soccer club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. It was also one of the host cities of the 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cups


Often stereotyped as a financial city, Frankfurt is multifaceted, including the entertainment district at Bahnhofsviertel

Frankfurt is the largest financial hub in continental Europe. It is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market.

In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks.[6]

Frankfurt is considered a global city (alpha world city) as listed by the GaWC group's 2012 inventory.[7] Among global cities it was ranked tenth by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial hubs, the city was ranked eighth by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and ninth in the 2013 Global Financial Centres Index.

Its central location in Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air, rail, and road

rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.[8] Frankfurter Kreuz, also known as the Autobahn interchange and located close to the airport, is the most-heavily used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily.[9] In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual 'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world.[10] According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's tenth most expensive.[11]

Frankfurt has many downtown

Dom-Römer Project
from 2012 to 2018.


Frankonovurd (in

) where the river was shallow enough to be crossed on foot.

By the 19th century, the name Frankfurt had been established as the official spelling. The older English spelling of Frankfort is now rarely seen in reference to Frankfurt am Main, although more than a dozen other towns and cities, mainly in the United States, use this spelling, including Frankfort, Kentucky, Frankfort, New York, and Frankfort, Illinois.

The suffix am Main has been used regularly since the 14th century. In

English, the city's full name of Frankfurt am Main means "Frankfurt on the Main" (pronounced like English mine or German mein). Frankfurt is located on an ancient ford (German: Furt) on the river Main. As a part of early Franconia, the inhabitants were the early Franks, thus the city's name reveals its legacy as "the ford of the Franks on the Main".[13]

Among English speakers, the city is commonly known simply as Frankfurt, but Germans occasionally call it by its full name to distinguish it from the other (significantly smaller) German city of Frankfurt an der Oder in the Land of Brandenburg on the Polish border.

The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times, thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa (good table).

The common abbreviations for the city, primarily used in railway services and on road signs, are Frankfurt (Main), Frankfurt (M), Frankfurt a. M., Frankfurt/Main or Frankfurt/M. The common

IATA code
for Frankfurt Airport.


Timeline of Frankfurt am Main
historical affiliations

 Roman Empire, pre 475
 Francia, ca. 475–843
 East Francia, 843–962
Holy Roman Empire, 962–1806
Free City of Frankfurt, 1372–1806
Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, 1806–1813
Free City of Frankfurt, 1813–1866
Kingdom of Prussia, 1866–1871
German Empire, 1871–1918
Weimar Republic, 1918–1933
German Reich, 1933–1945

American occupation zone
, 1945–1949
West Germany, 1949–1990
 Germany, 1990–present

Early history and Holy Roman Empire

The first traces of

river Nidda date to the reign of Emperor Vespasian in the years 69 to 79 AD. Nida (modern Heddernheim, Praunheim) was a Roman civitas
capital (Civitas Taunensium).

Alemanni and Franks lived there, and by 794, Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd (alternative spellings end with -furt and -vurd) was first mentioned. It was one of the two capitals of Charlemagne's grandson Louis the German, together with Regensburg. Louis founded the collegiate church, rededicated in 1239 to Bartholomew the Apostle and now Frankfurt Cathedral.[14]

Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the

emperors were crowned and elected in Frankfurt, initiated for Maximilian II. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II was elected. His coronation was deliberately held on Bastille Day, 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. The elections and coronations took place in St. Bartholomäus Cathedral
, known as the Kaiserdom (Emperor's Cathedral), or its predecessors.

The Frankfurter Messe ('Frankfurt Trade Fair') was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the empire. The fair became particularly important when similar fairs in French Beaucaire lost attraction around 1380. Book trade fairs began in 1478.

In 1372, Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt (

Imperial Free City), i.e., directly subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor
and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.

In 1585, Frankfurt traders established a system of exchange rates for the various currencies that were circulating to prevent cheating and extortion. Therein lay the early roots for the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War, but suffered from the bubonic plague that refugees brought to the city. After the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth. In the late 1770s the theater principal Abel Seyler was based in Frankfurt, and established the city's theatrical life.[15]

Kaiserplatz, c. 1880

Impact of French revolution and the Napoleonic Wars

Following the

prince of Venice
", a newly established primogeniture in Italy), Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop had no legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813 when the military tide turned in favor of the Anglo-Prussian-led allies that overturned the Napoleonic order. Dalberg abdicated in favor of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never ruled after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt's takeover by the allies.

Frankfurt as a fully sovereign state

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815) dissolved the grand-duchy and Frankfurt became a fully sovereign city-state with a republican form of government. Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated

Frankfurter Paulskirche (St. Paul's Church) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian king, Frederick William IV
, declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt after the loss of sovereignty

View of Frankfurt am Main, including the Alte Brücke (Old Bridge), by Gustave Courbet

Frankfurt lost its independence after the

Hesse-Nassau. The Prussian occupation and annexation were perceived as a great injustice in Frankfurt, which retained its distinct western European, urban and cosmopolitan character. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim
were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914, the citizens founded the University of Frankfurt, later named Goethe University Frankfurt. This marked the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest.

From 6 April to 17 May 1920, following military intervention to put down the

peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarization of the Rhineland had been broken.[17] In 1924, Ludwig Landmann became the first Jewish mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. During the Nazi era, the synagogues of the city were destroyed and the vast majority of the Jewish population fled or was killed.[18]

Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II (1939–1945). About 5,500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once-famous medieval city center, by that time the largest in Germany, was almost completely destroyed. It became a ground battlefield on 26 March 1945, when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault. The 5th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March 1945.[19]

After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old

American Zone of Occupation of Germany. The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945–1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949–1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building
, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment.

Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital city of the newly founded state of

Chancellor, preferred the town of Bonn, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also because many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt would be accepted as the permanent capital, thereby weakening the West German population's support for a reunification with East Germany and the eventual return of the capital to Berlin

Postwar reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple modern style, thus changing Frankfurt's architectural face. A few landmark buildings were reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner (e.g.,

S.D. Goitein, "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived."[20]

Reconstruction (1981–1984) of six houses at the east side of the Römerberg which were destroyed in World War II

The end of the war marked Frankfurt's comeback as Germany's leading financial hub, mainly because Berlin, now a city divided into four sectors, could no longer rival it. In 1948, the Allies founded the Bank deutscher Länder, the forerunner of Deutsche Bundesbank. Following this decision, more financial institutions were re-established, e.g. Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank. In the 1950s, Frankfurt Stock Exchange regained its position as the country's leading stock exchange.

Frankfurt also reemerged as Germany's transportation hub and

London Heathrow Airport
in 1961.

During the 1970s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems.

S-Bahn) linking outlying communities with the city center, and a deep underground light rail system with smaller coaches (U-Bahn
) also capable of travelling above ground on rails.

In 1998, the European Central Bank was founded in Frankfurt, followed by the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board in 2011.


Frankfurt as seen by the European Space Agency's Sentinel-2A

Frankfurt is the largest city in the state of Hesse in the western part of Germany.


Frankfurt is located on both sides of the river Main, south-east of the Taunus mountain range. The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest, Germany's largest city forest. The city area is 248.31 km2 (95.87 sq mi) and extends over 23.4 km (14.54 mi) east to west and 23.3 km (14.48 mi) north to south. Its downtown is north of the river Main in Altstadt district (the historical center) and the surrounding Innenstadt district. The geographical center is in Bockenheim district near Frankfurt West station.

Frankfurt at the heart of the densely populated

Rüsselsheim, Wetzlar and Marburg


The central Innenstadt district, as seen by a SkySat

The city is divided into 46 city districts (Stadtteile), which are in turn divided into 121 city boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 448 electoral districts (Wahlbezirke). The 46 city districts combine into 16 area districts (

), which each have a district committee and chairperson.

The largest city district by population and area is Sachsenhausen, while the smallest is Altstadt, Frankfurt's historical center. Three larger city districts (Sachsenhausen, Westend and Nordend) are divided for administrative purposes into a northern (-Nord) and a southern (-Süd) part, respectively a western (-West) and an eastern (-Ost) part, but are generally considered as one city district (which is why often only 43 city districts are mentioned, even on the city's official website).[22]

Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt (part of


Many city districts are incorporated suburbs (


History of incorporations

Until the year 1877 the city's territory consisted of the present-day inner-city districts of

Gutleutviertel, Gallus, Westend, Nordend, Ostend and Sachsenhausen

, was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend.

On 1 April 1928 the City of

Sossenheim) or joining the newly established Landkreis of Main-Taunus-Kreis

Dornbusch became a city district in 1946. It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim.

On 1 August 1972, Hesse's smaller suburbs of

Kreis Groß-Gerau, the Hochtaunuskreis, the Main-Kinzig-Kreis or the Wetteraukreis

was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on 1 January 1977.

Flughafen became an official city district in 1979. It covers the area of Frankfurt Airport that had belonged to Sachsenhausen and the neighboring city of Mörfelden-Walldorf

Frankfurt's youngest city district is Frankfurter Berg. It was part of Bonames until 1996.

Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in 2006 because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg.

Neighboring districts and cities

Frankfurt urban area within Hesse

To the west Frankfurt borders the


Together with these towns (and some larger nearby towns, e.g., Hanau, Rodgau, Dreieich, Langen) Frankfurt forms a contiguous built-up urban area called Stadtregion Frankfurt which is not an official administrative district. The urban area had an estimated population of 2.3 million in 2010, and is the 13th-largest urban area in the EU.


Frankfurt has a

: Cfb). Its average annual temperature is 10.6 °C (51.1 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.6 °C (34.9 °F) in January to 20.0 °C (68.0 °F) in July (Data from between 1981 and 2010).

Due to its location at the northern tip of the Upper Rhine Valley in the Southwest of Germany, Frankfurt is one of the warmest and driest bigger German cities together with cities like Darmstadt, Mannheim, Karlsruhe and Freiburg im Breisgau. Summers in Frankfurt can get very warm, when compared to the rest of the country. Between the years 1981 and 2010 there have been 52 days in Frankfurt with a maximum temperature over 25 °C and 13 days with a maximum over 30 °C on average per year.

Climate change elevates the number of hot days. In the year of 2018, there have been recorded 108 days with a maximum of over 25 °C and 43 days with a maximum of over 30 °C (compared to 52 and 13 days on average per year between 1981 and 2010). The overall tendency for higher temperatures can be seen when comparing the climate data from 1981 to 2010 with the data from 2010 to 2020. It is getting sunnier, drier and warmer and the climate resembles more a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

Being an urban heat island, Frankfurt is sometimes affected by tropical nights, where the temperature does not drop under 20 °C between May and September. This occurs because the density of the city causes it to store all the heat.

The growing season is longer when compared to the rest of Germany, thus resulting in an early arrival of springtime in the region.

Winters in Frankfurt are generally mild or at least not freezing with a small possibility of snow, especially in January and February but dark and often overcast. Frankfurt is, on average, covered with snow only for around 10 to 20 days per year.[23] The temperatures fell at about 70 days under 0 °C and daily maximum has stayed under 0 °C for about 13 days on average per year between 1981 and 2010. Some days with lows under −10 °C can occur more often here than at the coasts of Northern Germany, but not that frequently like in Bavaria or the eastern parts of Germany.

Because of the mild climate in the region, there are some well-known wine regions not far away such as

lemon trees and southern European plants growing in that area. The area is called the "Nizza" (the German word for the southern French town Nice) and is one of the biggest parks with a Mediterranean vegetation north of the Alps.[24]

Climate data for Frankfurt Airport 1981–2010, extremes 1949–present (sunshine duration and precipitation rounded)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.9
Average high °C (°F) 4.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
Record low °C (°F) −21.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45
Average rainy days 16 13 14 14 15 15 14 14 12 12 14 16 169
Mean monthly sunshine hours 50 80 121 178 211 219 233 219 156 103 51 41 1,662
Percent possible sunshine 18 29 33 42 45 46 47 51 40 30 19 16 35
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[25]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (sunshine data)[26]
Climate data for Frankfurt Airport February 2011 – February 2021 (recent 10 years)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.4
Average rainy days 11 8 7 6 8 8 8 9 6 9 8 12 100
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 86 153 206 231 224 240 222 182 100 56 34 1,777
Source 1: (high and low temperature and rain days data)[27]
Source 2: (sunshine, mean temperature and precipitation data)[28]
Climate data for Frankfurt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 9.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 16.0 14.0 13.0 11.0 9.0 8.0 12.3
Average Ultraviolet index 1 1 3 4 6 7 7 6 5 3 1 1 3.5
Source: Weather Atlas[26]



Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.
Largest groups of foreign residents[29]
Nationality Population (30 June 2019)
 Turkey 25,294
 Croatia 16,751
 Italy 15,120
 Poland 12,174
 Romania 10,451
 Serbia 9,404
 Bulgaria 8,509
 India 7,412
 Spain 7,261
 Greece 6,381
 Morocco 6,275
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6,142
 Afghanistan 5,114
 China 4,662
 France 4,609
 Algeria 4,087
 Portugal 3,991

With a population of 763,380 (2019) within its administrative boundaries

Großstadt (a city with at least 100,000 residents by definition) since 1875. With 414,576 residents in 1910, it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to 553,464 before World War II. After the war, at the end of the year 1945, the number had dropped to 358,000. In the following years, the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of 691,257 in 1963. It dropped again to 592,411 in 1986 but has increased since then. According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to 813,000 within its administrative boundaries in 2035[32]
and more than 2.5 million inhabitants in its urban area.

As of 2015, Frankfurt had 1909

ultra high-net-worth individuals, the sixth-highest number of any city.[33]

During the 1970s, the state government of Hesse wanted to expand the city's administrative boundaries to include the entire urban area. This would have made Frankfurt officially the second-largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants.[34] However, because local authorities did not agree, the administrative territory is still much smaller than its actual urban area.

Population of the 46 city districts on 31 December 2009
City district (Stadtteil)
Area in km2[35]
Foreign nationals[36]
Foreign nationals in %[36]
Area district (Ortsbezirk)
01 Altstadt 0.51 3.475 1.122 32.3 01 – Innenstadt I
02 Innenstadt 1.52 6.577 2.529 38.5 01 – Innenstadt I
0.53 2.125 810 38.1 01 – Innenstadt I
04 Westend-Süd 2.47 17.288 3.445 19.9 02 – Innenstadt II
05 Westend-Nord 1.67 8.854 2.184 24.7 02 – Innenstadt II
06 Nordend-West 3.07 28.808 5.162 17.9 03 – Innenstadt III
07 Nordend-Ost 1.69 26.619 5.580 21.0 03 – Innenstadt III
08 Ostend 5.40 26.955 7.213 26.8 04 – Bornheim/Ostend
09 Bornheim 2.66 27.184 6.240 23.0 04 – Bornheim/Ostend
2.20 5.843 1.953 33.4 01 – Innenstadt I
11 Gallus 4.22 26.716 11.012 41.2 01 – Innenstadt I
12 Bockenheim 8.04 34.740 9.034 26.0 02 – Innenstadt II
13 Sachsenhausen-Nord 4.24 30.374 6.507 21.4 05 – Süd
14 Sachsenhausen-Süd 34.91 26.114 4.847 18.6 05 – Süd
20.00 211 14 6.6 05 – Süd
2.74 12.828 3.113 24.3 05 – Süd
2.93 22.954 6.569 28.6 05 – Süd
18 Schwanheim 17.73 20.162 3.532 17.5 06 – West
19 Griesheim 4.90 22.648 8.029 35.5 06 – West
5.15 17.841 4.863 27.3 07 – Mitte-West
21 Hausen 1.26 7.178 2.135 29.7 07 – Mitte-West
4.55 15.761 3.197 20.3 07 – Mitte-West
2.49 16.443 3.194 19.4 08 – Nord-West
7.22 16.394 3.671 22.4 08 – Nord-West
2.73 16.444 4.024 24.5 09 – Mitte-Nord
27 Dornbusch 2.38 18.511 3.482 18.8 09 – Mitte-Nord
3.34 14.808 2.657 17.9 09 – Mitte-Nord
2.23 14.277 3.674 25.7 10 – Nord-Ost
3.74 13.568 3.442 25.4 10 – Nord-Ost
1.24 6.362 1.288 20.2 10 – Nord-Ost
3.18 3.400 592 17.4 10 – Nord-Ost
1.04 4.911 1.142 23.3 11 – Ost
34 Seckbach 8.04 10.194 1.969 19.3 11 – Ost
7.18 16.061 5.635 35.1 11 – Ost
36 Höchst 4.73 13.888 5.279 38.0 06 – West
37 Nied 3.82 17.829 5.224 29.3 06 – West
3.98 9.032 2.076 23.0 06 – West
5.47 11.984 2.555 21.3 06 – West
5.85 14.350 3.511 24.5 06 – West
5.97 15.853 4.235 26.7 06 – West
8.34 4.629 496 10.7 13 – Nieder-Erlenbach
6.90 8.482 1.279 15.1 12 – Kalbach-Riedberg
5.02 4.294 446 10.4 14 – Harheim
6.35 11.499 1.978 17.2 15 – Nieder-Eschbach
12.54 17.954 2.764 15.4 16 – Bergen-Enkheim
Frankfurter Berg
2.16 7.149 1.715 24.0 10 – Nord-Ost
Frankfurt am Main 248.33 679.571 165.418 24.3

Immigration and foreign nationals

According to data from the city register of residents, 51.2% of the population had a migration background as of 2015, which means that a person or at least one or both of their parents was born with foreign citizenship. For the first time, a majority of the city residents had an at least part non-German background.[37] Moreover, three of four children in the city under the age of six had full or partial immigrant backgrounds,[38] and 27.7% of residents had a foreign citizenship.[39]

According to statistics, 46.7% of immigrants in Frankfurt come from other countries in the EU; 24.5% come from European countries that are not part of the EU; 15.7% come from Asia (including Western Asia and South Asia); 7.3% come from Africa; 3.4% come from North America (including the Caribbean and Central America); 0.2% come from Australia and New Zealand; 2.3% come from South America; and 1.1% come from Pacific island nations. Because of this the city is often considered to be a multicultural city, and has been compared to New York City, London, and Toronto.


Frankfurt was historically a

Catholics moved to Frankfurt. As of 2013, the largest Christian denominations were Catholicism (22.7% of the population) and Protestantism, especially Lutheranism (19.4%).[40]

The Jewish community has a history dating back to medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany. Over 7,200 inhabitants are affiliated with the Jewish community, making it the second largest in Germany after Berlin.[18] Frankfurt has four active synagogues.[41]

Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the 1960s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community. Estimations put the share of Muslim inhabitants at approximately 12% (as of 2006).[42] According to calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin, the number of Muslim migrants in Frankfurt amounted to about 84,000 in 2011, making up 12.6 percent of the population.[43] The most prevalent countries of origin were Turkey and Morocco.

Government and politics


The current Mayor is Mike Josef of the Social Democratic Party, who took the office on 11 May 2023.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 5 March 2023, with a runoff held on 26 March, and the results were as follows:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Uwe Becker Christian Democratic Union 70,411 34.5 86,307 48.3
Mike Josef Social Democratic Party 49,033 24.0 92,371 51.7
Manuela Rottmann Alliance 90/The Greens 43,502 21.3
Peter Wirth Independent 10,397 5.1
Daniela Mehler-Würzbach The Left 7,356 3.6
Maja Wolff Independent 6,014 2.9
Yanki Pürsün Free Democratic Party 5,768 2.8
Andreas Lobenstein Alternative for Germany 4,628 2.3
Mathias Pfeiffer Citizens for Frankfurt 1,565 0.8
Katharina Tanczos Die PARTEI 1,176 0.6
Khurrem Akhtar Team Todenhöfer 858 0.4
Frank Großenbach dieBasis 744 0.4
Tilo Schwichtenberg Garden Party Frankfurt am Main 661 0.3
Sven Junghans Independent 574 0.3
Yamòs Camara Free Party Frankfurt 487 0.2
Niklas Pauli Independent 340 0.2
Peter Pawelski Independent 325 0.2
Feng Xu Independent 199 0.1
Karl-Maria Schulte Independent 158 0.1
Markus Eulig Independent 102 0.0
Valid votes 204,298 99.6 178,678 99.0
Invalid votes 921 0.4 1,754 1.0
Total 205,219 100.0 180,432 100.0
Electorate/voter turnout 508,510 40.4 510,336 35.4
Source: City of Frankfurt am Main

City council

The Frankfurt am Main city council (Stadtverordnetenversammlung) governs the city alongside the mayor. It is located in the city's medieval town hall, Römer, which is also used for representative and official purposes. The most recent city council election was held on 14 March 2021, and the results were as follows:

Party Lead candidate Votes % +/- Seats +/-
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) Martina Feldmayer 4,894,339 24.6 Increase 9.3 23 Increase 9
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) Nils Kößler 4,361,942 21.9 Decrease 2.2 20 Decrease 2
Social Democratic Party (SPD) Mike Josef 3,385,017 17.0 Decrease 6.8 16 Decrease 6
The Left (Die Linke) Dominike Pauli 1,572,333 7.9 Decrease 0.1 7 Decrease 1
Free Democratic Party (FDP) Annette Rinn 1,515,646 7.6 Increase 0.1 7 ±0
Alternative for Germany (AfD) Patrick Schenk 902,412 4.5 Decrease 4.4 4 Decrease 4
Volt Germany (Volt) Eileen O'Sullivan 745,418 3.7 New 4 New
Citizens for Frankfurt (BFF) Mathias Mund 395,905 2.0 Decrease 0.7 2 Decrease 1
Ecological Left – Anti-Racist List (ÖkoLinX-ARL) Jutta Ditfurth 359,304 1.8 Decrease 0.3 2 ±0
Die PARTEI (PARTEI) Nico Wehnemann 361,932 1.8 Increase 0.4 2 Increase 1
Europe List for Frankfurt (ELF) Luigi Brillante 265,914 1.3 Increase 0.1 1 ±0
Free Voters (FW) Eric Pärisch 162,122 0.8 Increase 0.2 1 ±0
I am a Frankfurter (IBF) Jumas Medoff 166,573 0.8 Increase 0.4 1 Increase 1
Alliance for Innovation and Justice (BIG) Haluk Yıldız 128,846 0.6 New 1 New
Garden Party Frankfurt am Main (Gartenpartei) Tilo Schwichtenberg 126,991 0.6 New 1 New
Pirate Party Germany (Piraten) Herbert Förster 123,772 0.6 Decrease 0.2 1 ±0
Polish Dialogue Initiative for Frankfurt Barbara Lange 88,771 0.4 New 0 New
The Frankfurters (dFfm) Bernhard Ochs 73,026 0.4 Decrease 0.4 0 Decrease 1
International Vote Frankfurt (ISF) Kerry Reddington 61,772 0.3 New 0 New
Climate List Frankfurt (Klimaliste) Beate Balzert 61,526 0.3 New 0 New
Free Party Frankfurt (FPF) Benjamin Klinger 40,621 0.2 New 0 New
United Democrats (VD) André Leitzbach 30,691 0.2 New 0 New
The Social Liberals (SL) Christian Bethke 18,563 0.1 New 0 New
Frankfurt Free Voter Group (FFWG) Thomas Schmitt 16,587 0.1 New 0 New
Romanians for Frankfurt (RF) Ionut-Vlad Plenz 15,884 0.1 New 0 New
Party of Humanists (Die Humanisten) Rüdiger Gottschalk 11,680 0.1 New 0 New
Bulgarian Association of Frankfurt (BGF) Daniela Spasova-Mischke 11,488 0.1 New 0 New
Sven Junghans, We Frankfurters (WF) Sven Junghans 9,627 0.0 New 0 New
Valid votes 221,487 96.0
Invalid votes 9,196 4.0
Total 230,683 100.0 93 ±0
Electorate/voter turnout 512,034 45.1 Increase 6.1
Source: Statistics Hesse

Landtag election

For elections to the Hesse State Parliament, Frankfurt am Main is split up into six constituencies. In total 15 delegates represent the city in the Landtag in Wiesbaden. The last election took place in October 2018. Six members of parliament were directly elected in their respective constituencies: Uwe Serke (CDU, Frankfurt am Main I), Miriam Dahlke (Greens, Frankfurt am Main II), Ralf-Norbert Bartel (CDU, Frankfurt am Main III), Michael Boddenberg (CDU, Frankfurt am Main IV), Markus Bocklet (Greens, Frankfurt am Main V) and Boris Rhein (CDU, Frankfurt am Main VI).

Delegates from Frankfurt often serve high-ranking positions in Hessian politics, e.g. Michael Boddenberg is Hessian Minister of Finance and Boris Rhein was elected President of the Landtag of Hesse in 2019.

German federal election

For federal elections which are held every four years, Frankfurt is split up into two constituencies. In the German federal election 2017, Matthias Zimmer (CDU) and Bettina Wiesmann were elected to the Bundestag by directe mandate in Frankfurt am Main I and Frankfurt am Main II respectively. Nicola Beer (FDP), Achim Kessler (Linke), Ulli Nissen (SPD) and Omid Nouripour (Greens) were elected as well.

Nicola Beer resigned as a member of parliament in 2019 following her election to the European Parliament where she now serves as vice president.

Economy and business

Frankfurt is one of the world's most important financial hubs and Germany's financial capital, followed by

Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index (2008), ninth at the Global Financial Centres Index (September 2013),[44] tenth at the Global Power City Index (2011), 11th at the Global City Competitiveness Index (2012), 12th at the Innovation Cities Index (2011),[45] 14th at the World City Survey (2011) and 23rd at the Global Cities Index (2012).[46]

The city's importance as a financial hub has risen since the

European System of Financial Supervisors (European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board) in 2011 and the Single Supervisory Mechanism by which the European Central Bank was to assume responsibility for specific supervisory tasks related to the financial stability of the biggest and most important Eurozone

According to an annual study by Cushman & Wakefield, the European Cities Monitor (2010), Frankfurt has been one of the top three cities for international companies in Europe, after London and Paris, since the survey started in 1990.[47] It is the only German city considered to be an alpha world city (category 3) as listed by the Loughborough University group's 2010 inventory,[48] which was a promotion from the group's 2008 inventory when it was ranked as an alpha minus world city (category 4).[49]

With over 922 jobs per 1,000 inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. On work days and Saturdays, one million people commute from all over the

Rhein-Main-Area. The GRP per capita was €96,670 in 2019.[50]

The city is expected to benefit from international banks relocating jobs from London to Frankfurt as a result of Brexit to retain access to the EU market.[51][52] Thus far, Morgan Stanley, Citigroup Inc., Standard Chartered Plc and Nomura Holdings Inc. announced they would move their EU headquarters to Frankfurt.[52]

Central banks

Frankfurt is home to two important central banks: the German Bundesbank and the European Central Bank (ECB).[53]

European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (Europäische Zentralbank) is one of the world's most important central banks. The ECB sets monetary policy for the Eurozone, consisting of 19

Eurotower at Willy-Brandt-Platz and in two other nearby high-rises. The new Seat of the European Central Bank in the Ostend district, consisting of the former wholesale market hall (Großmarkthalle
) and a newly built 185-meter skyscraper, was completed in late 2014. The new building complex was designed to accommodate up to 2,300 ECB personnel. The location is a few kilometers away from downtown and borders an industrial area as well as the Osthafen (East Harbor), It was primarily chosen because of its large premises which allows the ECB to install security arrangements without high fences.

The city honors the importance of the ECB by officially using the slogan "The City of the Euro" since 1998.

Deutsche Bundesbank

The Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank), located in Ginnheim, was established in 1957 as the central bank for the Federal Republic of Germany. Until the euro (€) was introduced in 1999, the Deutsche Bundesbank was responsible for the monetary policy of Germany and for the German currency, the Deutsche Mark (DM). The Bundesbank was greatly respected for its control of inflation through the second half of the 20th century. Today the Bundesbank is an integral part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) which is formed by all 27 EU member states.

Commercial banks

Westend Tower
, also known as Westendstraße 1 or Crown Tower, headquarters of DZ Bank

In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had a registered office, including the headquarters of the major German banks, as well as 41 offices of international banks.

portmanteau of the local Main river and Manhattan
in New York City) or "Bankfurt". 73,200 people were employed at banks in 2010.

Other major German banks include

Delbrück Bethmann Maffei

Many international banks have a registered or a representative office, e.g.,


Frankfurt Stock Exchange

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse) began in the ninth century. By the 16th century Frankfurt had developed into an important European hub for trade fairs and financial services. Today the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is by far the largest in Germany, with a turnover of more than 90 percent of the German

Eurex and clearing company Clearstream. Trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra trading system
, with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers on the new platform.

On 1 February 2012 European Commission blocked the proposed merger of Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext. "The merger between Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext would have led to a near-monopoly in European financial derivatives worldwide. These markets are at the heart of the financial system and it is crucial for the whole European economy that they remain competitive. We tried to find a solution, but the remedies offered fell far short of resolving the concerns."[55] European competition commissioner Joaquín Almunia said.

It is located downtown at the Börsenplatz. Deutsche Börse's headquarters are formally registered in Frankfurt, but it moved most of its employees to a high-rise called "The Cube" in Eschborn in 2010, primarily due to significantly lower local corporate taxes.

Frankfurt Trade Fair

Frankfurt Trade Fair (Messe Frankfurt) has the third-largest exhibition site in the world with a total of 578,000 m2 (6,220,000 sq ft) . The trade fair premises are located in the western part between Bockenheim, the Westend and the Gallus district. It houses ten exhibition halls with a total of 321,754 m2 (3,463,330 sq ft) of space and 96,078 m2 (1,034,170 sq ft) of outdoor space.

Hosted in Frankfurt are the

Frankfurt Motor Show (Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung – IAA), the world's largest auto show, the Frankfurt Book Fair (Frankfurter Buchmesse), the world's largest book fair, the Ambiente Frankfurt, the world's largest consumer goods
fair, the Achema, the world's largest plant engineering fair, and many more like Paperworld, Christmasworld, Beautyworld, Tendence Lifestyle or Light+Building.

Messe Frankfurt GmbH, the owner and operator company, organized 87 exhibitions in 2010, 51 thereof in foreign countries.[citation needed] It is one of the largest trade fair companies with commercial activities in over 150 countries.


Two Lufthansa Airbus A380s at Frankfurt Airport

Frankfurt Airport is one of the busiest airports in the world and is also the single largest place of work in Germany with over 500 companies which employ 71,500 people (2010).[56]

Fraport is the owner and operator of Frankfurt Airport. It is the airport's second-largest employer (19,800 workers in 2010).[57] Fraport also operates other airports worldwide, e.g., King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah, Jorge Chávez International Airport in Lima and Antalya Airport.

The largest company at Frankfurt Airport is Lufthansa, Germany's

Lufthansa Flight Training
is also based here.

is a German airline based at Frankfurt Airport.

Other industries

Accountancy and professional services

Three of the four largest international

Big Four
) are present.

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu are present, while Ernst & Young is located in Eschborn

Credit rating agencies

The three major international

Fitch Ratings
– have their German headquarters in Frankfurt.

Investment trust companies

DWS Investments is the largest

Allianz SE, and a top-five global active investment manager with €1,933 billion assets under management globally), Union Investment
and Deka Investmentfonds.

Management consultancies

Many of the largest international

Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

Real estate services companies

Located in Frankfurt are the German headquarters of


Law firms

Frankfurt has the highest concentration of lawyers in Germany, with one lawyer per 97 inhabitants (followed by Düsseldorf with a ratio of 1/117 and Munich with 1/124) in 2005.[61]

Most of the large international


Advertising agencies

Although it is best known for its banks and financial institutions, Frankfurt is also a media hub. Around 570 companies of the advertising industry and 270 public relations companies are there.

According to a ranking of German

McCann-Erickson, Saatchi & Saatchi, JWT, and Publicis.[62]


Frankfurt is home to the German headquarters of

Niederrad. Other important food companies are Ferrero SpA
(German headquarters) and Radeberger Gruppe KG, the largest private brewery group in Germany.


The South-Korean

Kia Motors moved its European headquarters to Frankfurt in 2007. In the same year, Italian manufacturer Fiat opened its new German headquarters. The automotive supplier Continental AG
has the headquarters and a major manufacturing plant of its Chassis & Safety division (formerly ITT Automotive) located in Frankfurt Rödelheim.


Some of the largest German construction companies have offices, e.g.,

, Züblin and BAM Deutschland.

Property and real estate

Frankfurt has Germany's highest concentration of homeowners. This is partly attributed to the financial sector, but also to its cosmopolitan nature, with expatriates and immigrants representing one-fourth of its population. For this reason, Frankfurt's property market often operates differently than the rest of the country where the prices are generally flatter.


Frankfurt is one of Germany's leading tourist destinations. In addition to its infrastructure and economy, its diversity supports a vibrant cultural scene. This blend of attractions led 4.3 million tourists (2012) to visit Frankfurt.[63] The Hotels in central Frankfurt offer 34,000 beds in 228 hotels, of which 13 are luxury hotels and 46 are first-class hotels.[64]


Nintendo of Europe
in the Lyoner Quartier

Frankfurt is home to companies from the chemical, transportation, telecommunication and energy industries. Some of the larger companies are:

In addition, several

fintech startups have their headquarters in Frankfurt.[66]

Urban area (suburban) businesses

Within Frankfurt's urban area are several important companies.

The business hub of Eschborn is located right at Frankfurt's city limits in the west and attracts businesses with significantly lower

moved most of its employees to Eschborn in 2010.

Rüsselsheim is internationally known for its automobile manufacturer Opel, one of the biggest automobile manufacturers in Germany. With 20,000 employees in 2003, Opel was one of the five largest employers in Hesse

Offenbach am Main is home to the European headquarters of automobile manufacturer Hyundai Motor Company, to the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Honda, to Honeywell Germany and to Deutscher Wetterdienst, the central scientific agency that monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany.


Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA and Fresenius Medical Care. Other major companies are Hewlett-Packard, Bridgestone
, Deutsche Leasing and Basler Versicherungen.

Kronberg im Taunus is home of the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Jaguar Cars as well as the German headquarters of Accenture.

Lufthansa Systems, a subsidiary of Lufthansa, is located in Kelsterbach.

LSG Sky Chefs, another subsidiary of Lufthansa, is located in Neu-Isenburg

The German headquarters of Thomas Cook Group are based in Oberursel.

Langen is home to Deutsche Flugsicherung, the German air traffic control.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Frankfurt is twinned with:[67]

Friendly cities

Frankfurt has friendly relations with:[67]

  • Egypt Cairo, Egypt (1979)
  • Kanagawa
    , Japan (2011)




city hall
(Rathaus). The houses were acquired by the city council in 1405 from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with its neighbors. The Kaisersaal ("Emperor's Hall") is located on the upper floor and is where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets. The Römer was partially destroyed in World War II and later rebuilt. The surrounding square, the Römerberg, is named after the city hall.

New Frankfurt Old Town
was completed in 2018, including 15 reconstructed historical buildings.

The former

Dom-Römer Quarter from 2012 to 2018, including 15 reconstructions
of historical buildings that were destroyed during World War II.

Frankfurt Cathedral

Merovingian time. From 1356 onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from 1562 to 1792, Roman-German
emperors were crowned there.

Since the 18th century, St. Bartholomew's has been called Dom, although it was never a bishop's seat. In 1867 it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present style. It was again partially destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in the 1950s. Its height is 95 meters. The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 meters, accessed through a narrow spiral staircase with 386 steps.

St. Paul's Church

St. Paul's Church

Protestant church, but was not completed until 1833. Its importance has its roots in the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the church during the revolutionary years of 1848/49 in order to write a constitution for a united Germany. The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia
and Austria did not want to lose power. In 1849, Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force and the parliament dissolved; the building was once more used for religious services.

St. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly its interior, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is used mainly for exhibitions and events.

Archäologischer Garten Frankfurt

The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest recovered buildings: an ancient Roman settlement and the Frankfurt Royal Palace (Kaiserpfalz Frankfurt) from the sixth century. The garden is located between the Römerberg and the cathedral. It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt. The remains were preserved and are now open to the public. From 2013 until 2015 an event building, the Stadthaus ("City house"), has been built on top of the garden, but it remains open to the public free of charge.

Haus Wertheim

Wertheim House is the only timbered house in the Altstadt district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II undamaged. It is located on the Römerberg next to the Historical Museum.



Historical Museum

Eiserner Steg

The Eiserner Steg (Iron Bridge) is a pedestrian-only bridge across the Main that connects Römerberg and Sachsenhausen. It was built in 1868 and was the second bridge to cross the river. After World War II, when it was blown up by the Wehrmacht, it was quickly rebuilt in 1946. Today some 10,000 people cross the bridge on a daily basis.

Alte Oper


Lord Mayor
Rudi Arndt called for blowing it up in the 1960s, which earned him the nickname "Dynamite-Rudi". (Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously.)

Public pressure led to its refurbishment and reopening in 1981. Today, it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Frankfurt Opera. The inscription on the frieze of the Alte Oper says: "Dem Wahren, Schönen, Guten" ("To the true, the beautiful, the good").

Eschenheimer Turm

The Eschenheim Tower (Eschenheimer Turm) was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of late-medieval fortifications. It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt district.

St. Catherine's Church

St. Catherine's Church (Katharinenkirche) is the largest Protestant church, dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria, a martyred early Christian saint. It is located downtown at the entrance to the Zeil, the central pedestrian shopping street.


Although today

of the same name, the name originates from a baroque
building on the square above the station. The Hauptwache building was constructed in 1730 and was used as a prison, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house". Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" (formal: An der Hauptwache). It is situated downtown opposite to St. Catherine's Church and houses a famous café.

Frankfurt Central Station

Central Station

terminus station and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until 1915 when Leipzig Central Station was opened. Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance-style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in 1924 was constructed in neoclassic

Frankfurter Hof

The Frankfurter Hof is a landmark downtown hotel at Kaiserplatz, built from 1872 to 1876. It is part of

Steigenberger Hotels
group and is considered the city's most prestigious.

St. Leonhard

St. Leonhard, on the Main close to the bridge Eiserner Steg, is a Catholic late Gothic hall church, derived from a Romanesque style basilica beginning in 1425. It is the only one of nine churches in the Old Town that survived World War II almost undamaged. The parish serves the English-speaking community. The church has been under restoration from 2011 until 2019.[69]

20th-century architecture

21st-century architecture


Frankfurt is one of the few European cities with a significant number of skyscrapers, (buildings at least 150 m (492.13 ft) tall). It hosts 18 out of Germany's 19

between Opernplatz and Platz der Republik, which connects the two areas.

The 18 skyscrapers are:

Other high-rise buildings include:

History of high-rise buildings

For centuries,

grain silo, the 120 m-high (390 ft) Henninger Turm
, built from 1959 to 1961.

The first high-rise building boom came in the 1970s when

Eurotower (148.0 meters) and Garden Tower
(127.0 meters; then called Helaba-Hochhaus) were constructed in the financial district.

None of the buildings constructed during the 1980s surpassed Silberturm. The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers at Taunusanlage, both 155.0 meters tall.

The 1990s featured a second wave. Messeturm, built on the trade fair site, reached a height of 256.5 meters (842 ft) and became the tallest building in Europe by 1991. It was overtaken by the 259 m-high (850 ft) Commerzbank Tower in 1997. Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstrasse 1 (208 meters (682 ft)), Main Tower (200 meters (660 ft)) and Trianon (186 meters (610 ft)).

In 21st-century Frankfurt, more high-rise buildings and skyscrapers (e.g., Skyper, Opernturm, Tower 185, Seat of the European Central Bank, Taunusturm) emerged, but none have surpassed Commerzbank Tower.

Other tall structures

  • Europaturm The Europe Tower is a telecommunications tower, also known as the Frankfurt TV Tower, built from 1974 to 1979. With a height of 337.5 meters it is the tallest tower and the second tallest structure in Germany after the Fernsehturm Berlin. It was open to the public until 1999, with an entertainment establishment in the revolving top. It is normally referred to by locals as the "Ginnheimer Spargel" (Ginnheim Asparagus), but stands a few meters within Bockenheim district.
  • grain silo built from 1959 to 1961 and owned by Henninger Brewery. It was the highest structure until 1974. The Henninger Tower had two rotating restaurants at the height of 101 and 106 meters and an open-air observation deck at the height of 110 meters. The tower closed to the public in October 2002 and was demolished in 2013 to be replaced by a 140 m (459 ft) tall residential tower, which is externally inspired by the old Henninger Turm. The cornerstone for this project was laid in June 2014 and construction was completed in summer 2017. The new tower offers 207 luxury flats[72] and houses the non-rotating restaurant "Franziska". From 1962 to 2008 a famous yearly cycling race
    was named after the tower, the "Radrennen Rund um den Henninger Turm" (Cycling race around Henninger Tower). The now-renamed race is still a yearly event.
  • Goetheturm The Goethe Tower was a 43 m-high (141 ft) tower on the northern edge of the Frankfurt City Forest in Sachsenhausen. It was the fifth tallest wood construction structure in Germany. It was built in 1931 and was a popular place for day-trippers until it burned down in 2017. A faithful reconstruction has been opened to the public on 12 October 2020, exactly three years after the original's destruction.[73]

Shopping streets

Luxury shopping at Goethestraße

Green city

With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas.[74]



With more than 30 museums, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. Most museums are part of the Museumsufer, located on the front row of both sides of the Main riverbank or nearby, which was created on an initiative by cultural politician Hilmar Hoffmann.[75]

Ten museums are located on the southern riverbank in Sachsenhausen between the Eiserner Steg and the Friedensbrücke. The street itself, Schaumainkai, is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for Frankfurt's largest flea market.

Two museums are located on the northern riverbank:

Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt district are:

Another important museum is located in the Westend district:

Other museums are the Dialogmuseum (Dialogue Museum) in the

district. The Explora Museum+Wissenschaft+Technik (Explora Museum of Science and Engineering) in the Nordend district was closed in 2016. Most museums open around 10:00 am local time, and it is possible to comfortably visit four museums in one day, a fact many tourists take advantage of.

Performing arts


Jam and Spoon, Magic Affair, Culture Beat, Snap!, Dance 2 Trance, Oliver Lieb and Hardfloor, and record labels such as Harthouse and Eye Q
, were based in the city in the early 1990s.


Botanical gardens

Frankfurt is home to two major botanical gardens:

  • Palmengarten – Located in the Westend district, it is Hesse's largest botanical garden, covering 22 ha (54 acres). It opened to the public in 1871. The botanical exhibits are organized according to their origin in free-air or in greenhouses that host tropical and subtropical plants, hence the name "Palm Garden".
  • Mediterranean, and North America and the systematic and ecological collection includes crop plants, endangered species, ornamental plants, roses, and the Neuer Senckenbergischer Arzneipflanzengarten (New Senckenberg Medicinal Plant Garden), which measures 1,200 m2 (13,000 sq ft). The Botanical Garden, Palmengarten, Grüneburgpark
    collectively form the largest inner-city green area.

Foreign culture

  • Letizia, Princess of Asturias. It is located in the so-called Amerika-Haus.[1]
  • Institut Français – A French public industrial and commercial organization (EPIC), started in 1907 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for promoting French, francophone as well as local cultures around the world. The French Institute works closely with the French cultural network abroad consisting of more than 150 branches and nearly 1,000 branches of the Alliance française around the world.[2]
  • Istituto Italiano di Cultura – A worldwide non-profit organization created by the Italian government. It promotes Italian culture and is involved in the teaching of the Italian language; there are 83 Italian Cultural Institutes throughout major cities around the world.[3]
  • Confucius Institute – A non-profit public educational organization affiliated with the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, whose aim is to promote Chinese language and culture, support local Chinese teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges. There are over 480 Confucius Institutes worldwide.[4]
  • Central and Eastern European Online Library – CEEOL is an online archive providing access to full-text articles from humanities and social science scholarly journals on Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European topics. Subject areas include anthropology, culture and society, economy, gender studies, history, Judaic studies, fine arts, literature, linguistics, political sciences and social sciences, philosophy and religion. CEEOL is operated by Questa.Soft GmbH.[5]



Frankfurt offers a variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs. Clubs concentrate in and around downtownand in the Ostend district, mainly close to Hanauer Landstraße. Restaurants, bars and pubs concentrate in Sachsenhausen, Nordend, Bornheim and Bockenheim.


Fechenheim (2004–2012). Notable live music venues of the past include the Sinkkasten Arts Club (1971–2011) and the King Kamehameha Club

Among the most popular active rock and pop concert venues is the Batschkapp in Seckbach, which opened in 1976 as a center for autonomous and left-wing counterculture. Further popular active clubs and music venues include the Velvet Club, The Cave, Cooky's, Nachtleben, Silbergold, Zoom, Tanzhaus West and the Yachtclub.

Domestic culture

  • Frankfurt kitchen – Designed originally in 1926 for the New Frankfurt-project and built in some 10,000 units, the kitchen became a milestone in domestic architecture, considered the forerunner of modern fitted kitchens.
  • Frankfurt cupboard – The Baroque Frankfurt-style cupboards were used to store the family linen, one of them by Goethe's father, who took one cupboard to Rome. The most luxurious versions have wave-shaped parts, some are made of solid cherry wood inlaid with plumwood.

Culinary specialties

  • ApfelweinApple wine or hard cider is regionally known as "Ebbelwoi", "Äppler" or "Stöffsche". It has an alcohol content of 5.5%–7% and a tart, sour taste. It is traditionally served in a glass, typically decorated with lozenges, called "Geripptes", a full glass is then called "Schoppen". Apfelwein is also available in a stoneware jar locally known as "Bembel". A group normally orders a "Bembel" and shares the contents. Apfelwein can be ordered as "sauergespritzer", which is apfelwein blended with 30% mineral water or as "süssgespritzer", which is Apfelwein blended with lemon soda, orange soda or fresh-pressed apple juice (lemon soda being the most common). Most of the pubs which serve Apfelwein are located in Sachsenhausen, which is therefore known as "Ebbelwoi district". Due to its national drink Frankfurt is sometimes called "Big Ebbel" (pronunciation with Hessian dialect), an homage to Big Apple, the famous nickname of New York City.
  • Grüne SoßeGreen sauce is a sauce made with hard-boiled eggs, oil, vinegar, salt and a generous amount of seven fresh herbs, namely borage, sorrel, garden cress, chervil, chives, parsley and salad burnet. Variants, often due to seasonal availability include dill, lovage, lemon balm and spinach. Original green sauce Frankfurt-style is made of herbs that were gathered only on fields within the city limits.
  • Frankfurter Würstchen – "short Frankfurter" is a small sausage made of smoked pork. They are similar to hot dogs. The name Frankfurter Würstchen has been trademarked since 1860.
  • Frankfurter Rindswurst – Sausage made of pure beef.
  • Frankfurter Rippchen – Also known as Rippchen mit Kraut, this is a traditional dish which consists of cured pork cutlets, slowly heated in sauerkraut or meat broth, and usually served with sauerkraut, mashed potatoes and yellow mustard.
  • sour milk cheese (similar to Harzer) and a culinary specialty in the Rhine Main Region
    . The traditional way of producing it is by hand. When it is topped with chopped onions it becomes "Handkäs mit Musik" (with music) because the onions are supposed to stimulate flatulence.
  • Frankfurter Kranz – Cake speciality believed to originate from Frankfurt.
  • Bethmännchen – "A little Bethmann" is a pastry made from marzipan with almond, powdered sugar, rosewater, flour, and egg. It is usually baked for Christmas.

Quality of life

In a 2001 ranking by the

GDP per capita, followed by Karlsruhe, Paris and Munich.[78]

Frankfurt was voted the seventh in the

Mercer Quality of Living Survey by the Mercer Quality of Living Survey (2012),[79] seventh in the Mercer Quality of Living Survey (2010) and 18th at the Economist's World's Most Liveable Cities Survey (2011).[80] According to an annual citizen survey (2010), arranged by the city council, 66 percent inhabitants are satisfied or highly satisfied with the city, while only 6 percent said that they are dissatisfied. Compared to the 1993's survey the number of satisfied inhabitants has grown about 22 percent while the number of dissatisfied inhabitants was reduced by 8 percent. 84 percent of the inhabitants like to live in Frankfurt, 13 percent would rather choose to live somewhere else. 37 percent are satisfied with the public safety (1993: only 9 percent), 22 percent are dissatisfied (1993: 64 percent).[81]

Frankfurt consistently has the highest levels of crime per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany (15.976 crimes per annum in 2008) and is therefore dubbed the German "crime capital".[82] However, this statistic is often criticized[citation needed] because it ignores major factors: It is calculated based on the administrative 680,000-inhabitant figure while the urban area has 2.5 M inhabitants and on weekdays adds another million people[citation needed] (not counting the 53 million passengers passing through the airport each year). The rate for personal safety-relevant crimes such as murder, manslaughter, rape or bodily harm, is 3.4 percent, placing Frankfurt twelfth in the ranking (related to the official 680,000-inhabitant figure) or number 21 (related to the one-million-figure).[83] In 2018, the state of Hesse, where Frankfurt is located, was ranked the third-safest state in Germany.[84]



Frankfurt Airport

Frankfurt Airport (with the fourth runway under construction in 2010) and the Frankfurter Kreuz
(lower right corner)

The city can be accessed from around the world via

. Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in 2018 was 69,510,269 passengers.

A third terminal is being constructed (planned to open in 2023). The third terminal will increase the capacity of the airport to over 90 million passengers per year.[85]

The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The

ICE trains departing at the long-distance station
take 10 minutes to Frankfurt Central Station.

Frankfurt Hahn Airport

Despite the name,

Frankfurt Central Station, taking just over 2 hours.[86]
Passenger traffic at Hahn Airport in 2010 was 3.5 million.

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport (Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation airport located south-east of Frankfurt Airport, near Egelsbach.


Frankfurt is a traffic hub for the German motorway (

Frankfurt Trade Fair. The A5 in the west, the A3 in the south and the A661 in the northeast form a ring road around the inner city districts and define a Low-emission zone
(Umweltzone; established in 2008), meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria to enter the zone.

The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets Zeil, Goethestraße and Freßgass, are pedestrian-only streets.

Railway stations

Frankfurt Central Station

Central Station (underground)