|City of Hanoi|
Thành phố Hà Nội
|Official name||Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long – Hanoi|
|Criteria||Cultural: (ii), (iii), (vi)|
|Inscription||2010 (34th Session)|
|Area||18.395 ha (45.46 acres)|
|Buffer zone||108 ha (270 acres)|
Hanoi's history goes back to the third century BCE, when a portion of the modern-day city served as the capital of the historic Vietnamese nation of Âu Lạc. Following the collapse of Âu Lạc, the city was part of Han China. In 1010, Vietnamese emperor Lý Thái Tổ established the capital of the imperial Vietnamese nation Đại Việt in modern-day central Hanoi, naming the city Thăng Long (literally 'Ascending Dragon'). Thăng Long remained Đại Việt's political centre until 1802, when the Nguyễn dynasty, the last imperial Vietnamese dynasty, moved the capital to Huế. The city was renamed Hanoi in 1831, and served as the capital of French Indochina from 1902 to 1945. On 6 January 1946, the National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam designated Hanoi as the capital of the newly independent country, which would last during the First Indochina War (1946–1954) and the Vietnam War (1955–1975). Hanoi has been the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam since 1976.
A major tourist destination in Vietnam, Hanoi offers well-preserved
Hanoi has a high
Hanoi has had various names throughout history. It was known first as Long Biên (龍邊, "dragon edge"), then Tống Bình (宋平, "
In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named Đại La (大羅, "big net"). This gave it the nickname La Thành (羅城, "net citadel"). Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi. When
After the end of the
Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ (marketplace), Tràng An (long peace), Phượng Thành/Phụng Thành (phoenix city), Long Thành (short for Kinh thành Thăng Long, "citadel of Thăng Long"), Kinh kỳ (capital city), Hà Thành (short for Thành phố Hà Nội, "city of Hanoi"), Hoàng Diệu, and Thủ Đô (capital).
Pre-Thăng Long period
Many vestiges of human habitation from the late
Kingdom of Âu Lạc and Nanyue
In around third century BCE,
Hanoi under Chinese rule
In 111 BC, the Han dynasty
By the middle of the fifth century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, a fortified settlement was founded by the
Protectorate of Annam
By the year 679, the
In the latter half of the eighth century, Zhang Boyi, a viceroy from the Tang dynasty, built Luocheng to suppress popular uprisings. Luocheng, also known as La Thanh or La Citadel, extended from Thu Le to Quan Ngua in what is now known as the Ba Dinh precinct. Over time, in the first half of the ninth century, this fortification was expanded and renamed as Jincheng, also known as Kim Thanh or Kim Citadel. In 863, Nanzhao army and local people laid siege of Jincheng and defeated the Chinese armies of 150,000. In 866, Chinese jiedushi Gao Pian recaptured the city and drove out the Nanzhao and rebels. He renamed the city to Daluocheng (大羅城, Đại La thành). He built the wall, 6,344 meters around the city, which some part were more than eight meters high. Đại La at the time with approximate 25,000 residents included small foreign communities and residents of Persians, Arabs, Indian, Cham, Javanese, and Nestorian Christians, became an important trading center of the Tang dynasty due to the ransacking of Guangzhou by Huang Chao rebellion. By early tenth century AD, modern-day Hanoi was known to the Muslim traders as Luqin.
Hanoi under Independent Vietnam
Thăng Long, Đông Đô, Đông Quan, Đông Kinh
In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long (昇龍, "Soaring Dragon") – a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa, then known as Tây Đô (西都), the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (東都), the "Eastern Capital".
Map of Đông Kinh (Hanoi) in 1490, attributed to Emperor Lê Thánh Tông
A view of Hanoi from the Red River in 1685, manuscript from Royal Society's archive
In 1408, the Chinese
During Nguyễn dynasty and the French colonial period
During WWII and American War in Vietnam
The city was occupied by the Imperial Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the
During the Vietnam War, Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways by the U.S. Seventh Air Force and Republic of Vietnam Air Force. These were all, however, later repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of a reunified Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on 2 July 1976.
After the Đổi Mới economic policies were approved in 1986, the Communist Party and national and municipal governments hoped to attract international investments for urban development projects in Hanoi. The high-rise commercial buildings did not begin to appear until ten years later due to the international investment community being skeptical of the security of their investments in Vietnam. Rapid urban development and rising costs displaced many residential areas in central Hanoi. Following a short period of economic stagnation after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Hanoi resumed its rapid economic growth.
On 29 May 2008, it was decided that
Hanoi has experienced a rapid construction boom recently. Skyscrapers, appearing in new urban areas, have dramatically changed the cityscape and have formed a modern skyline outside the old city. In 2015, Hanoi is ranked 39th by
Public outcry in opposition to the redevelopment of culturally significant areas in Hanoi persuaded the national government to implement a low-rise policy surrounding
On 12 September 2023, at least 56 people died in a huge fire in an apartment block in Hanoi. The blaze highlighted that many newly built apartments of fast-growing Hanoi lack sufficient fire safety.
Hanoi is a landlocked municipality in the northern region of Vietnam, situated in Vietnam's Red River delta, nearly 90 km (56 mi) from the coast. Hanoi contains three basic kinds of terrain, which are the delta area, the midland area and the mountainous zone. In general, the terrain becomes gradually lower from north to south and from west to east, with the average height ranging from 5 to 20 meters above sea level. Hills and mountainous zones are located in the northern and western parts of the city. The highest peak is at Ba Vi with 1281 m, located west of the city proper.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
When using the
The region has a positive
|Climate data for Hanoi|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.1
|Average high °C (°F)||19.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.4
|Average low °C (°F)||14.5
|Record low °C (°F)||2.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22.5
|Average rainy days||9.5||11.4||15.9||13.7||14.6||14.8||16.6||16.5||13.2||9.7||6.8||5.2||147.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||68.7||48.1||45.5||87.4||173.7||167.0||181.1||163.0||162.4||150.3||131.6||113.0||1,488.5|
|Average ultraviolet index||5||6||5||6||7||7||7||7||7||6||5||4||6|
|Source 1: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology|
|Source 2: Vietnamnet.vn (May record high and January record low only), Vietnamnet.vn (June record high only), Imh.ac.vn (August record high only), Nchmf.gov.vn, April and May record low in The Yearbook of Indochina Weather Atlas (UV)|
|Administrative divisions of Hanoi|
HT – formerly an administrative subdivision unit of the defunct Hà Tây Province.
During the French colonial period, as the capital of French Indochina, Hanoi attracted a considerable number of French, Chinese and Vietnamese from the surrounding areas. In the 1940s the population of the city was 132,145. After the First Indochina War, many French and Chinese people left the city to either move south or repatriate.
Hanoi's population only started to increase rapidly in the second half 20th century. In 1954, the city had 53 thousand inhabitants, covering an area of 152 km2. By 1961, the area of the city had expanded to 584 km2, and the population was 91,000 people. In 1978,
Nowadays, the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's cultural and political centre, putting a lot of pressure on the infrastructure, some of which is antiquated and dates back to the early 20th century. It has over eight million residents within the city proper and an estimated population of 20 million within the metropolitan area.
The number of Hanoians who have settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small when compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds of years ago and consisted mostly of family businesses, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved into the adjoining house or moved out of the neighborhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.
There are more than 50 ethnic groups in Hanoi, of which the Viet (Kinh) is the largest; according to official Vietnamese figures (2019 census), accounting for 98.66% of the population, followed by Mường at 0.77% and Tày at 0.24%.
According to a recent ranking by
Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996 to 2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003.[
Similar to Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly developing real estate market. The most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hòa Nhân Chính, Mỹ Đình, the luxurious zones of The Manor, Ciputra, Royal City in the Nguyễn Trãi Street (Thanh Xuân District) and Times City in the Hai Bà Trưng District. With an estimated nominal GDP of US$42.04 billion as of 2019, it is the second most productive economic area of Vietnam (after Ho Chi Minh City)
After the economic reforms that initiated economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system. Hanoi has allowed many fast-food chains into the city, such as McDonald's, Lotteria, Pizza Hut, KFC, and others. Locals in Hanoi perceive the ability to purchase "fast-food" as an indication of luxury and permanent fixtures. Similarly, city officials are motivated by food safety concerns and their aspirations for a "modern" city to replace the 67 traditional food markets with 1,000 supermarkets by 2025. This is likely to increase consumption of less nutritious foods, as traditional markets are key for consumption of fresh rather than processed foods.
Over three-quarters of the jobs in Hanoi are state-owned. 9% of jobs are provided by collectively owned organizations. 13.3% of jobs are in the private sector.
Hanoi is part of the Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast through the Strait of Malacca towards the southern tip of India to Mombasa, from there through the Red Sea via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central Europe and the North Sea.
A development master plan for Hanoi was designed by Ernest Hebrard in 1924, but was only partially implemented. The previous close relationship between the Soviet Union and Vietnam led to the creation of the first comprehensive plan for Hanoi with the assistance of Soviet planners between 1981 and 1984. It was never realized because it appeared to be incompatible with Hanoi's existing layout.
In recent years, two master plans have been created to guide Hanoi's development.
Hanoi is still faced with the problems associated with increasing urbanization. Although it is a major transport hub with a large network of national routes, expressways, railways, and is home to Noi Bai International Airport, the busiest airport in Vietnam, the disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor is a problem in both the capital and throughout the country. Hanoi's public infrastructure was assessed as in poor condition with high amounts of pollution and congestion in 2001. The city also has air and water pollution, difficult road conditions, traffic congestion, and a rudimentary public transit system. Traffic congestion and air pollution are worsening as the number of motor cycles increases. Squatter settlements are expanding on the outer rim of the city as homelessness rises (2001).
In the late 1980s, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Vietnamese government had designed a project to develop rural infrastructure. The project focused on improving roads, water supply and sanitation, and educational, health and social facilities because economic development in the communes and rural areas surrounding Hanoi is dependent on the infrastructural links between the rural and urban areas, especially for the sale of rural products. The project aimed to use locally available resources and knowledge such as compressed earth construction techniques for building. It was jointly funded by the UNDP, the Vietnamese government, and resources raised by the local communities and governments. In four communes, the local communities contributed 37% of the total budget. Local labor, community support, and joint funding were decided as necessary for the long-term sustainability of the project.
Civil society development
Part of the goals of the Đổi Mới economic reforms was to decentralize governance for purpose of economic improvement. This led to the establishment of the first issue-oriented civic organizations in Hanoi. In the 1990s, Hanoi experienced significant poverty alleviation as a result of both the market reforms and civil society movements. Most of the civic organizations in Hanoi were established after 1995, at a rate much slower than in Ho Chi Minh City. Organizations in Hanoi are more "tradition-bound", focused on policy, education, research, professional interests, and appealing to governmental organizations to solve social problems. This marked difference from Ho Chi Minh's civic organizations, which practice more direct intervention to tackle social issues, may be attributed to the different societal identities of North and South Vietnam. Hanoi-based civic organizations use more systematic development and less of a direct intervention approach to deal with issues of rural development, poverty alleviation, and environmental protection. They rely more heavily on full-time staff than volunteers. In Hanoi, 16.7% of civic organizations accept anyone as a registered member and 73.9% claim to have their own budgets, as opposed to 90.9% in Ho Chi Minh City. A majority of the civic organizations in Hanoi find it difficult to work with governmental organizations. Many of the strained relations between non-governmental and governmental organizations results from statism, a bias against non-state organizations on the part of government entities.
As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to Huế under the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any other city in Vietnam, and boasts more than 1,000 years of history; that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.
The Old Quarter, near Hoàn Kiếm Lake, maintains most of the original street layout and some of the architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century Hanoi consisted of the "36 streets", the citadel, and some of the newer French buildings south of Hoàn Kiếm lake, most of which are now part of Hoàn Kiếm district. Each street had merchants and households specializing in a particular trade, such as silk, jewelry or even bamboo. The street names still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce. The area is famous for its specializations in trades such as traditional medicine and local handicrafts, including silk shops, bamboo carpenters, and tin smiths. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân Market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.
Went through more than six decades of French colonization and centuries of sociocultural influence from China, French and Chinese cultures have influenced the designs of the old houses in Hanoi. The Franco-Chinese or hybrid architecture in Vietnam have shown, the “cultural additivity” in Vietnamese architecture is reflected in the front of a house in the co-existence of French-styled columns, Confucian scrolls, the Taoist yin-yang sign, and the Buddhist lotus sculpture.
Imperior sites are mostly in
A city between rivers built on lowlands, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and is sometimes called the "city of lakes". Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoàn Kiếm Lake, West Lake, Trúc Bạch Lake and Bảy Mẫu Lake (inside Thống Nhất Park). Hoàn Kiếm Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the magic sword. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi, with many temples in the area. The lakeside road in the Nghi Tam – Quang Ba area is perfect for bicycling, jogging and viewing the cityscape or enjoying the lotus ponds in the summer. The best way to see the majestic beauty of a West Lake sunset is to view it from one of the many bars around the lake, especially from The Summit at Pan Pacific Hanoi (formally known as Summit Lounge at Sofitel Plaza Hanoi).
Hanoi was the capital and the administrative center for
In Ba Đình district:
- Presidential Palace
- Cửa Bắc Church
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs building
- Several ministries, government agencies and foreign embassies
In Hoàn Kiếm district:
- Grand Opera House
- St. Joseph's Cathedral
- Long Biên Bridge
- Grand Palais
- French School of the Far East
- Hotel Metropole
- Tonkin Palace (State Guest House)
- Hỏa Lò Prison
- Supreme Court building
- Indochina Medical College
- Museum of Revolution
- Central Station
- State Bank of Vietnam
- Several foreign embassies
Hanoi is home to a number of museums:
- National Museum of Vietnamese History
- Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts
- Vietnam Museum of Ethnology
- Vietnam Museum of Revolution
- Hỏa Lò Prison
- Ho Chi Minh Museum
- Hanoi Contemporary Arts Centre
- Vietnam Military History Museum
- Hanoi Museum
Hanoi's western suburbs, previously
- The Perfume Pagoda is a vast complex of Buddhist temples and shrines built into the limestone Huong Tich mountains. It has a long pilgrimage route along the Yen river.
The tourist destinations in Hanoi are generally grouped into two main areas: the
Two areas are generally called the "French Quarters": the governmental area in
The political center of Vietnam, Ba Đình has a high concentration of Vietnamese government headquarters, including the
South of Hoàn Kiếm's "French Quarter" has several French-Colonial landmarks, including the
Since 2014, Hanoi has consistently been voted in the world's top ten destinations by TripAdvisor. It ranked eighth in 2014, fourth in 2015 and eighth in 2016. Hanoi is the most affordable international destination in TripAdvisor's annual TripIndex report. In 2017, Hanoi will welcome more than 5 million international tourists.
A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi has been named one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Water Puppet Tours. The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, now including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat.
Nhà Triển Lãm at 29 Hang Bai street hosts regular photo, sculpture, and paint exhibitions in conjuncture with local artists and travelling international expositions.
A popular traditional form of entertainment is water puppetry, which is shown, for example, at the Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.
To adapt to Hanoi's rapid economic growth and high population density, many modern shopping centers and megamalls have been opened in Hanoi.
Major malls are:
- Hoàn Kiếm District
- Hai Bà Trưng District
- The Garden Shopping Center, Me Tri – Nam Từ Liêm District
- Indochina Plaza, Xuan Thuy street, Cầu Giấy District
- Vincom Royal City Megamall, the largest underground mall in Asia with 230,000 square metres of shops, restaurants, cineplex, waterpark (formerly), cinema, ice skating rink; Nguyen Trai street (approx 6 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Thanh Xuân District
- Vincom Times City Megamall, another megamall of 230,000 square metres including shops, restaurants, cineplex, huge musical fountain on central square and a giant aquarium; Minh Khai street (approx 5 km from Hoan Kiem Lake), Hai Ba Trung district
- Lotte Department Store, opened September 2014, Lieu Giai Street, Ba Đình District
- Aeon Mall Long Bienopened last October 2015, Long Bien District
- Aeon Mall Ha Dongopened in the end of 2019, Ha Dong district
Hanoi has rich culinary traditions. Many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as
Vietnam's national dish
Hanoi has a number of restaurants whose menus specifically offer dishes containing snakes
Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including Indochina Medical College (1902) – now
After the Communist Party of Vietnam took control of Hanoi in 1954, many new universities were built, most prominently the
It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in Vietnam are living and working in Hanoi. Admission to undergraduate study is through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open to everyone who has successfully completed their secondary education in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have begun operation. Thăng Long University, founded in 1988 by Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France, was the first private university in Vietnam. Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events usually take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around the intense examination periods. In recent years, these entrance exams have been coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but entrance requirements are decided independently by each university.
Although there are state owned
Education levels are much higher within the city of Hanoi in comparison to the suburban areas outside the city. About 33.8% of the labor force in the city has completed secondary school in contrast to 19.4% in the suburbs. 21% of the labor force in the city has completed tertiary education in contrast to 4.1% in the suburbs.
International schools include:
- British International School Hanoi
- British Vietnamese International School Hanoi
- Hanoi International School
- Japanese School of Hanoi
- Korean International School in Hanoi
- Lycée français Alexandre Yersin
- United Nations International School of Hanoi
- Vietnam-Australia School, Hanoi
Country-wide educational change is difficult in Vietnam due to the restrictive control of the government on social and economic development strategies. According to Hanoi government publications, the national system of education was reformed in 1950, 1956 and 1970. It was not until 1975 when the two separate education systems of the former North and South Vietnam territories became unified under a single national system. In Hanoi in December 1996, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam stated that: "To carry out industrialization and modernization successfully, it is necessary to develop education and training strongly [and to] maximize human resources, the key factor of fast and sustained development."
Hanoi has 1,370 streets and roads with the total length of over 2,300 km (1,429 mi); 573 bridges, of which 483 small to middle bridges, 13 light overpasses for vehicles, 70 pedestrian overpasses and 7 main bridges (Chương Dương, Vĩnh Tuy, Thanh Trì, Nhật Tân, Đông Trù, Thăng Long, and Phùng); 115 tunnels, including 9 main tunnels, 39 pedestrian tunnels and 67 underpass. In total, the proportion of land for traffic in the city as of 2021 is 10.3%. The city also has 63 km (39 mi) of inland waterways, which include Yến stream, Hai stream, Cà Lồ and Đáy river.
Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport, located in Soc Son District, approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of Hanoi. The new international terminal (T2), designed and built by Japanese contractors, opened in January 2015 and is a big facelift for the airport. In addition, a new highway and the new Nhat Tan cable-stay bridge connecting the airport and the city center opened at the same time, offering much more convenience than the old road (via Thang Long bridge). Taxis are plentiful and usually have meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from the airport to the city centre.
Hanoi is also the origin or departure point for many
The main means of transport within Hanoi are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and a rising number of cars. In recent decades, motorbikes have overtaken bicycles as the main form of transportation. Cars are the most notable change in the past five years as many Vietnamese people have started to purchase them for the first time. The increasing number of cars is the main cause of gridlocks, as roads and infrastructure in older parts of Hanoi were not designed to accommodate them. On 4 July 2017, the Hanoi government voted to ban motorbikes entirely by 2030 to reduce pollution, congestion, and encourage the expansion and use of public transport. The number of vehicles registered in Hanoi as of July 2022 is over 7.6 million, including more than 1 million cars, over 6.4 million motorcycles of and 179,000 electric motorbikes. This figure does not include vehicles of the armed forces, diplomatic missions and other localities' vehicles operating in Hanoi.
There are two metro lines in Hanoi, one of which is under construction, as part of the master plan for the future Hanoi Metro system. Line 2A opened on 6 November 2021, while line 3 is expected to begin operations in 2023.
People on their own or traveling in a pair who wish to make a fast trip around Hanoi to avoid traffic jams or to travel at an irregular time or by way of an irregular route often use "xe ôm" (literally, "hug bike"). Motorbikes can also be rented from agents within the Old Quarter of Hanoi, although this falls inside a grey legal area.
There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Hanoi. The most approved ones are Mỹ Đình National Stadium (Lê Đức Thọ Boulevard), Quần Ngựa Sports Palace (Văn Cao Avenue), Hanoi Aquatics Sports Complex and Hanoi Indoor Games Gymnasium. The others include Hàng Đẫy Stadium. The third Asian Indoor Games were held in Hanoi in 2009. The others are Hai Bà Trưng Gymnasium, Trịnh Hoài Đức Gymnasium, Vạn Bảo Sports Complex.
On 6 November 2018, it was announced that in 2020, Hanoi would become the host of the first FIA
Hanoi has two basketball teams that compete in the
Health care and other facilities
Some medical facilities in Hanoi:
- Bạch Mai Hospital
- Viet Duc Hospital
- Saint Paul General Hospital
- 108 Military Central Hospital
- Hôpital Français de Hanoi
- International SOS
- Hanoi Medical University Hospital
- Thanh Nhan Hospital
- Vinmec International Hospital
- Thu Cuc General Hospital
- K Hospital
- Medlatech Hospital
City for Peace
On 16 July 1999, the
Hanoi is the only city in Asia-Pacific that was granted this title.
Twin towns – sister cities
Hanoi is twinned with:
- Phnom Penh, Cambodia
- Jakarta, Indonesia
- Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan
- Astana, Kazakhstan
- Seoul, South Korea
- Warsaw, Poland
- Moscow, Russia
- Victoria, Seychelles
- Bangkok, Thailand
- Beijing, China
- Ankara, Turkey
- Minsk, Belarus
- Palermo, Italy
- Pretoria, South Africa
Life on the streets of the Old Quarter
Thiên Trù Pagoda in thePerfume Pagodacomplex
Tháp Bút (Pen Tower) with a phrase "Tả thanh thiên" (meaning "Write on the sky") next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake (2007)
Thê Húc Bridge on Hoàn Kiếm Lake
Presidential Palace, Hanoi (formerly Place of The Governor-General of French Indochina)
Long Bien Bridge
École française d'Extrême-Orient
Tonkin Palaceserves as State Guest House.
Nam Từ Liêm
Inspiration of French Colonial architecture in Hanoi's modern buildings
- Gioi Market
- Đồng Xuân Market
- North–South Railway (Vietnam)
- List of historical capitals of Vietnam
- Ho Chi Minh City
- Sometime spelled as Ha Noi or Hà Nội in English by Vietnam-based media.
- Thăng Long – Hà Nội – thành phố rồng bay Archived 5 June 2022 at the Wayback Machine, tuoitre.vn, 2010-10-10.
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- Also called Kinh people
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