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~497 – 485.4 ± 1.9 Ma
Dresbachian extinction
Upper GSSP ratified2000[3]

The Furongian is the fourth and final

Lower Ordovician Tremadocian Stage. It is subdivided into three stages: the Paibian, Jiangshanian and the unnamed 10th stage of the Cambrian.[4]


The Furongian was also known as the Cambrian Series 4, and the name replaced the older term Upper Cambrian and equivalent to the local term Hunanian. The present name was ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2003. Fúróng (芙蓉) means 'lotus' in Mandarin and refers to Hunan which is known as the "lotus state".[5]


The lower boundary is defined in the same way as the

GSSP of the Paibian Stage. Both begin with the first appearance of the trilobite Glyptagnostus reticulatus around 497 million years ago.[6] The upper boundary is the lower boundary and GSSP of the Tremadocian Stage which is the first appearance of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus around 485.4 million years ago.[7]


The following table shows the subdivisions of the Furongian series/epoch:[4]

Series Stage Age (
Lower Ordovician
Floian 477.7
Tremadocian 485.4
Stage 10 489.5
Jiangshanian 494
Paibian 497
Series 3
Guzhangian 500.5
Drumian 504.5
Wuliuan 509


The base of two of three stages of the Furongian are defined as the first appearance of a trilobite. The base of the Paibian is the first appearance of

Eoconodontus notchpeakensis.[9]

The Furongian can be divided into a number of trilobite zones:

Series Stage Trilobite zone Trilobite GSSP
Furongian Stage 10 Saukia zone (upper part), Eurekia apopsis zone, Tangshanaspis Zone, Parakoldinioidia zone, Symphysurina zone[9] Lotagnostus americanus (undecided)
Jiangshanian Ellipsocephaloides zone, Saukia zone (lower part)[9] Agnostotes orientalis
Paibian ? (?) Glyptagnostus reticulatus


  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. . Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  3. . Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b "GSSP Table - Paleozoic Era". Geologic Timescale Foundation. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  5. ^ . Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  6. ^ "GSSP for the Paibian". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  7. ^ "GSSP for the Cambrian - Ordovician Boundary". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  8. ^ "GSSP for Jiangshanian". Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  9. ^ .