Help:Citation Style 1

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Citation Style 1 (CS1) is a collection of reference citation templates that can be modified to create different styles for different referenced materials. Its purpose is to provide a set of default formats for references on Wikipedia. It includes a series of templates that in turn use Module:Citation/CS1.

The use of CS1 or of templates is not compulsory; per


Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style.

additionally states:

If the article you are editing is already using a particular citation style, you should follow it; if you believe it is inappropriate for the needs of the article, seek consensus for a change on the talk page.

CS1 uses (in addition to Wikipedia's own

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
, with significant adaptations.


There are a number of templates that use a name starting with cite; many were developed independently of CS1 and are not compliant with the CS1 style. There are also a number of templates that use one of the general use templates as a meta-template to cite a specific source.

To be compliant with CS1, a template must:

  • Use Module:Citation/CS1 or one of the templates listed below.
  • Use a period as a punctuation mark to separate fields and end the citation.
  • Use a semicolon as a punctuation mark to separate authors and editors.
  • Format the title of longer works in italics.
  • Format the title of short works such as chapters in quotes.


General use

The following is a list of templates that implement Citation Style 1 for one or more types of citations but are not restricted to any specific source.

Yes Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget can generate the template anytime user wishes. However, this does not mean that the tool or gadget fully supports all parameters or provides an interface for them. In fact, none of the mentioned items do so.
Sometimes Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget may or may not generate the corresponding template. For more information, see associated footnote.
General-use CS1 templates
Template Use Citoid Citation expander RefToolbar 2.0 ProveIt SnipManager
{{Cite arXiv}} arXiv preprints
{{Cite AV media}} audio and visual sources Yes Yes
{{Cite AV media notes}} liner notes from albums, DVDs, CDs and similar audio-visual media
{{Cite book}} books Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{Cite conference}} conference papers Yes
{{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections Yes
{{Cite episode}} television or radio programs and episodes Yes
{{Cite interview}} interviews
{{Cite journal}} academic and scientific papers published in journals Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{Cite magazine}} magazines and newsletters Yes
{{Cite mailing list}} archived public mailing lists
{{Cite map}} maps
{{Cite news}} news articles in print, video, audio or web Yes Sometimes[a] Yes Yes Yes
{{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast
{{Cite press release}} press releases Yes
{{Cite report}} reports by government departments, instrumentalities, operated companies, etc. Yes
{{Cite serial}} audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}} signs, plaques and other visual sources Yes
{{Cite speech}} speeches
{{Cite tech report}} technical reports
{{Cite thesis}} theses Yes Yes
{{Cite web}} web sources not characterized by another template Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. ^ Citation expander will only attempt to tidy up the citation and will not add new content

Specific source

There are a number of templates that are CS1 compliant, because they use a CS1 template as a base, but are tied to a specific source; these are listed in Category:Citation Style 1 specific-source templates.

How the templates work

CS1 uses a series of templates that provide a consistent output. The main difference is in parameters optimized for the subject. For example, {{cite book}} has fields for title and chapter, whereas {{cite journal}} has fields for journal and title.

This help page uses the names most commonly used across the templates series; see each template's documentation for details.

CS1 templates present a citation generally as:

  • With author:
Author (n.d.). "Title". Work. Publisher. Identifiers.
  • Without author:
"Title". Work. Publisher. n.d. Identifiers.

(where "n.d." could also be any other valid date formatted per the MOS)


An author may be cited using separate parameters for the author's surname and given name by using |last= and |first= respectively. If a cited source has multiple authors, subsequent authors can be listed in the citation using |last2= and |first2=, |last3= and |first3=, etc.[Note 1] For symmetry with the other numbered parameters, |last1= and |first1= are available as well, as shown in the following example:

{{cite book |last1=Hawking |first1=Stephen |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe.

For symmetry with similar parameters for editors and other contributors (discussed further below), longer parameter forms are also available for authors: |author-last= and |author-first=, as well as numbered variants like |author-lastn= and |author-firstn= or |authorn-last= and |authorn-first= (with n referring to this author's number in the list). Because the shorthand parameters might erroneously have been used also for editors and other types of contributors by some Wikipedians in the past, please make sure that the parameters actually refer to authors when expanding |last= and |first= parameters to their longer equivalents (equivalent parameters for editors etc. exist as well, see below).

If a cited source has a large number of authors, one can limit the number of authors displayed when the citation is published by using the |display-authors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.

If a cited author is notable and the author has a Wikipedia article, the author's name can be linked with |author-link=.[Note 2] If a citation includes multiple notable authors, one may use |author-linkn= or |authorn-link=, etc. This method is used because the |last=- and |first=-type parameters do not allow wikilinking. However, |author-link= cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly.[Note 2] Below is an example of a wikilinked author credit:

{{cite book |author-last1=Hawking |author-first1=Stephen |author-link1=Stephen Hawking |author-last2=Hawking |author-first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe.

When an author is cited, the date of the cited work is displayed after the author's name, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |author-last1=Hawking |author-first1=Stephen |author-link1=Stephen Hawking |author-last2=Hawking |author-first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |date=2007}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy (2007). George's Secret Key to the Universe.

If no author is cited, the date appears after the title, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |date=2007}}
George's Secret Key to the Universe. 2007.

If the cited source does not credit an author, as is common with newswire reports, press releases or company websites use:

|author=<!--Not stated-->

This HTML comment alerts fact-checking and citation-fixing editors, and potentially bots, that the cited source did not name an author—the author was not overlooked. Without this entry editors and bots would waste time researching cited sources for a non-existent author credit.

When using |author= avoid citations like {{cite news |work=Weekday Times |author=''Weekday Times'' editors |title=...}}, unless the article is on a field in which the majority of professional journals covering that field use such a citation style.

Editors should use an |author= organizational citation when the cited source, such as a committee report, specifically names an official body or a sub-unit of the publisher as the collective author of the work, e.g. |author=Commission on Headphone Safety or |author=Rules Sub-committee. Do not use |author= to assert what you think was probably the collective author when the source itself does not specifically specify a collective author; doing so is


|author= should never hold the name of more than one author. Separate individual authors into enumerated individual |authorn= parameters.


An editor may be cited using separate parameters for the editor's last and first name. A single or first editor would use |editor-last= and |editor-first=; subsequent editors would use |editor2-last= and |editor2-first=, |editor3-last= and |editor3-first=, etc.

If an editor has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that Wikipedia article using |editor-link=.[Note 2] If a cited work has multiple editors, you may use |editor2-link=, |editor3-link=, etc. to wikilink to each editor's Wikipedia article. This method is used because |editor-last= and |editor-first= do not allow wikilinking. |editor-link= cannot be used to link to an external website.

If a cited source has a large number of editors, one can limit the number of editors displayed when the citation is published using the |display-editors= parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.


A translator may be cited using separate parameters for the translator's last and first name. A single or first translator would use |translator-last= and |translator-first=; subsequent translators would use |translator2-last= and |translator2-first=, |translator3-last= and |translator3-first=, etc.

If a translator has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that Wikipedia article using |translator-link=.[Note 2] If a cited work has multiple translators, you may use |translator2-link=, |translator3-link=, etc. to wikilink to each translator's Wikipedia article. This method is used because |translator-last= and |translator-first= do not allow wikilinking. |translator-link= cannot be used to link to an external website.


  • others: This parameter is used to credit contributors other than an author or an editor, such as an illustrator. You should include both the type of contribution and the name of the contributor, for example |others=Illustrated by John Smith.[Note 2]


Dates are indicated by these parameters:

  • date: Date of publication edition being referenced, in the same format as other dates in citations in the same article. Must not be wikilinked.
    • or: year: Year of publication edition being referenced. Do not use in combination with date, except in the rare case that all of the following conditions are met:
      1. the publication-date format in the template is YYYY-MM-DD
      2. the citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator
  • orig-date: Original publication date or year, for display (in square brackets) after the date (or year). For clarity, please supply specifics, for instance |orig-date=first published 1859 or |orig-date=composed 1904. This parameter displays only if there is a value for date (or year). Alias: origyear.

When a source does not have a publication date, use |date=n.d. or |date=nd

Acceptable date formats are shown in the "Acceptable date formats" table of the

Manual of Style/Dates and numbers § Dates, months and years
. Further points:

  • Prescriptions about date formats only apply when the date is expressed in terms of Julian or Gregorian dates, or which use one of the seasons (spring, summer, autumn or fall, winter). Sources are at liberty to use other ways of expressing dates, such as "spring/summer" or a date in a religious calendar; editors should report the date as expressed by the source.
    Although the seasons are not normally capitalized
    , they are capitalized when used as dates in CS1 templates, and the capitalization of the season stated by the source may be altered to follow this convention. In cases where the date as expressed in the source is not compatible with the template software, the citation should be created without using a template.
  • Do not wikilink.
  • Access and archive dates in references should be in either the format used for
    publication dates
    , or YYYY-MM-DD.

Date format compliance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style

CS1 uses

MOS:DATEFORMAT) as the reference for all date format checking performed by Module:Citation/CS1
. For various reasons, CS1 is not fully compliant with MOS:DATEFORMAT. This table indicates CS1 compliance with the listed sections of MOS:DATEFORMAT.

CS1 compliance with Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers
Section Compliant Comment
Acceptable date formats table yes Exceptions: linked dates not supported;
sortable dates not supported ({{
proper name dates not supported with the exception of 'Easter YYYY' and 'Christmas YYYY';
shortened month names longer than three characters or with terminating periods not supported;
quarterly dates supported in the form 'First Quarter 2020'
Unacceptable date formats table yes
Consistency yes Article-level restrictions are beyond the scope of CS1
CS1/CS2 templates follow the format specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} templates; see Auto-formatting citation template dates
Strong national ties to a topic no
Retaining existing format no
Era style no Dates earlier than 100 not supported. Wikipedia editors seldom read ancient manuscripts directly; the specific, modern, published edition read by the editor is what goes in the source citation. Thus, the date of the source actually consulted should be provided in |date=, and the date of the ancient source may be provided in |orig-date=; the format of the orig-date value is not checked for errors.
Julian and Gregorian calendars limited Julian prior to 1582; Gregorian from 1582; assumes Gregorian in the overlap period of 1582 – c. 1923
Ranges yes Exceptions: does not support the use of &ndash; or &nbsp;
does not support dates prior to 100;
does not support solidus separator (/)
does not support " to " as a date separator
does not support YYYY–YY where the two-digit year is less than 13 (change to YYYY–YYYY to eliminate the error message)
Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates yes Exceptions: does not support {{circa}} or {{floruit}};
does not support dates prior to 100;
Supports c. only with a single year value (no ranges or day/month combinations).
Days of the week no
Seasons limited CS1 capitalizes seasons used as dates in citations, in line with external style guides
Decades no
Centuries and millennia no
Abbreviations for long periods of time no

Date range, multiple sources in same year

If dates are used, the year range is 100 to present without era indication (AD, BC, CE, BCE). In the case where the same author has written more than one work in the same year, a lower-case letter may be appended to the year in the date parameter (|date=July 4, 1997b) or the year parameter (|year=1997b).

Auto-formatting citation template dates

Citation Style 1 and 2 templates automatically render dates (|date=, |access-date=, |archive-date=, etc.) in the style specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template. Editors may also choose how CS1/CS2 templates render dates by the use of |cs1-dates=<keyword> in the article's {{use xxx dates}} template.

Acceptable |cs1-dates= keywords
Keyword Definition
l long-form publication and access- / archive-dates;
this is the default case when |cs1-dates= is omitted or empty
ls long-form publication dates; abbreviated access- / archive-dates
ly long-form publication dates; year-initial numeric access- / archive-dates (ymd)
s abbreviated publication and access- / archive-dates
sy abbreviated publication dates; year-initial numeric access- / archive-dates (ymd)
y year-initial numeric publication, access- and archive-dates (ymd);
cs1|2 cannot reformat Month YYYY, Season YYYY, date-ranges of any form, or Julian calendar dates into ymd format

Example: to have the CS1/CS2 templates in an article render their publication dates in the long form (fully spelled-out month names) with access-/archive-dates rendered in short form (abbreviated month names), write:

{{use dmy dates|date=April 2024|cs1-dates=ls}}

This documentation page has {{use dmy dates|date=April 2024|cs1-dates=y}} at the top of this section so this cs1 template will render with ymd dates:

{{cite web |title=Example Webpage |date=31 October 2017 |website=Example |url= |access-date=Dec 5, 2017}}
"Example Webpage". Example. 2017-10-31. Retrieved 2017-12-05.

This global setting may be overridden in individual CS1/CS2 templates by use of |df=; abbreviated date forms are not supported by |df=.

Nota bene: CS1/CS2 auto-date formatting does not apply when previewing an article section that does not contain a {{use xxx dates}} template.

Titles and chapters

Titles containing certain characters will both display and link incorrectly unless those characters are replaced or encoded like this:

Character Must be replaced with
newline space
[ &#91;
] &#93;
| &#124;

|script-<param>= language codes

Language codes known to cs1|2 for languages that do not use a Latin script are:

  • ab: Abkhazian
  • am: Amharic
  • ar: Arabic
  • be: Belarusian
  • bg: Bulgarian
  • bn: Bengali
  • bo: Tibetan
  • bs: Bosnian
  • dv: Divehi
  • dz: Dzongkha
  • el: Greek
  • fa: Persian
  • gu: Gujarati
  • he: Hebrew
  • hi: Hindi
  • hy: Armenian
  • ja: Japanese
  • ka: Georgian
  • kk: Kazakh
  • km: Khmer
  • kn: Kannada
  • ko: Korean
  • ku: Kurdish
  • ky: Kyrgyz
  • lo: Lao
  • mk: Macedonian
  • ml: Malayalam
  • mn: Mongolian
  • mni: Manipuri
  • mr: Marathi
  • my: Burmese
  • ne: Nepali
  • or: Odia
  • ota: Ottoman Turkish
  • pa: Punjabi
  • ps: Pashto
  • ru: Russian
  • sd: Sindhi
  • si: Sinhala
  • sr: Serbian
  • syc: Classical Syriac
  • ta: Tamil
  • te: Telugu
  • tg: Tajik
  • th: Thai
  • ti: Tigrinya
  • tt: Tatar
  • ug: Uyghur
  • uk: Ukrainian
  • ur: Urdu
  • uz: Uzbek
  • yi: Yiddish
  • yue: Cantonese
  • zh: Chinese



  • language: The language (or a comma-separated list of the languages) in which the source is written, as either the ISO 639 language code (preferred) or the full language name. Examples: |language=ru; |lang=fr, pt-br; |lang=Russian; |language=French, Portuguese. See the list of supported codes and names. Do not use templates or wikilinks. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. When the only source language is English, no language is displayed in the citation. The use of languages recognized by the citation module adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources. Because cs1|2 templates are often copied from to other wikis, the use of language codes is preferred so that language names render in the correct language and form: espagnol at a French-language wiki instead of the English word "Spanish". Aliases: lang

Work and publisher

  • work: Used by some templates such as {{cite web}} (where it is aliased to website), {{cite news}} (aliased to newspaper), {{cite magazine}} (aliased to magazine), {{cite journal}} (aliased to journal), and others where the citation is usually to a specific item (given in the "title" parameter) found in a larger work (this "work" parameter), most commonly an article in a website or print periodical, or an episode in a TV series. Do not confuse this with the "publisher" parameter, which is for the publishing company. If the work is notable and has an article in Wikipedia, it should be wiki-linked at first appearance in citations in the article. If the "title" is already linked-to externally, do not externally link to the "work". If the work title as given by the site/publication would be exactly or substantially the same as the name of the publisher, do not use the "publisher" parameter (see below for more detail).
On websites, in most cases "work" is the name of the website (as usually given in the logo/banner area of the site, and/or appearing in the <title> of the homepage, which may appear as the page title in your browser tab, depending on browser). Do not append ".com" or the like if the site's actual title does not include it (thus |work=[[Salon (magazine)|Salon]], not If no clear title can be identified, or the title explicitly is the domain name, then use the site's domain name. Do not falsify the work's name by adding descriptive verbiage like "Website of [Publisher]" or "[Publisher]'s Homepage". Capitalize for reading clarity, and omit "www.", e.g. convert "" to "".
Many journals use highly abbreviated titles when citing other journals (e.g. J. Am. Vet. Med. for
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
) because specialists in the field the journal covers usually already know what these abbreviations mean. Our readers usually do not, so these abbreviations should always be expanded.
If the titled item being cited is part of some other larger work, as in a book in a series, a special issue of a periodical, or a sub-site at a domain (e.g., you are citing the law school's section of a university's website system), it is usually better to use the name of that more specific work than just that of the entire larger work. Various citation templates provide separate fields for such information, e.g. |chapter=|title=|volume=|series= in {{Cite book}}. If the nature of the work and its relation to the site, book, or other context in which it is found is complicated or confusing, simply explain the situation after the citation template and before the </ref> that closes the citation.
  • publisher: the name of the organization that actually published the source. The field should not include the corporate designation such as "Ltd" or "Inc.", unless some ambiguity would result or the organization is usually known with that designation even in everyday use (e.g. Apple Inc., which otherwise might be confused with Apple Records and other publishers). "Publisher", "Publishing" and "Publications" can be abbreviated "Pubr.", "Pubg." and "Pubs." respectively, but some templates in this series include a period (full-stop) immediately after this parameter, so the period may have to be omitted; check the output if you abbreviate here. They are usually safe to omit, but are usefully included where the publisher's name might be confusing without it. This is most often the case when the publisher's name is something like "Joshua Martin Publications", which without the designation might be mistaken for a co-author/editor. A leading "The" can generally be omitted, again unless confusion might result (e.g., for The International Cat Association, "The" is part of their official acronym, TICA). If the publisher is notable and has an article independent of the "work", the "publisher" parameter can include a wiki-link to that article, but should never externally link to the publisher's website. Whether the publisher needs to be included depends to an extent on the type of work and sometimes on its recognizability. WP:Citing sources, and most off-Wikipedia citation guides, suggest that it should be used for books (even famous ones), but not necessarily other works. The "publisher" parameter should not be included for widely-known mainstream news sources, for major academic journals, or where it would be the same or mostly the same as the work. For example, the "publisher" parameter should be omitted in these examples:
    |work=[[Amazon.⁠com]]|publisher=Amazon Inc.
    |newspaper=The Aberdeen Times|publisher=The Aberdeen Times
    |newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|publisher=The New York Times Company
    |newspaper=[[USA Today]]|publisher=[[Gannett Company]]
    |journal=[[Nature (journal)|Nature]]|publisher=[[Nature Research]]
If the work is self-published,
whois for websites, and WorldCat
for books, etc.) fails, use |publisher=<!--Unspecified by source.--> to explicitly indicate that this was checked, so other editors do not waste time duplicating your fruitless efforts. Do not guess at the publisher when this information is not clear. See next entry for co-published works and how to specify multiple publishers and their locations.


CS1/CS2 template support for
|volume=, |issue=, |page(s)=
Template |volume= |issue= |page(s)= |quote-page(s)=
{{citation}} Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite arXiv}} No No Yes Yes
{{cite AV media}} Yes No No No
{{cite AV media notes}} No No Yes Yes
{{cite bioRxiv}} No No Yes Yes
{{cite book}} Yes No Yes Yes
cite citeseerx
No No Yes Yes
No No Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite encyclopedia}} Yes No Yes Yes
{{cite episode}} No Yes No No
{{cite interview}} Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite journal}} Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite magazine}} Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite mailing list}} No No No No
Yes No Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite news}} Yes Yes Yes Yes
{{cite newsgroup}} No No No No
{{cite podcast}} No No No No
{{cite press release}} No No Yes Yes
{{cite report}} Yes No Yes Yes
{{cite serial}} No No No No
{{cite sign}} No No No No
{{cite speech}} No No No No
cite ssrn
No No Yes Yes
{{cite tech report}} Yes No Yes Yes
{{cite thesis}} Yes No Yes Yes
{{cite web}} No No Yes Yes

An editor may use any one of the following parameters in a given citation to refer to the specific page(s) or place in a cited source that contains the information that supports the article text. If more than one of the following parameters are used in the same citation, the error message Extra |pages= or |at= (help) will display in the published citation. When more than one of the following parameters is used in error, |page= overrides both |pages= and |at=; |pages= overrides |at=. To resolve the error, remove extra parameters of this type until only one remains in the affected citation.

If the same source is reused with different pages, separate citations must be created. A way around this problem is to use a short citation {{sfn}}, or {{rp}} to provide linked page number citations.

Edition identifiers

External links

Using |format=

When MediaWiki encounters an external link URL with a '.pdf' or '.PDF' extension, it renders the external link with a PDF icon in place of the usual external-link icon. To make rendered cs1|2 citations that link to PDF documents somewhat more accessible, cs1|2 automatically adds a parenthetical PDF annotation so that those readers using screen-reader technology can know the type of the linked file. This is imperfect because some on-line sources redirect .pdf URLs to .html landing pages (this is common for PDF documents behind paywalls or registration barriers). Because the parenthetical PDF annotation happens automatically, editors are not required to set |format=PDF, though doing so causes no harm. The |format=PDF parameter may be deleted as part of a more substantial edit but editors should consider that many cs1|2 templates are copied from en.Wikipedia to other-language Wikipedias when articles here are translated to that other language. Do not assume that other-language Wikipedias use up-to-date cs1|2 templates; many do not, so removing |format=PDF here can affect readers/translators at other Wikipedias.

Online sources

Links to sources are regarded as conveniences and are not required, except when citing Web-only sources. There are many digital libraries with works that may be used as sources.

  • Links should be to full versions of the source.
  • Online sources that require payment or subscription may be included per Wikipedia:Verifiability.

Do not link to:

  • Sites that do not have permission to republish the work or which otherwise violate copyright.
  • Commercial sites such as Amazon, unless no alternative exists.
  • Reviews of the work.
  • Very short extracts such as Google Books snippet view where there is not enough context to verify the content, unless the entire work is also freely available there. (See

Link formats

Links should be kept as simple as possible. For example, when performing a search for a Google Book, the link for Monty Python and Philosophy would look like:

But can be trimmed to:


or: (if Google Books does not provide the cover page).


A direct link to a specific page may be used if supported by the host. For example, the link to page 172 of Monty Python and Philosophy on Google Books:

like so:

|page=[ 172]

Special characters

URLs must begin with a supported

URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6
host-names are currently not supported.

If URLs in

. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:

Character space " ' < > [ ] { | }
Encoding %20 %22 %27 %3C %3E %5B %5D %7B %7C %7D

Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

Access date

Web archives

  • archive-url. Alias: archiveurl.
  • archive-date. Alias: archivedate.

The original link may become unavailable. When an archived version is located, the original URL is retained and |archive-url= is added with a link to an archived copy of a web page, usually from services like WebCite and the Internet Archive. |archive-date= must be added to show the date the page was archived, not the date the link was added. When |archive-url= is used, |url= and |archive-date= are required, else an error will show. When an archived link is used, the citation displays with the title linked to the archive and the original link at the end: Monty Python and Philosophy. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01.

  • url-status: To change the order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end, set |url-status=live:
Monty Python and Philosophy. Archived from the original on 2013-05-01.

When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |url-status=unfit or |url-status=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= and |archive-url= are still required).


The following identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. |rfc=822 or |pmc=345678.

In very rare cases, valid identifiers (f.e., as actually printed on publications) do not follow their defined standard format or use non-conforming checksums, which would typically cause an error message to be shown. Do not alter them to match a different checksum. In order to suppress the error message, some identifiers (|doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=, and |sbn=) support a special accept-this-as-written markup which can be applied to disable the error-checking (as |<param>=((<value>))). If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier value instead of overriding the error message.

For some identifiers, it is possible to specify the access status using the corresponding |<param>-access= parameter.

For {{cite journal}}, some identifiers (specifying free resources) will automatically be linked to the title when |url= and |title-link= are not used to specify a different link target. This behaviour can be overridden by one out of a number of special keywords for |title-link= to manually select a specific source (|title-link=pmc or |title-link=doi) for auto-linking or to disable the feature (|title-link=none).

It is not necessary to specify a URL to a link identical to a link also produced by an identifier. The |url= parameter (or |title-link=) can then be used for providing a direct deep link to the corresponding document or a convenience link to a resource that would not otherwise be obviously accessible.

A custom identifier can be specified through

Registration or subscription required

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in

verifying claims in articles

Four access levels can be used:

  • access indicator for named identifiers:
    • Freely accessible free: the source is free to read for anyone
  • access indicators for url-holding parameters:
    • Free registration required registration: a free registration with the provider is required to access the source, even if a limited preview, abstract or review may still be available without registration
    • Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required limited: free access is subject to limited trial and a subscription is normally required
    • Paid subscription required subscription: the source is only accessible via a paid subscription with the provider of the source ("paywall")

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, each value is attributed to a specific external link.

Access indicators for url-holding parameters

Online sources linked by |url=, |article-url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |entry-url=, |map-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read. When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these URL-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they are not marked as free. If the registration/limited/subscription access to the source goes dead and is no longer available, then remove the access-indicator parameter and add |archive-url= and |archive-date= values if possible.

URL-holding and access-indicator parameters
URL Access Allowed keywords
|url= |url-access= registration Free registration required
limited Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required
subscription Paid subscription required
|article-url= |article-url-access=
|chapter-url= |chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url= |contribution-url-access=
|entry-url= |entry-url-access=
|map-url= |map-url-access=
|section-url= |section-url-access=

For example, this cites a web page that requires registration but not subscription:

{{cite web |url= |url-access=registration |date=2021-04-15 |title=Nifty example data}}

which renders as:

"Nifty example data". 2021-04-15.
Access indicator for named identifiers

Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. When the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to carry a free-to-read full text (for instance because they're just abstracting services), they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.

Named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
Identifier Access Allowed keywords
|bibcode= |bibcode-access= free Freely accessible
|doi= |doi-access=
|hdl= |hdl-access=
|jstor= |jstor-access=
|ol= |ol-access=
|osti= |osti-access=
|ssrn= |ssrn-access=
|s2cid= |s2cid-access=

Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters; the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:

  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |medrxiv=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=

For embargoed pmc that will become available in the future, see pmc-embargo-date.


  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation. If script-quote is defined, use quote to hold a
    (if available) of the text in script-quote.
    • script-quote: Original quotation for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc.); not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in quote (if available). Alias: none. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |quote=Tōkyō tawā |script-quote=ja:東京タワー |trans-quote=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-quote: English translation of the quotation if the source quoted is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets. Alias: none.


The module creates HTML IDs by default suitable for use with

shortened footnotes using the Harv- and sfn-family templates
. These styles use in-text cites with a link that will jump to the ID created by the CS1 template. The ID is created from up to four author last names and the year, of the format CITEREFlastname(s)year.

|ref=ID: Creates a custom ID equivalent to the value ID. This is useful where the author and/or date is unknown. The {{

}} template may be used here to create an ID for the Harv- and sfn-family templates.

Examples of anchors
Kind Wikitext ID created Targetable by
Default, one name {{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |date=2006}} CITEREFHardcastle2006 {{
Default, two names {{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |first2=George A. |last2=Reisch |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |date=2006}} CITEREFHardcastleReisch2006 {{
|ref= using {{
|ref={{harvid|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006}} CITEREFMonty_Python_and_Philosophy2006 {{
|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006|pp=12-34}}

Display options

These features are not often used, but can customize the display for use with other styles.

  • display-authors:
  • display-contributors:
  • display-editors:
  • display-interviewers:
  • display-subjects:
  • display-translators:
    Controls the number of author (or other kind of contributor) names that are displayed. By default, all authors are displayed. To change the displayed number of names, set the parameter to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation (and not affect the display of the other kinds of contributors). |display-authors=0 is a special case suppressing the display of all authors including the et al. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: none.
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Additional text, or templates that render more than a single terminating punctuation character, will generate a maintenance message. |postscript= is ignored if quote is defined.

et al.

et al. is the abbreviation of the Latin et alii ('and others'). It is used to complete a list of authors of a published work, where the complete list is considered overly long. The abbreviation is widely used in English, thus it is not italicized per


Accept-this-as-written markup

There are occasions where Module:Citation/CS1 emits error or maintenance messages because of, or makes changes to, the values assigned to a select set of parameters. Special markup can be used to enforce that a value will nonetheless be accepted as written. The markup for this is ((value)), i.e., wrap the entire parameter value in two sets of parentheses. Parameters that support this markup are:

Parameters that support accept-this-as-written markup
Parameter Notes
|authorn= The various name parameters (including their enumerated variants) are checked for extra comma and semicolon separator characters which may indicate that the parameter is holding more than one name. If so, the list of names should be split up over multiple n-enumerated parameters. Corporate names, however, are sometimes comma-separated lists of names as well and so are erroneously flagged as a multiple-name error; markup can be used to indicate this.

Legitimate names may be caught by the generic-name test. This markup can prevent legitimate names from being flagged as generic.
|doi= Identifiers are checked for validity to the extent possible. In rare cases, identifiers actually used in published works deviate from the checked standard format but are nonetheless valid. If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier instead of overriding the error message.
|issue= Spaces are inserted between commas and succeeding characters in comma-separated lists of issues, a hyphen is converted to an ndash in issue ranges, etc. A hyphenated issue number and an issue range cannot be distinguished, nor can a four-or-more-digit number with a thousands-separator from a comma-separated list of two or more issues. Markup can be applied to the entry as a whole or to individual list entries.
|volume= Spaces are inserted between commas and succeeding characters in comma-separated lists of volumes, a hyphen is converted to an ndash in volume ranges, etc. A hyphenated volume and an volume range cannot be distinguished, nor can a four-or-more-digit volume with a thousands-separator from a comma-separated list of two or more volumes. Markup can be applied to the entry as a whole or to individual list entries.
|pages= Spaces are inserted between commas and succeeding characters in comma-separated lists of pages, a hyphen is converted to an ndash in page ranges, etc. A hyphenated page number and a page range cannot be distinguished, nor can a four-or-more-digit number with a thousands-separator from a comma-separated list of two or more pages. Markup can be applied to the entry as a whole or to individual list entries; does not apply to |page=, |p=, or |quote-page=. (This special markup is also supported by the plural page parameters |pages=, |pp= and |quote-pages= (as well as other aliases) of the {{
}}-style templates supports it as well in conjunction with |pages= and |pp=.)
|title= Trailing dots (periods) are normally removed from the value assigned to |title= as being redundant. There are cases where trailing dots are not redundant but are part of the title proper so should be retained. The parameter may also accept a number of special keywords (none, etc.) taking precedence over free text input to specify a title; if a value also matching a keyword is meant as actual title text, markup can be used to indicate this.
|title-link= The parameter may also accept a number of special keywords (none, doi, pmc) taking precedence over free text input to specify a link target; if a value also matching a keyword is meant as actual link target, markup can be used to indicate this.
|vauthors= Markup to suppress error messages and automatic Vancouver reformatting of allowed corporate names.


When viewing the page, CS1 templates render the URL to the title to create a link; when printing, the URL is printed. External link icons are not printed.

Elements not included

Not all factually accurate pieces of information about a source are used in a Citation Style 1 citation. Examples of information not included:

  • The total number of pages in a cited source
  • The name of the library that provided access to an electronic copy of a cited source
  • The name of the library that owns a physical copy of a cited work
  • The library record or shelf location of a physical copy of a cited work


CS1 templates may be inserted manually or by use of tools:

  • user guide
  • RefToolbar is part of the editing tool bar. Version 2.0 does not yet support all templates supported by version 1.0.
  • ProveIt
    provides a graphical interface for editing, adding, and citing references. It may be enabled per the documentation.
  • Reflinks Adds references to templates while updating/filling-in title/dates/publisher/accessdates etc.
  • reFill open source version of Reflinks
  • Zotero can export citations in Wikipedia-ready format.
  • Citer – generates shortened footnote or named reference for a given Google Books URL, ISBN, or DOI. Also supports some major news websites.

Error checking scripts:

Reliability scripts:


This section documents interactions between WP:TemplateData and tools which use that data to edit Wikipedia such as VisualEditor and bots. Before making changes to the TemplateData be aware of these interactions.


  • If an argument is set to "required" the argument will be added to all templates edited by IABot. This including adding empty arguments. For example, when |website= is "required" IABot makes the following edit: [1].

Common issues

|access-date= does not show.
If |url= is not supplied, then |access-date= does not show; by design.
The bare URL shows before the title.
If the |title= field includes a newline or an invalid character then the link will be malformed; see Web links.
The title appears in red.
If URL is supplied, then the title cannot be wikilinked.
The URL is not linked and shows in brackets.
The URL must include the
URI scheme in order for MediaWiki to recognize it as a link. For example: vs.
A field is truncated.
A pipe (|) in the value will truncate it. Use {{!}} instead.
The template markup shows.
Double open brackets [[ are used in a field without closing double brackets ]].
The author shows in brackets with an external link icon.
The use of an URL in |author-link= will break the link; this field is for the name of the Wikipedia article about the author, not a website.
Multiple author or editor names are defined and one or more does not show
The parameters must be used in sequence, i.e. if |last= or |last1= is not defined, then |last2= will not show. By design.
|page=, |pages= or |at= do not show.
These parameters are mutually exclusive, and only one will show; by design.

See also


  1. ^ The number of authors that can be listed in the citation and displayed when published is unlimited.
  2. ^
    entry (with code <id>), :VIAF:<id> can be used, even if this would resolve to an independent external site. In the absence of a local article such links can help to at least establish a connection to a particular author and, if an article gets created in the English Wikipedia as well in the future, these links can be fixed up by bots to point to the local article instead.
  3. ^ "Some numbered series have gone on so long that, as with certain long-lived journals, numbering has started over again, preceded by n.s. (new series), 2nd ser. (second series), or some similar notation, usually enclosed in commas. (A change of publisher may also be the occasion for a change in series designation.) Books in the old series may be identified by o.s., 1st ser., or whatever complements the notation for the new series."[1]

    For instance the journal Physical Review, was numbered volumes 1–35 from 1893 to 1912 (the first series). From 1913 to 1969, the volume numbering restarted at 1 and went up to 188 (the second series). In 1970, Physical Review split into different parts, Physical Review A, Physical Review B, Physical Review C, and Physical Review D, where volumes again restarted at 1 (the third series). Since there are two publications identified as Physical Review, Volume 1, there is a need to distinguish which is which by use of |series=First Series or |series=Second Series. While Physical Review A is in the third series of the Physical Review media franchise, it is the first series of the publication known as Physical Review A. Since there is no confusion about what Physical Review A, Volume 1 could be referring to, there is no need to clarify to which numbering series the journal belong.

    In particular, note that the |series= parameter is not to be used to distinguish the different parts of a

    Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B