Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
|Died||27 March 1770 (aged 74)|
|Other names||Gianbattista Tiepolo, Giambattista Tiepolo|
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (
Giovan Battista Tiepolo, together with
Successful from the beginning of his career, he has been described by Michael Levey as "the greatest decorative painter of eighteenth-century Europe, as well as its most able craftsman."
Early life (1696–1726)
Born in Venice, he was the youngest of six children of Domenico and Orsetta Tiepolo. His father was a small shipping merchant who belonged to a family that bore the prestigious patrician name of Tiepolo without claiming any noble descent. Some of the children acquired noble godparents, and Giambattista was originally named after his godfather, a Venetian nobleman called Giovanni Battista Dorià. He was baptised on 16 April 1696 in the local church, San Pietro di Castello (then still officially the cathedral of Venice). His father died about a year later, leaving his mother to bring up a family of young children, presumably in somewhat difficult circumstances.
In 1710 he became a pupil of
In around 1719–20 he painted a scheme of frescoes for the wealthy, and recently ennobled, publisher Giambattista Baglione in the hall of his villa at Massanzago near Padua. Tiepolo depicted the Triumph of Aurora on the ceiling, and the Myth of Phaethon on the walls, creating the kind of fluid spatial illusion which was to become a recurring theme in his work.
In 1722 he was one of twelve artists commissioned to contribute a painting on canvas of one of the apostles as part of a decorative scheme for the nave of San Stae in Venice. The other artists involved included Ricci, Piazetta, and Pellegrini.
Marriage and children
In 1719, Tiepolo married noblewoman Maria Cecilia Guardi, sister of two contemporary Venetian painters, Francesco and Giovanni Antonio Guardi. Tiepolo and his wife had nine children, of whom four daughters and three sons survived to adulthood. Two of his sons, Domenico and Lorenzo, painted with him as his assistants and later achieved some independent recognition, in particular Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo. His children painted figures with a design similar to that of their father, but with distinctive, including genre, styles. His third son became a priest. Fabio Canal, Francesco Lorenzi, and Domenico Pasquini
Early mature work (1726–1750)
Some major commissions came from the patrician Dolfin family. Dionisio Dolfin, the Archbishop of Udine in Friuli employed him to decorate a chapel in the cathedral at Udine, and then to paint another cycle depicting episodes from the lives of Abraham and his descendants from the Book of Genesis at his archiepiscopal palace (the "Arcivescovado")
(completed 1726–1728). Despite their elevated subject matter, they are bright in colour, and light-hearted in mood: Michael Levey describes the paintings at the palace as "a shimmering set of tableaux, full of wit and elegance".
Tiepolo produced two sets of etchings, the Capricci (c. 1740–1742) and the Scherzi di fantasia (c. 1743–1757). The ten
Würzburg Residenz (1750–1753)
By 1750, Tiepolo's reputation was firmly established throughout Europe, with the help of his friend Francesco Algarotti, an art dealer, critic and collector. That year, at the behest of Prince Bishop Karl Philip von Greiffenklau, he traveled to Würzburg where he arrived in November 1750. He remained there for three years during which he executed ceiling paintings in the New Residenz palace (completed 1744). He frescoed the Kaisersaal salon in collaboration with his sons Giandomenico and Lorenzo and was then invited to deliver a design for the grandiose entrance staircase (Treppenhaus) designed by Balthasar Neumann. It is a massive ceiling fresco at 7287 square feet (677 m2), and was completed in November 1753. His Allegory of the Planets and Continents depicts Apollo embarking on his daily course; deities around him symbolize the planets; allegorical figures (on the cornice) represent the four continents. He included several portraits in the Europe section of this fresco, including a self-portrait; one of his son Giandomenico; one of the prince-bishop von Greiffenklau; one of the painter Antonio Bossi; and one of the architect, Balthasar Neumann.
Return to Venice and the Veneto (1753–1770)
Tiepolo returned to Venice in 1753. He was now in demand locally, as well as abroad where he was elected President of the Academy of
In some celebrated frescoes at the
In 1761, Charles III commissioned Tiepolo to create a ceiling fresco to decorate the throne room of the Royal Palace of Madrid. The panegyric theme is the Apotheosis of Spain and has allegorical depictions recalling the dominance of Spain in the Americas and across the globe.
He also painted two other ceilings in the palace, and carried out many private commissions in Spain. However he suffered from the jealousy and the bitter opposition of the rising champion of Neoclassicism, Anton Raphael Mengs; at the instigation of Mengs' supporter, the King's confessor Joaquim de Electa, had Tiepolo's series of canvases for the church of S. Pascual at Aranjuez replaced by works by his favourite.
Tiepolo died in Madrid on 27 March 1770. He is buried in Madonna dell'Orto in Venice
After his death, the rise of a stern Neoclassicism and the post-revolutionary decline of absolutism led to the slow decline of the Rococo style associated with his name, but failed to dent his reputation. In 1772, Tiepolo's son was sufficiently respected to be painter to Doge Giovanni II Cornaro, in charge of the decoration of Palazzo Mocenigo in the sestiere of San Polo, Venice.
Satyress with a Putto, c. 1740–1742, Norton Simon Museum
The Empire of Flora, c. 1743, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
The Sacrifice of Iphigenia, 1757, Villa Valmarana
Allegory of Virtue and Nobility (Allegory of Strength and Wisdom), c. 1740–1750, Museo Poldi Pezzoli
Sketch for Venus and Vulcan, 1765–66
Satyr Family (Pan and his Family), etching, c. 1743–1750
Caricature of a short gentleman holding a muff, pen and ink with gray wash
Woman and infant satyr in a landscape, from the etching series 'The Capricci'
List of works
Paintings before 1740
|Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva||between 1719 and 1721||
The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA
|The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew||1722||San Stae, Venice|
|The Glory of St. Dominic||1723||Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice|
|The Rape of Europa||c. 1725||Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice|
|Allegory of the Power of Eloquence||c. 1725||
Courtauld Institute, Modellofor Palazzo Sandi, Venice
|Frescoes||1726||Episcopal palace, Udine|
|Ca' Dolfin Tiepolos||1726–1729||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna|
|Perseus & Andromeda||1730||Frick Collection|
|Education of the Virgin||1732||
Santa Maria della Consolazione(Fava), Venice
|Angel rescuing Hagar||1732||
Scuola di San Rocco, Venice
|John the Baptist preaching||1732–1733||Cappella Colleoni, Bergamo|
|Beheading of John the Baptist||1732–1733||Cappella Colleoni, Bergamo|
|Scourge of the Serpents||1732–1735||Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice|
|Joseph receiving ring from pharaoh||1732–1735||Dulwich Picture Gallery|
|Triumph of Zephyr and Flora||1734–1735||Museo del Settecento Veneziano, Ca' Rezzonico, Venice|
|Jupiter and Danaë||1736||Universitet Konsthistoriska Institutionen, Stockholm|
|The Finding of Moses||1736–1738||
National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh
|Pope St. Clement Adoring the Trinity||1737–1738||
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
|Saint Augustin, Saint Louis of France, Saint John the Evangelist and a bishop||1737–1738||Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille|
|Institution of the Rosary||1737–1739||Church of the
|Christ Carrying the Cross||1737–1738||Sant'Alvise, Venice|
|The Madonna of Mount Carmel||1730s||Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan|
|Virgin with Six Saints||1737–1740||
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
Works from 1740–1750
|The Virgin with 3 female Dominican Saints||1739–1748||Church of the
|Alexander the Great and Campaspe in the Studio of Apelles||1740||Getty Center, Los Angeles|
|The Virgin Appearing to St. Philip Neri||1740||Museo Diocesano, Camerino|
|The Gathering of Manna||1740–1742||Parrocchiale, Verolanuova|
|The Sacrifice of Melchizedek||1740–1742||Parrocchial church, Verolanuova|
|The Finding of Moses||1740–1745||National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne|||
|Rinaldo Enchanted by Armida||1742||Art Institute of Chicago|
|Rinaldo and Armida in Her Garden||1742||Art Institute of Chicago|
|Armida Abandoned by Rinaldo||1742||Art Institute of Chicago|
|Rinaldo and the Magus of Ascalon||1742||Art Institute of Chicago|
|The Triumph of Virtue and Nobility over Ignorance||1743||Norton Simon Museum, (Pasadena, CA)|
|Empire of Flora||1743||
The Legion of Honor, (San Francisco, CA)
|Time Unveiling Truth||c. 1743||Museo Civico Palazzo Chiericati, Vicenza|
|The Banquet of Cleopatra||1743–1744||National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne|||
|Worshippers||1743–1745||Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice|
|Apollo and Daphne||1755–1760||National Gallery of Art, Washington DC|||
|Discovery of the True Cross||c. 1745||Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice|
|Time Unveiling Truth||c. 1745–1750||Museum of Fine Arts, Boston|||
|Frescoes of the story of Cleopatra||1746||Palazzo Labia, Venice|
|Saint Patrick, Bishop of Ireland||1746||Musei Civici di Padova, Padua|
|Last Communion of St. Lucy||1747–1748||Santi Apostoli, Venice|
|The Banquet of Cleopatra and Antony||1747–1750||North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA|
|The Glorification of the Barbaro Family||1749–1750||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA|
|St. James the Greater Conquering the Moors||1749–1750||
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Hungary
|Bacchus and Ariadne||1743–1745||National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., USA|
Works after 1750
|Collecting Manna||c. 1751||National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade|
|Allegory of Planets and Continents||1752||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|||
|The Death of Hyacinth||1752–1753||
Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid
|Adoration of the Magi||1753||
Alte Pinakothek, Munich
|Coronation of the Virgin||1754||Kimbell Art Museum, Dallas (modelo for Ospedale della Pietà)|
|The Entrance of the Gonfaloniere Piero Soderini into Florence in 1502 (L'ingresso di gonfaloniere Piero Soderini in Firenze nel 1502)||1754||Swiss Ambassy, Roma, Italy|||
|An Allegory with Venus and Time||1754–1758||
National Gallery, London, England
|Frescoes from Roman mythology||1757||Villa Valmarana, Vicenza|
|A Seated Man and a Girl with a Pitcher||c. 1755||
National Gallery, London
|The Theological Virtues||c. 1755||Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels|
|The Martyrdom of St. Agatha||c. 1756||
Staatliche Museen, Berlin, Germany
|Allegory of Merit Accompanied by Nobility and Virtue||1757–1758||Museo del Settecento Veneziano, Ca' Rezzonico, Venice|
|Santa Tecla prays for the Liberation of Este from the Plague||1759||Church of Santa Tecla, Este|
|Pope St. Sylvester baptises emperor Constantine the Great||1759||Chiesa di San Silvestro, Brescia|
|The Vision of St. Anne||1759||
|Virtue and Nobility Crowning Love||1759–1761||Museum of Fine Arts|
|Modello for the Apotheosis of the Pisani Family||1760||Musée des Beaux-Arts d'Angers|
|Madonna of the Goldfinch||c. 1760||
National Gallery of Art, Washington
|Woman with a Parrot||1760–1761||Ashmolean Museum, Oxford|
|Apotheosis of the Pisani Family||1761–1762||Villa Pisani, Stra|
|San Carlo Borromeo||1767–1769||Cincinnati Art Museum|
|The Immaculate Conception||1767–1769||Museo del Prado, Madrid|
|Glory of Spain||1762–1766||Throne Room of Royal Palace of Madrid|
|The Apotheosis of the Spanish Monarchy||1762–1766||Queen's Antechamber,
Palacio Real, Madrid
|Venus and Vulcan||1762–1766||Halberdiers' Room,
Palacio Real, Madrid
|The Entombment of Christ||1769–1770||National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon|||
|The Flight to Egypt||1765–1770||National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon|||
- ^ Luciano Canepari. "Tiepolo". DiPI Online (in Italian). Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- ^ a b Levey 1980, p. 193.
- ^ "Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva".
- ^ a b Barcham, William L. "Tiepolo". Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 May 2014. (subscription required)
- ^ "Tièpolo, Giambattista". Treccani (in Italian). Treccani. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- ^ a b c Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, p. 37.
- ^ Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, p. 37–8.
- ^ Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, p. 57.
- ^ Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, p. 39.
- ^ Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, p. 40–1.
- ^ a b Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, p. 41.
- ^ Levey 1980, p. 198–9.
- ^ Wittkower 1993, p. 490.
- ^ "Transport de la Sainte Maison de Lorette".
- ^ Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, pp. 349–50.
- ^ Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 1996, pp. 358–9.
- ^ Levey 1980, pp. 225–230.
- ^ "Residenz staircase". Würzburg Residenz. Archived from the original on 29 June 2008.
- ^ a b Wittkower 1993, p. 486.
- Giambattista Tiepolo 1698–1770 (Exhibition catalogue). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1996. ISBN 9780870998119.
- Levey, Michael (1980). Painting in Eighteenth-Century Venice (revised ed.). Cornell University Press. pp. 225–230. ISBN 9780801413315.
- Wittkower, Rudolf (1993). Art and Architecture in Italy.
- Barcham, William L. (1992). Giambattista Tiepolo. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-08054-2.
- Baxandall, Michael; Alpers, Svetlana (1994). Tiepolo and the Pictorial Intelligence. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300059786.
- Rizzi, Aldo (1971). The etchings of the Tiepolos. Electa. ISBN 0-7148-1499-7.
- Aldo Rizzi, Il Tiepolo all'Arcivescovado di Udine, Milano 1965.
- Aldo Rizzi, Tiepolo a Udine, Milano 1969.
- Aldo Rizzi, le acqueforti dei Tiepolo, Milano, 1970.
- Aldo Rizzi, La grafica del Tiepolo: le acqueforti, Milano 1971.
- Aldo Rizzi, La mostra del Tiepolo, Milano 1971.
- Aldo Rizzi, Giambattista Tiepolo, Milano 1990.
- Aldo Rizzi, I Tiepolo a Udine, Milano 1996.
- Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, IN, Indiana UP, 2006.
- Christiansen, Keith. Giambattista Tiepolo, 1696–1770, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996. ISBN 9780870998119.
- Boorsch, Suzanne. Venetian prints and books in the age of Tiepolo, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997. ISBN 9780300203271.
- 37 artworks by or after Giovanni Battista Tiepolo at the Art UK site
- Udine, IT, Tiepolo's city
- Many works by Tiepolo
- Works in Udine Archived 9 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Short biography
- Illustrated biography and discussion of famous works
- Aldo Rizzi
- References to Giambattista Tiepolo in European historic newspapers