Geography of Sweden

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Geography of Sweden
ContinentEurope
RegionScandinavia
Coordinates62°00′N 15°00′E / 62.000°N 15.000°E / 62.000; 15.000
AreaRanked 55th
 • Total450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi)
 • Land91.31%
 • Water8.69%
Coastline3,218 km (2,000 mi)
BordersNorway (non-EU) 1,666 km (1,035 mi)
Finland 545 km (339 mi)
Denmark 118 km (73 mi)
Latvia 100 km (62 mi)
Poland 100 km (62 mi)
Russia (non-EU)(EEZ)(Kaliningrad) 15 km (9.3 mi)
Lithuania 18 km (11 mi)
Germany 29 km (18 mi)
Estonia 30 km (19 mi)
Highest pointKebnekaise 2,097 m (6,880 ft)
Lowest pointKristianstad −2.41 m (−7.9 ft)
Longest riverKlarälven-Göta älv 720 km (450 mi)
Largest lakeVänern 5,648 km2 (2,181 sq mi)
ClimateTemperate to subarctic
TerrainFlat lowlands, mountains
Natural resourcesIron, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Natural hazardsIce floe
Environmental issuesAcid rains, eutrophication
Exclusive economic zone160,885 km2 (62,118 sq mi)

Sweden is a country in Northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula. It borders Norway to the west (which is one of Sweden’s non-EU neighbours); Finland to the northeast; and the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia to the south and east. At 450,295 km2 (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the fifth largest in Europe, and the 55th largest country in the world.

Sweden has a 3,218 km (2,000 mi) long coastline on its east, and the

Exclusive Economic Zone
of 160,885 km2 (62,118 sq mi).

Terrain

Map of Sweden

Much of Sweden is heavily forested, with 69%[1] of the country being forest and woodland, while farmland constitutes only 8% of land use.[2] Sweden consists of 39,960 km2 of water area, constituting around 95,700 lakes.

water power
plants, especially the large northern rivers and lakes.

Most of northern and western central Sweden consists of vast tracts of hilly and mountainous land called the Norrland terrain.[5] From the south the transition to the Norrland terrain is not only seen in the relief but also in the wide and contiguous boreal forests that extend north of it[6] with till and peat being the overwhelmingly most common soil types.[7]

South of the Norrland terrain lies the

Mälaren and Hjälmaren, lie within the lowlands.[10]

To the south of the Central Swedish lowland lies the South Swedish highlands[8] which except for a lack of deep valleys is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden.[7] The highest point of the highlands lies at 377 m.[11] Poor soil conditions have posed significant difficulties for agriculture in the highlands, meaning that over time small industries became relatively important in local economies.[12]

Southernmost Sweden contains a varied landscape with both plains and hilly terrain. A characteristic chain of elongated hills runs across Scania from northwest to southeast. These hills are

broadleaf forest although conifer plantations are common. Southern Sweden has Sweden's greatest animal and plant diversity.[16][17]

The two largest

.

Political divisions

Provinces

Uppland province

Sweden has 25

.

While these provinces serve no political or administrative purpose, they play an important role for people's self-identification. The provinces are usually grouped together in three large lands (landsdelar): the northern Norrland, the central Svealand and southern Götaland. The sparsely populated Norrland encompasses almost 60% of the country.

Counties

Administratively, Sweden is divided into 21

County Administrative Board
, or länsstyrelse, which is appointed by the national government.

In each county there is also a separate

County Council
, or region (before 1 januari 2020 called landsting), which is the municipal representation appointed by the county electorate.

The letters shown were on the vehicle registration plates until 1973.

Municipalities

Lapland

Each county is further divided into municipalities or kommuner, ranging from only one (in Gotland County) to forty-nine (in Västra Götaland County). The total number of municipalities is 290.

The northern municipalities are often large in size, but have small populations – the largest municipality is Kiruna with an area as large as the three southern provinces in Sweden (Scania, Blekinge and Halland) combined, but it only has a population of 25,000, and its density is about 1 / km2.

Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km2
  0–9.9
  10–24.9
  25–49.9
  50–99.9
  100–199.9
  200+

Population

Sweden has a population of 10 million as of January 2017.[21] The mountainous north is considerably less populated than the southern and central regions, partly because the summer period lasts longer in the south, and this is where the more successful agricultural industries were originally established. Another historical reason is said to be the desired proximity to key trade routes and partners in continental Europe, e.g. Germany. As a result, all seven urban areas in Sweden with a population of 100,000 or more, are located in the southern half of the country.[22]

Cities

Cities and towns in Sweden are neither political nor administrative entities; rather they are localities or urban areas, independent of municipal subdivisions. The largest city, in terms of population, is the capital Stockholm, in the east, the dominant city for culture and media, with a population of 1,250,000. The second largest city is Gothenburg, with 510,500, in the west. The third largest is Malmö in the south, with 258,000. The largest city in the north is Umeå with 76,000 inhabitants.

Natural resources

Sweden's

timber, uranium, and zinc
.

Environment

hydrology transport model
has been used to analyze nutrient discharge to the Baltic from tributary watersheds.

Climate

Köppen climate classification types of Sweden

Most of Sweden has a temperate climate, despite its northern latitude, with largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. The winter in the far south is usually weak and is manifested only through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter. The northern parts of the country have a subarctic climate while the central parts have a humid continental climate. The coastal south can be defined as having either a humid continental climate using the 0 °C isotherm, or an oceanic climate using the –3 °C isotherm.

Due to the increased maritime moderation in the peninsular south, summer differences between the coastlines of the southernmost and northernmost regions are about 2 °C (4 °F) in summer and 10 °C (18 °F) in winter. This grows further when comparing areas in the northern interior where the winter difference in the far north is about 15 °C (27 °F) throughout the country. The warmest summers usually happen in the Mälaren Valley around Stockholm[23] due to the vast landmass shielding the middle east coast from Atlantic low-pressure systems in July compared to the south and west. Daytime highs in Sweden's municipal seats vary from 19 °C (66 °F) to 24 °C (75 °F) in July and −9 °C (16 °F) to 3 °C (37 °F) in January. The colder temperatures are influenced by the higher elevation in the northern interior. At sea level instead, the coldest average highs range from 21 °C (70 °F) to −6 °C (21 °F). As a result of the mild summers, the arctic region of Norrbotten has some of the northernmost agriculture in the world.[24]

Sweden is much warmer and drier than other places at a similar latitude, and even somewhat farther south, mainly because of the combination of the Gulf Stream[25][26] and the general west wind drift, caused by the direction of planet Earth's rotation. Continental west-coasts (to which all of Scandinavia belongs, as the westernmost part of the Eurasian continent), are notably warmer than continental east-coasts; this can also be seen by comparing e.g. the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Halifax, Nova Scotia with each other, the winter in west coast Vancouver is much milder; also, for example, central and southern Sweden has much milder winters than many parts of Russia, Canada, and the northern United States.[27] Because of Sweden's high latitude, the length of daylight varies greatly. North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and it never rises for part of each winter. In the capital, Stockholm, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December. Sweden receives between 1,100 and 1,900 hours of sunshine annually.[28]

The highest temperature ever recorded in Sweden was 38 °C (100 °F) in Målilla in June 1947,[29] a record shared with Ultuna in Uppland.[29] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) in Vuoggatjålme on 2 February 1966.[30] Temperatures expected in Sweden are heavily influenced by the large Fennoscandian landmass, as well as continental Europe and western Russia, which allows hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Sweden. That, in turn, renders most of Sweden's southern areas having warmer summers than almost everywhere in the nearby British Isles, even matching temperatures found along the continental Atlantic coast as far south as in northern Spain. In winter, however, the same high-pressure systems sometimes put the entire country far below freezing temperatures. There is some maritime moderation from the Atlantic which renders the Swedish continental climate less severe than that of nearby Russia. Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudinal differences. This is due to the south's being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider Baltic Sea and the Atlantic air passing over lowland areas from the south-west.

Apart from the ice-free Atlantic bringing marine air into Sweden tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the south of the country due to the abundant cloud cover. By the time winter finally breaks through, daylight hours rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring. With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April. The cold winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker. An example is that the coldest ever month (January 1987) in Stockholm was also the sunniest January month on record.[31][32]

The relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers. When hot continental air hits the country, the long days and short nights frequently bring temperatures up to 30 °C (86 °F) or above even in coastal areas. Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas. Coastal areas can see so-called tropical nights above 20 °C (68 °F) occur due to the moderating sea influence during warmer summers.

meteorological winter
(see table below) or in the high Lapland mountains where polar microclimates exist.

On average, most of Sweden receives between 500 and 800 mm (20 and 31 in) of precipitation each year, making it considerably drier than the

global average. The south-western part of the country receives more precipitation, between 1,000 and 1,200 mm (39 and 47 in), and some mountain areas in the north are estimated to receive up to 2,000 mm (79 in). Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden may have almost no snow in some winters. Most of Sweden is located in the rain shadow
of the Scandinavian Mountains through Norway and north-west Sweden. The blocking of cool and wet air in summer, as well as the greater landmass, leads to warm and dry summers far north in the country, with quite warm summers at the Bothnia Bay coast at 65 degrees latitude, which is unheard of elsewhere in the world at such northerly coastlines.

It is predicted that as the Barents Sea gets less frozen in the coming winters, becoming thus "Atlantified", additional evaporation will increase future snowfalls in Sweden and much of continental Europe.[34]

Gothenburg
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
62
 
 
1
−4
 
 
41
 
 
1
−5
 
 
50
 
 
5
−2
 
 
42
 
 
9
1
 
 
51
 
 
16
6
 
 
61
 
 
19
10
 
 
68
 
 
20
12
 
 
77
 
 
20
12
 
 
81
 
 
16
8
 
 
84
 
 
11
6
 
 
84
 
 
6
1
 
 
75
 
 
3
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climatedata.eu[35]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.4
 
 
34
25
 
 
1.6
 
 
34
23
 
 
2
 
 
41
28
 
 
1.7
 
 
48
34
 
 
2
 
 
61
43
 
 
2.4
 
 
66
50
 
 
2.7
 
 
68
54
 
 
3
 
 
68
54
 
 
3.2
 
 
61
46
 
 
3.3
 
 
52
43
 
 
3.3
 
 
43
34
 
 
3
 
 
37
27
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Kiruna
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
30
 
 
−11
−21
 
 
25
 
 
−8
−22
 
 
26
 
 
−4
−18
 
 
26
 
 
0
−9
 
 
33
 
 
8
−1
 
 
48
 
 
15
5
 
 
86
 
 
18
7
 
 
73
 
 
15
5
 
 
49
 
 
10
0
 
 
47
 
 
−2
−10
 
 
41
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
34
 
 
−8
−19
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SMHI.se[36]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.2
 
 
12
−6
 
 
1
 
 
18
−8
 
 
1
 
 
25
0
 
 
1
 
 
32
16
 
 
1.3
 
 
46
30
 
 
1.9
 
 
59
41
 
 
3.4
 
 
64
45
 
 
2.9
 
 
59
41
 
 
1.9
 
 
50
32
 
 
1.9
 
 
28
14
 
 
1.6
 
 
21
9
 
 
1.3
 
 
18
−2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Nyköping
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
40
 
 
0
−6
 
 
25
 
 
0
−6
 
 
25
 
 
3
−4
 
 
30
 
 
8
0
 
 
30
 
 
15
5
 
 
45
 
 
20
10
 
 
60
 
 
22
13
 
 
50
 
 
22
11
 
 
55
 
 
15
7
 
 
45
 
 
11
4
 
 
50
 
 
5
−1
 
 
45
 
 
1
−5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SMHI.se[36]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.6
 
 
32
21
 
 
1
 
 
32
21
 
 
1
 
 
37
25
 
 
1.2
 
 
46
32
 
 
1.2
 
 
59
41
 
 
1.8
 
 
68
50
 
 
2.4
 
 
72
55
 
 
2
 
 
72
52
 
 
2.2
 
 
59
45
 
 
1.8
 
 
52
39
 
 
2
 
 
41
30
 
 
1.8
 
 
34
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Stockholm
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
39
 
 
−1
−5
 
 
27
 
 
−1
−5
 
 
26
 
 
3
−3
 
 
30
 
 
9
1
 
 
30
 
 
16
6
 
 
45
 
 
21
11
 
 
72
 
 
22
13
 
 
66
 
 
20
13
 
 
55
 
 
15
9
 
 
50
 
 
10
5
 
 
53
 
 
5
1
 
 
46
 
 
1
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HKO[37]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.5
 
 
30
23
 
 
1.1
 
 
30
23
 
 
1
 
 
37
27
 
 
1.2
 
 
48
34
 
 
1.2
 
 
61
43
 
 
1.8
 
 
70
52
 
 
2.8
 
 
72
55
 
 
2.6
 
 
68
55
 
 
2.2
 
 
59
48
 
 
2
 
 
50
41
 
 
2.1
 
 
41
34
 
 
1.8
 
 
34
27
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Swedish Meteorological Institute, SMHI's monthly average temperatures of some of their weather stations – for the latest scientific full prefixed thirty-year period 1961–1990 Next will be presented in year 2020. The weather stations are sorted from south towards north by their numbers.

stn.nr. station Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
5337 Malmö 0.1 0.0 2.2 6.4 11.6 15.8 17.1 16.8 13.6 9.8 5.3 1.9 8.4
6203 Helsingborg 0.6 −0.1 2.0 6.0 11.2 15.3 16.7 16.6 13.6 9.9 5.2 1.8 8.3
6451 Växjö −2.8 −2.8 0.0 4.7 10.2 14.3 15.3 14.9 11.2 7.0 2.3 −1.2 6.1
7839 Visby −0.5 −1.2 0.7 4.1 9.5 14.0 16.4 16.0 12.5 8.6 4.3 1.2 7.1
7447 Jönköping −2.6 −2.7 0.3 4.7 10.0 14.5 15.9 15.0 11.3 7.5 2.8 −0.7 6.3
7263
Göteborg
−0.9 −0.9 2.0 6.0 11.6 15.5 16.6 16.2 12.8 9.1 4.4 1.0 7.8
8323 Skövde −2.8 −2.9 0.0 4.6 10.6 15.0 16.2 15.2 11.1 7.1 2.2 −1.1 6.3
8634 Norrköping −3.0 −3.2 0.0 4.5 10.4 15.1 16.6 15.5 11.3 7.2 2.2 −1.4 6.3
9516 Örebro −4.0 −4.0 −0.5 4.3 10.7 15.3 16.5 15.3 10.9 6.6 1.3 −2.4 5.8
9720 Stockholm Bromma −3.5 −3.7 −0.5 4.3 10.4 15.2 16.8 15.8 11.4 7.0 2.0 −1.8 6.1
9739 Stockholm Arlanda −4.3 −4.6 −1.0 3.9 9.9 14.8 16.5 15.2 10.7 6.4 1.2 −2.6 5.5
10458 Mora −7.4 −7.2 −2.4 2.5 9.1 14.1 15.4 13.5 9.3 4.9 −1.6 −6.1 3.7
10740 Gävle −4.8 −4.5 −1.0 3.4 9.3 14.6 16.3 14.9 10.6 6.0 0.6 −3.3 5.2
12724 Sundsvall −7.5 −6.3 −2.3 2.5 8.2 13.8 15.2 13.8 9.4 4.8 −1.5 −5.7 3.6
13410 Östersund −8.9 −7.6 −3.5 1.3 7.6 12.5 13.9 12.7 8.2 3.8 −2.4 −6.3 2.6
14050 Umeå −8.7 −8.3 −4.0 1.4 7.6 13.3 15.6 13.8 9.0 4.0 −2.3 −6.4 2.9
15045 Skellefteå −10.2 −8.7 −4.2 1.2 7.6 13.6 15.7 13.5 8.5 3.2 −3.4 −7.5 2.5
16288 Luleå −12.2 −11.0 −6.0 0.3 6.6 13.0 15.4 13.3 8.0 2.6 −4.5 −9.7 1.3
16395 Haparanda −12.1 −11.4 −6.8 −0.5 6.1 12.8 15.4 13.2 8.0 2.5 −4.2 −9.5 1.1
16988 Jokkmokk −17.5 −14.9 −8.6 −1.1 5.9 12.2 14.3 11.8 5.7 −0.2 −9.3 −14.6 -1.4
17897
Tarfala
(a mountain peak)
−11.8 −11.3 −10.6 −7.5 −1.9 3.2 6.4 5.3 0.8 −3.9 −7.9 −10.7 -4.2
18076 Gällivare −14.3 −12.5 −8.4 −1.9 5.0 11.0 13.0 10.7 5.6 −0.6 −8.1 −12.2 -1.1
18094 Kiruna −13.9 −12.5 −8.7 −3.2 3.4 9.6 12.0 9.8 4.6 −1.4 −8.1 −11.9 -1.7

[38][39]

Extremes

Climate data for Sweden
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
16.2
(61.2)
20.9
(69.6)
28.8
(83.8)
32.8
(91.0)
38.0
(100.4)
38.0
(100.4)
36.2
(97.2)
28.3
(82.9)
23.2
(73.8)
16.5
(61.7)
13.2
(55.8)
38.0
(100.4)
Record low °C (°F) −49.4
(−56.9)
−52.6
(−62.7)
−45.8
(−50.4)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−5.5
(22.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−13.1
(8.4)
−30
(−22)
−39.0
(−38.2)
−48.9
(−56.0)
−52.6
(−62.7)
[citation needed]

Extreme points

Geography of Sweden is located in Sweden
Kebnekaise
Kebnekaise
Smygehuk
Smygehuk
Stora Drammen
Stora Drammen
Kataja
Kataja
Treriksröset
Treriksröset
Vattenriket
Vattenriket
Extreme points of Sweden

The extreme points of Sweden include the coordinates that are farthest north, south, east and west in Sweden, and the ones that are at the highest and the lowest elevations in the country. Unlike Norway and Denmark, Sweden has no external territories that can be considered either inside or outside the country depending on definition, meaning that the extreme points of Sweden are unambiguous.

The latitude and longitude are expressed in decimal degree notation, in which a positive latitude value refers to the Northern Hemisphere, and a negative value refers to the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, a negative elevation value refers to land below sea level. The coordinates used in this article are sourced from Google Earth, which makes use of the World Geodetic System (WGS) 84, a geodetic reference system.

Latitude and longitude

Treriksröset, Sweden's northernmost point
Signpost in the harbour of Smygehuk
, Sweden's southernmost point

Sweden's northernmost point is

Lapland province,[40] where the borders of Sweden, Norway, and Finland meet. The closest Swedish city to the area is Kiruna, which is Sweden's northernmost city.[41] Sweden's southernmost point is in the harbour of the fishing village Smygehuk, near the city of Trelleborg,[42] which borders the Baltic Sea.[43] At the pier of the harbour, a signpost displays the exact position of the point, as well as the distance to Treriksröset, Stockholm, Berlin, Paris, and Moscow.[42]

Sweden's westernmost point is on Stora Drammen, an

Seabirds and harbor seals have colonies on the islet, but it is uninhabited by humans.[45] Sweden's easternmost point is on Kataja,[44] an islet south of Haparanda in the Bothnian Bay.[46] The islet is divided between Sweden and Finland. The border was established in 1809, after the Finnish War, between what was previously two islets, a Swedish one called Kataja and a smaller Finnish one called Inakari. Since 1809, post-glacial rebound has caused the sea level in the region to drop relative to land level, joining the two islets.[47] If counting the mainland only, Stensvik in Strömstad is Sweden's westernmost point,[48] and Sundholmen in Haparanda is the easternmost point.[49]

Heading Location Province Bordering entity Coordinates[50] Ref
North
Treriksröset, Kiruna
Lapland
Troms, Norway, and Lapland, Finland 69°03′36″N 20°32′55″E / 69.06°N 20.548611°E / 69.06; 20.548611 (Treriksröset (Northernmost)) [41][44][51]
South Smygehuk, Trelleborg Scania Baltic Sea 55°20′13″N 13°21′34″E / 55.336944°N 13.359444°E / 55.336944; 13.359444 (Smygehuk (Southernmost)) [43][44][52]
West Stora Drammen, Strömstad Bohuslän Skagerrak 58°55′43″N 10°57′27″E / 58.928611°N 10.9575°E / 58.928611; 10.9575 (Stora Drammen (Westernmost)) [44][53][54]
West (mainland) Stensvik, Strömstad Bohuslän Skagerrak 58°59′50″N 11°06′47″E / 58.997222°N 11.113056°E / 58.997222; 11.113056 (Stensvik (Westernmost on mainland)) [48][55][56]
East Finnish border on north coast of Kataja, Haparanda Norrbotten Bothnian Bay 65°42′39″N 24°09′21″E / 65.710833°N 24.155833°E / 65.710833; 24.155833 (Kataja (Easternmost)) [44][57][58]
East (mainland) Sundholmen, Haparanda Norrbotten Torne River, and the Bothnian Bay 65°48′54″N 24°09′02″E / 65.815°N 24.150556°E / 65.815; 24.150556 (Sundholmen (Easternmost on mainland)) [49][51][59]

Elevation

At 2,097 metres (6,880 ft), Kebnekaise is Sweden's highest point.

The highest point in Sweden is Kebnekaise, which stands at 2,097 metres (6,880 ft) (August 2018). It is in the Scandinavian Mountains chain, in the province of Lapland.[60][61] The mountain has two peaks, of which the glaciated southern one is the highest at 2,097 metres (6,880 ft).[60] The northern peak, which stands at 2,096 metres (6,877 ft), is free of ice. Although the south top is traditionally said to be 2,097 metres (6,880 ft) high,[40] new measurements have shown that the glacier has shrunk fairly fast; therefore the summit is not as high as earlier. It was 2,104 metres (6,903 ft) in 2008.[60] Other points of comparable height in the vicinity of Kebnekaise include Sarektjåkka at 2,089 metres (6,854 ft), and Kaskasatjåkka at 2,076 metres (6,811 ft).[44] If the summers of 2016 and 2017 get as warm as the previous years, the northern peak will become the highest.[62]

Sweden's lowest point, which is 2.41 metres (7.91 ft) below sea level, is in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve in the city of Kristianstad.[40] The point is at the bottom of what was once Nosabyviken, a bay on the lake of Hammarsjön. The bay was drained in the 1860s by John Nun Milner, an engineer, to get more arable land for Kristianstad.[63]

Extremity Name Elevation Location Province Coordinates[50] Ref
Highest Kebnekaise 2,097 metres (6,880 ft) Scandinavian Mountains Lapland 67°54′00″N 18°31′00″E / 67.9°N 18.516667°E / 67.9; 18.516667 (Kebnekaise) [60][61][64]
Lowest Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve −2.41 metres (−7.91 ft) Kristianstad Scania (Skåne) 56°01′18″N 14°10′44″E / 56.021581°N 14.178878°E / 56.021581; 14.178878 (Kuttanad (Lowest)) [40][46][63]
Deepest lake (from its surface) Hornavan 221 metres (725 ft) Arjeplog Norrbotten

Transportation

Only public transportation.

Heading Airport Railway station Bus stop
North Kiruna Vassijaure (68°25′45″N 18°15′38″E / 68.4290934°N 18.2606904°E / 68.4290934; 18.2606904) Karesuando bus station (68°26′29″N 22°28′45″E / 68.441474°N 22.4791197°E / 68.441474; 22.4791197)
South Malmö Trelleborg (55°22′18″N 13°09′33″E / 55.371783°N 13.159206°E / 55.371783; 13.159206 Smygehuk Hamnen (55°20′22″N 13°21′36″E / 55.339544°N 13.359984°E / 55.339544; 13.359984)
West Göteborg Strömstad (58°56′11″N 11°10′24″E / 58.936509°N 11.173283°E / 58.936509; 11.173283) Strömstad Color Line terminal (58°56′04″N 11°10′14″E / 58.934442°N 11.170618°E / 58.934442; 11.170618)
East
Pajala
Haparanda (65°49′41″N 24°7′53″E / 65.82806°N 24.13139°E / 65.82806; 24.13139) Haparanda-Tornio bus station (65°50′36″N 24°8′18″E / 65.84333°N 24.13833°E / 65.84333; 24.13833)
Highest
Sälen
, 490 m (1,610 ft)
)

Historically

Southernmost:

Northernmost:

  • before 1751: unclear
  • 1751–1809: Nuorgam, Finland

Easternmost:

See also

In this true-color scene on March 15, 2002, much of Sweden can be seen covered by snow.

Notes

  1. glacier erosion.[4]

References

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  • Almqvist & Wiksells stor-atlas (in Swedish).
    OCLC 243941349
    .