Israel–Hamas war

Page extended-protected
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Israel–Hamas war
Part of the Arab–Israeli conflict and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Map of the Gaza Strip and part of Israel. The part of Israel surrounding the Strip is marked as evacuated. Some parts of the Strip is marked as under Israeli control, and the remainder is marked as under Hamas control.
  Gaza Strip under Palestinian control
  Gaza Strip under Israeli control
  Furthest Israeli advance in Gaza Strip
  Evacuated areas inside Israel
  Maximum extent of the
2023 Hamas-led attack on Israel
  Areas of Gaza subject to Israeli evacuation orders



See here for a more detailed map.

See )
Status Ongoing
Belligerents

 IsraelCommanders and leaders Units involved See
Order of Battle
Strength State of Palestine 37,000[f] Israel 529,500[g]Casualties and losses

Gaza Strip:

  • 37,431+ killed[i]
  • 10,000+ missing[j]
  • 82,777+ wounded[k]
(3,000+ amputees)[l]
  • 9,312+ detained[41]
  • 1,900,000 displaced.[42]

West Bank:[m]

Militants inside Israel:


Syria and Lebanon

Per Israel:


Per Hamas:[z]

  • 636 soldiers killed.[107]
  • 3,611 to 7,306 soldiers wounded.[aa]

Displaced:
200,000–500,000 initially,[108][109] down to 60,000 by early 2024.[110]
Casualties in Egypt
  • 2 Egyptian border guards killed[111]
    9 border guards[112] and 6 civilians[113] injured in Egypt

An

Palestinian militant groups[ab] has been taking place chiefly in the Gaza Strip since 7 October 2023. Clashes have also occurred in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, and with Hezbollah along the Israel–Lebanon–Golan Heights border. The fifth war of the Gaza–Israel conflict since 2008, it is part of the broader Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and the most significant military engagement in the region since the Yom Kippur War 50 years earlier.[114]

The war began when Hamas-led militant groups

After clearing militants from its territory, Israel responded by launching

reoccupied by January 2024. After a seven-day truce involving exchange of captives, Israel moved south to attack Khan Yunis on 3 December.[139] On 24 May, the International Court of Justice ruled that Israel must immediately halt its Rafah offensive.[140]

The war has had significant international repercussions.

Background

A bar chart from 2008 to before October 2023. 6,407 Palestinians have been killed during this time frame, while a smaller 308 Israelis have been killed.
Israeli and Palestinian deaths preceding the war before the 2023 Hamas-led attack on Israel, of which most were civilians.[143][144]

In 1967, following the

Palestinian National Authority and dividing the West Bank into three administrative areas.[147] Following the failure of the subsequent peace talks at the Camp David Summits in 2000,[148] violence once again escalated during the Second Intifada, which ended with the Sharm El Sheikh Summit and Israel's withdrawal from Gaza in 2005 and subsequent blockade.[149][150] The Israeli closures, together with repeated conflicts, resulted in high levels of poverty, unemployment, and low economic development.[151]

Hamas, an Islamist militant group, won the

dual-use goods from entering the territory.[157][158] The Palestinian Authority has not held national elections since 2006.[154][159]

Since 2007, Israel has been involved in numerous military confrontations with Hamas and other Palestinian militant groups in Gaza.

Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reported roughly 6,400 Palestinians and 300 Israelis were killed in the wider Israeli–Palestinian conflict from 2008 through September 2023 before the start of this war.[169][143][144]

The

Harvard researcher Sara Roy as having resulted in the "de-development" of the Gazan economy, which she describes as "the systematic dismantling of a normal economy and its rational functioning."[172][173] According to an analysis in The Independent, the Gaza blockade created hopelessness among Palestinians, which was exploited by Hamas, convincing young Palestinian men that violence was their only solution.[174] Daoud Kuttab wrote that Palestinian attempts to solve the conflict via negotiations or non-violent boycotts have been fruitless.[175]

Hamas has been designated as a terrorist organization by a number of states and regional blocs, particularly Israel's Western allies including the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and the European Union.[176][177][114][178] Other UNSC permanent members, including China[179] and Russia, do not regard Hamas as a terrorist organization.[180][181][182] A 2018 attempt to condemn Hamas for "acts of terror" at the United Nations failed to achieve the two-thirds majority requirement set in place for the vote, with 87 votes in favor, 58 votes against, 32 abstentions and 16 non-votes.[183]

In February–March 2021, Fatah and Hamas reached agreement to

Palestinian state along the 1967 ceasefire lines, with East Jerusalem as its capital. According to Menachem Klein, Israeli Arabist and political scientist at Bar-Ilan University, Mahmoud Abbas subsequently cancelled the elections under pressure from Israel and the United States.[184] Soon after the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis exploded, the Al-Qassam Brigades started planning the 7 October 2023 operation.[184][185]

Hamas motivations

Hamas officials said shortly following the attack that it was a response to the Israeli occupation, blockade of the Gaza Strip, Israeli settler violence against Palestinians, restrictions on the movement of Palestinians, and imprisonment of thousands of Palestinians, whom Hamas sought to release by taking Israeli hostages.[116][117][186]

Qassam Brigades, said on 7 October that the Hamas attack was in response to what he called the "desecration" of the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and Israel killing and wounding hundreds of Palestinians in 2023.[187] He called on Palestinians and Arab Israelis everywhere to "expel the occupiers and demolish the walls."[187][188] He said, "As the Israeli occupation maintains its siege of the Gaza Strip and continues its crimes against our Palestinian people showing utmost disregard for international laws and resolutions amid US and Western support and international silence, we have decided to put an end to all of that and announce a military operation "Al-Aqsa Flood" against the Israeli occupation".[189][190][191][192]

Despite the

Israeli settlements.[193][194][195] "The Israeli occupation has seized thousands of dunums of Palestinian territory and uprooted Palestinian citizens from their homes and lands to build illegal settlements while providing cover for colonial settlers to rampage through Palestinian towns villages and attack and terrorise the Palestinian citizens".[193][194][196]

A likely additional motive of Hamas was to prevent a diplomatic normalization between Israel and Arab countries that was gaining momentum with the Abraham Accords.[197]

Long term goals of Hamas

The long-term goals of Hamas are disputed. Hamas has repeatedly

1967 borders.[206] However, the new charter indicates that Hamas will accept the peace agreements only provisionally, without relinquishing a claim to the entirety of Palestine nor recognizing Israel.[207][199]

The attack was also seen[who?] as a resolution of internal tensions within Hamas as to whether the group's main goal is governing the Gaza Strip or fighting against Israel.[208] Internal strife in Israeli society caused by protests against the judicial reform encouraged Hamas to go ahead with its attack.[209][210]

On 21 January 2024, Hamas released an 18-page English-language document reiterating its previously stated rationales and framing the attack in a wider context as a struggle against colonialism, describing its actions as "a necessary step and a normal response to confront all Israeli conspiracies against the Palestinian people".[211][212] It said that "maybe some faults happened" during the attacks "due to the rapid collapse of the Israeli security and military system, and the chaos caused along the border areas with Gaza" and that "[if] there was any case of targeting civilians it happened accidentally".[213][211] The timing of the release raised questions; sources in Gaza, including those aligned with Hamas, told Haaretz that the document was designed to contend with criticism of the heavy price Gazans have paid for the attacks on Israel.[214][215]

Israeli policy

Benjamin Netanyahu has been Israel's prime minister for nearly the entire 15 year period preceding the war, with the exception of the 18 months from June 2021 to January 2023 when Naftali Bennett and later Yair Lapid took office.[216] The Netanyahu government has been criticized within Israel for having championed a policy of empowering the Hamas government in Gaza by, for instance, granting work permits to Gazan residents, facilitating the transfer of funds to Hamas and maintaining relative calm.[217][218][219] By the conclusion of Netanyahu's fifth government in 2021, the issuance of work permits to Gazans reached approximately 2,000–3,000. Later, under the Bennett-Lapid government, this number significantly increased to 10,000,[217] and since Netanyahu's return to power in 2023 the number rose again to 20,000.[217] These workers were accused of spying on Israel and being complicit in the October 7 attack.[220][221][222] After the attack, the Israeli war cabinet granted additional 8,000 work permits to West Bank residents, despite concerns about their vetting and potential security risks.[220]

In addition to granting workers permits, millions of dollars from Qatar have been transported into Gaza, escorted by Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency, intended for Gaza's power plant, infrastructure projects and monthly stipends for impoverished Palestinian families, while Israeli officials were aware that Hamas might divert the funds to acquire weapons and rockets.[223][218]

These strategies towards Hamas have been criticized as having backfired in light of the attacks on 7 October 2023.

Times of Israel op-ed argued after the Hamas attack that Netanyahu's policy to treat the Palestinian Authority as a burden and Hamas as an asset had "blown up in our faces".[217] Netanyahu himself has criticized opinions on his responsibility for the 7 October attacks, stating "Did people ask Franklin Roosevelt, after Pearl Harbor, that question? Did people ask George Bush after the surprise attack of November [sic] 11?" referring to the 11 September 2001 terror attacks.[227]

Numerous commentators have identified the broader context of Israeli occupation as a cause of the war.[228][229][230][231][232] The Associated Press wrote that Palestinians are "in despair over a never-ending occupation in the West Bank and suffocating blockade of Gaza".[233] Several human rights organizations, including Amnesty International,[234] B'Tselem[235] and Human Rights Watch[236] have likened the Israeli occupation to apartheid, although supporters of Israel dispute this characterization.[237][238]

2023 Israeli-Palestinian escalation

Over the course of 2023, before the October 7 attack, 32 Israelis and two foreign nationals had been killed in Palestinian attacks. At least 247 Palestinians had been killed by Israeli forces.[239] Increases in settler attacks had displaced hundreds of Palestinians, and there were clashes around the Al-Aqsa Mosque which sits on the Temple Mount, a contested holy site in Jerusalem.[240]

In August 2023, 1,264 Palestinians were held in administrative detention in Israel, without charge or trial, the highest number in three decades.[241][242] Israel says this tactic is necessary to contain dangerous militants.[241]

Tensions between Israel and Hamas rose in September 2023, and the

Washington Post described the two "on the brink of war".[243] Israel found explosives hidden in a shipment of jeans and halted all exports from Gaza.[243] In response, Hamas put its forces on high alert, and conducted military exercises with other groups, including openly practicing storming Israeli settlements.[243] Hamas also allowed Palestinians to resume protests at the Gaza–Israel barrier.[243] On 13 September, five Palestinians were killed at the border. According to the Washington Post, the Palestinians were attempting to detonate an explosive device.[243] Al-Jazeera reported that a Palestinian Explosives Engineering Unit was working to deactivate the device.[244] On 29 September, Qatar, the UN, and Egypt mediated an agreement between Israel and Hamas officials in the Gaza Strip to reopen closed crossing points and deescalate tensions.[245][246]

King Abdullah II of Jordan commented that Palestinians have "no civil rights; no freedom of mobility".[175]

Israeli intelligence failure

Israeli intelligence officials initially stated that they had no warnings or indications of the 7 October attack by Hamas, despite Israel exercising extensive monitoring over Gaza.

US House Foreign Relations Committee, who said warnings were made three days before the attack.[253]

According to the

paragliders. The Times reported that "Hamas followed the blueprint with shocking precision". According to the Times, the document was circulating among the Israeli military and intelligence leadership, who largely dismissed the plan as being beyond Hamas's capabilities, though it was unclear if the political leadership was informed. In July 2023, a member of the Israeli signals intelligence unit alerted her superiors that Hamas was conducting preparations for the assault. An Israeli colonel ignored her concerns.[254] According to the Financial Times, alerts from the signals unit were ignored because they came from lower-ranking soldiers, contradicted the belief that Hamas was contained by Israel's blockade of the Gaza Strip, bombing, and placation via aid, and the belief that Hamas was seeking to avoid a full war.[255][256]

In June 2024 it was reported that a document titled "Detailed End-to-End Raid Training" was given to the Israeli public broadcaster Kan, and highlighted the IDF's Gaza Division was aware of a potential attack on Israel's southern communities.[257][258]

Israel–Saudi normalization talks

At the time of the attack, Israel and Saudi Arabia were conducting

2002 Arab Peace Initiative, when Saudi Arabia had offered Israel normalization with the whole Arab world if Israel allows the creation of a Palestinian state.[263][264][265][266] Israeli[266] and other officials involved in the negotiations confirmed that the Saudis were considering normalization with Israel without the creation of a Palestinian state.[267] Many Palestinians worried that Israeli-Saudi normalization would cost them their last significant leverage for Palestinian statehood.[268] Most in the US foreign policy establishment believed Palestinian statehood "no longer matters in the Middle East".[269] On October 4, three days before the Hamas attack, US diplomat Dennis Ross said Palestinian statehood "is not an option" in the Israeli-Saudi talks.[270]

On October 21, US President Joe Biden said the aim of the 7 October attacks was to disrupt the normalization talks.[271] According to Menachem Klein, Israeli normalization with other Middle Eastern states, including Saudi Arabia, threatened to leave the Palestinians "isolated and weak".[184] On 7 February 2024, Saudi Arabia stated that diplomatic relations with Israel requires an independent Palestinian state on 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital.[272]

Events

7 October attack

Clockwise from top:
  • Approximate situation on 7–8 October
  • A blood-stained home floor in the aftermath of the Nahal Oz attack
  • Aftermath of Hamas rocket hit on the maternity ward of Barzilai Medical Center
  • Satellite view of widespread fires in Israeli areas surrounding the Gaza Strip
  • Footage of Israeli soldiers securing the area after the Re'im music festival massacre

The attack took place during the Jewish holidays of

Sharon Plain including Gedera, Herzliya,[278] Tel Aviv, and Ashkelon.[279] Air raid sirens were activated in Beersheba, Jerusalem, Rehovot, Rishon LeZion, and Palmachim Airbase.[280]

Hamas employed tactics such as using aerial drones to disable Israeli observation posts, paragliders for infiltration into Israel, and motorcycles, which was unusual for Hamas.

Militants killed civilians at

Captives in Gaza include children, festivalgoers, peace activists, caregivers, elderly people, and soldiers.[301] Hamas militants also reportedly engaged in mutilation, torture, and sexual and gender-based violence,[302] including rape and sexual assault by Hamas or other Gazan militants.[303][304][305]

The Economist noted that "the assault dwarf[ed] all other mass murders of Israeli civilians", observing that "the last time before October 7th that this many Jews were murdered on a single day was during the Holocaust."[291] Hamas has stated that its attack was in response to the blockade of the Gaza Strip, the expansion of

illegal Israeli settlements, rising Israeli settler violence and recent escalations at Al-Aqsa.[116][117][186] Intelligence and security officials from multiple Western countries say that Hamas initiated the war to create a "permanent" state of war and to revive interest in the Palestinian cause.[306][307]

Initial Israeli counter-operation (7–27 October)

Clockwise from top:
  • Approximate situation on 9 October
  • Aftermath of a Hamas rocket hit on the maternity ward of Barzilai Medical Center, a hospital in Ashkelon, Israel, on 8 October 2023
  • Building in the Gaza Strip being destroyed by Israeli missiles
  • Wounded child and man receive treatment on the floor at Al-Shifa Hospital in Gaza City
  • Remains of the Sderot police station, following recapture by IDF
  • Destruction of a residential building in Gaza by an Israeli airstrike

After the initial breach of the Gaza perimeter by Palestinian militants, it took hours for the IDF to start its counter-attack.[308] The first helicopters sent to support the military were launched from the north of Israel, and arrived at the Gaza Strip an hour after fighting began.[309] They immediately encountered difficulty in determining which outposts and communities were occupied, and distinguishing between Palestinian militants and the soldiers and civilians on the ground.[309] The helicopter crews initially sustained a high rate of fire, attacking approximately 300 targets in 4 hours. Later on the crews began to slow down the attacks and carefully select targets.[309] According to Haaretz's journalist Josh Breiner, a police source said that a police investigation indicated an IDF helicopter which had fired on Hamas militants "apparently also hit some festival participants" in the Re'im music festival massacre.[310] The Israeli police denied the Haaretz report.[311]

A subsequent Israeli investigation claimed that militants had been instructed not to run so that the air force would think they were Israelis.[309] This deception worked for some time, but pilots began to realize the problem and ignore their restrictions. By around 9:00 am, amid the chaos and confusion, some helicopters started laying down fire without prior authorization.[309]

The attack appeared to have been a complete surprise to the Israelis.[312] Prime Minister Netanyahu convened an emergency gathering of security authorities, and the IDF launched Operation Swords of Iron in the Gaza Strip.[313][276] In a televised broadcast, Netanyahu said, "We are at war".[262] He threatened to "turn all the places where Hamas is organized and hiding into cities of ruins", called Gaza "the city of evil", and urged its residents to leave.[314][116] Netanyahu and Defense Minister Yoav Gallant conducted security assessments at IDF headquarters in Tel Aviv.[286][279] Overnight, Israel's Security Cabinet voted to act to bring about the "destruction of the military and governmental capabilities of Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad".[315] The Israel Electric Corporation, which supplies 80% of the Gaza Strip's electricity, cut off power to the area.[279] This reduced Gaza's power supply from 120 MW to 20 MW, provided by power plants paid for by the Palestinian Authority.[316]

The IDF declared a "state of readiness for war",[276] mobilized tens of thousands of army reservists,[239][279] and declared a state of emergency for areas within 80 kilometers (50 mi) of Gaza.[317] The Yamam counterterrorism unit was deployed,[318] along with four new divisions, augmenting 31 existing battalions.[274] Reservists were reported deployed in Gaza, in the West Bank, and along borders with Lebanon and Syria.[319]

Residents near Gaza were asked to stay inside, while civilians in southern and central Israel were "required to stay next to shelters".[279] The southern region of Israel was closed to civilian movement,[318] and roads were closed around Gaza[274] and Tel Aviv.[279] While Ben Gurion Airport and Ramon Airport remained operational, multiple airlines cancelled flights to and from Israel.[320] Israel Railways suspended service in parts of the country and replaced some routes with temporary bus routes,[321][322] while cruise ships removed the ports of Ashdod and Haifa from their itineraries.[323]

Israeli blockade and bombardment

Aftermath of an Israeli airstrike on the El-Remal area of Gaza City, 9 October 2023

Following the surprise attack, the Israeli Air Force conducted airstrikes that they said targeted Hamas compounds, command centers, tunnels, and other targets.

1973 Yom Kippur War.[330][331] Defense Minister Gallant announced a "total" blockade of the Gaza Strip, cutting off electricity and blocking the entry of food and fuel, adding "We are fighting human animals and we are acting accordingly".[332] This drew criticism from Human Rights Watch who described the order as "abhorrent" and as a "call to commit a war crime".[333] Later, Gallant changed his position of a complete blockade after receiving pressure from US President Joe Biden and a deal was made on 19 October for Israel and Egypt to allow aid into Gaza.[334] The first aid convoy after the start of the war entered Gaza on 21 October 2023,[335] while fuel entered Gaza only in November.[336]

The IDF later deployed

C-130J transport aircraft to retrieve off-duty personnel from abroad.[337]

As a part of a bombing run targeting Hamas command centers and weapon caches, the IDF stated that it had bombed the

Nukhba forces—a Hamas special forces unit that is thought to have led the attack on Israel.[338]

Human Rights Watch accused Israel of using white phosphorus munitions over Gaza on 10 and 11 October, stating that it violated international law.[339] Israel denied the allegations.[340]

Evacuation of Northern Gaza

evacuation of the northern Gaza Strip
.

Almost a week after the initial attack on Israel, on 13 October, the IDF issued an evacuation warning for communities north of the

Wadi Gaza. All Palestinians in that region, including those in Gaza City, were given 24 hours to evacuate to the south. The Hamas Authority for Refugee Affairs responded by telling residents in northern Gaza to "remain steadfast in your homes and stand firm in the face of this disgusting psychological war waged by the occupation".[341]

The statement by Israel faced widespread backlash; with numerous agencies, such as

Doctors Without Borders, the World Health Organization, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, among others, condemning the order as "outrageous" and "impossible" while calling for an immediate reversal of the order.[342][343][344][345]

As a part of the order, the IDF announced a six-hour window from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. local time on 13 October, for refugees to flee south along specified routes within the Gaza Strip.[346] An explosion at 5:30 p.m. along one of the safe routes killed 70 people.[347] Some sources attributed it to an IDF airstrike, while CNN said the cause was unclear. The Jerusalem Post said open-source analysts believed the explosion originated from a car on the ground, but the cause was unclear.[348][349] The Financial Times carried out an investigation, concluding "analysis of the video footage rules out most explanations aside from an Israeli strike", although it was "difficult to conclusively prove whether these blasts came from an IDF strike, a potential Palestinian rocket misfire or even a car bomb".[350]

The IDF stated Hamas set up roadblocks to keep Gaza residents from evacuating south and caused traffic jams.

civilians as human shields.[353][354][355][356]

According to an unnamed Israeli official, Hamas leader

17 October

Clockwise from top:
  • A man carries the body of a Palestinian child killed during the shelling of 17 October 2023
  • The impact crater
  • Aftermath of Al-Ahli Arab Hospital explosion

On 17 October, Israel bombed in areas of southern Gaza.

Israeli strike hit a UNRWA school in the Al-Maghazi refugee camp, killing six and injuring 12.[361]

Late in the evening, an

Al-Ahli Arabi Baptist Hospital in the center of Gaza City, killing hundreds. The cause of the explosion was disputed by Hamas and the IDF, and the ongoing conflict prevented independent on-site analysis.[362] Palestinian statements that it was an Israeli airstrike were denied by the IDF, which stated that the explosion resulted from a failed rocket launch by Palestinian Islamic Jihad.[363] The PIJ denied any involvement.[364][365] An independent analysis by Human Rights Watch indicated that the evidence pointed to a misfired Palestinian rocket as the cause, but stated that further investigation was required.[366]

On 18 October, President Biden said the Pentagon had independently concluded that the explosion was not caused by Israel, but by "the other team", based on data from the

Defense Department.[367] Over the next few days, Canadian, British, and French officials announced that their respective intelligence agencies concluded the cause to be a failed Palestinian rocket and not an Israeli airstrike.[368][369][370] In its article dated 2 November, CNN stated that multiple experts said "they believe this to be the most likely scenario – although they caution the absence of munition remnants or shrapnel from the scene made it difficult to be sure. All agreed that the available images of evidence of the damage at the site was not consistent with an Israeli airstrike."[371]

Invasion of the Gaza Strip until the truce (27 October – 24 November)

Clockwise from top:
  • Israeli soldiers preparing for the ground invasion of the Gaza Strip on 29 October
  • Israeli military during ground operations on 31 October
  • Israeli military during ground operations on 1 November
  • Armored IDF D9R bulldozer around 16 November 2023
  • Israeli tanks during operations on 31 October

On 27 October, the IDF launched a large-scale, multi-pronged ground incursion into parts northern Gaza. The IDF was building up a force of over 100,000 soldiers in the cities of

al-Quds hospital,[374] where around 14,000 civilians were believed to be sheltering in or near the hospital.[374] Associated Press reported that Israeli airstrikes also destroyed roads leading to the Al-Shifa hospital, making it increasingly difficult to reach.[375] The following day, the IDF struck at densely-populated Jabalia refugee camp, killing 50 and wounding 150 Palestinians according to the Gaza Health Ministry. According to Israel, a senior Hamas commander and dozens of militants in a vast underground tunnel complex were among those killed. Hamas denied the presence of a senior commander on the scene.[376][377][378] The nearby Indonesia Hospital's surgical director said they had received 120 dead bodies and treated 280 wounded, the majority of them women and children.[379] The attack resulted in several ambassador recalls.[380][381][382] According to The New York Times at least two 2,000-pound bombs, the second largest type in Israel's arsenal, were used.[383]

External videos
video icon Gazan child speaks of having to carry decapitated body after Israeli strike on Jabalia (via The Irish Times)
External videos
Instagram videos by Ahmed Hijazi of the Al-Shifa Hospital strike shown in the Visual Investigations report published by The New York Times.[384] Contains graphic images of severe injury.
video icon A video of the airstrikes and immediate injuries.
video icon Shows dead and injured in the aftermath.

On 31 October, Israel

bombed a six-story apartment building in central Gaza, killing at least 106 civilians including 54 children in what Human Rights Watch called an "apparent war crime."[385] On 1 November, the first group of evacuees left Gaza for Egypt. 500 evacuees, comprising critically wounded and foreign nationals, would be evacuated over the course of several days, with 200 evacuees already waiting at the border crossing.[386] On the same day, the Jabalia refugee camp was bombed for a second time.[387][388] The IDF released what it stated was an intercepted call between Hamas operatives and the head of the Indonesia Hospital, where they discuss diverting some of the hospital's fuel supply to Hamas.[389]

On 3 November, the Gaza health ministry stated that

an airstrike against a UN-run school in the Jabalia refugee camp.[392] According to the Gaza health ministry, the attack killed 15 and wounded dozens more.[392]

Fighting continued through the middle of November and on 18 November Israeli strikes killed more than 80 people in Jabalia refugee camp.[393] On 22 November, Israel and Hamas reached a temporary ceasefire agreement, providing for a four-day "pause"[394] or "lull"[395][396] in hostilities, to allow for the release of 50 hostages held in Gaza.[394][395] The deal also provided for the release of approximately 150 Palestinian women and children incarcerated by Israel.[395] The agreement was approved by the Israeli cabinet in the early hours of the day; in a statement, the Israeli Prime Minister's Office stated Israel's intention to continue the war.[394][395]

Duration of the truce (24 November – 1 December)

Following the introduction of a Qatari-brokered

exchange
for the release of some of the Palestinian political prisoners held by Israel. The truce was announced for a period of four days, but was extended for a longer period.

From 24 to 30 November, Hamas released hostages and Israel released prisoners. On 27 November, Qatar announced that an agreement between Israel and Hamas to extend the truce by two days had been reached.[397] Both Israel and Hamas accused each other of violating the truce on 28 November. On 30 November, Hamas released two more hostages as the truce, which was supposed to end minutes later, was extended by another day.[398]

Resumption of hostilities (1 December 2023 – 6 May 2024)

Israeli Merkava tank in a Gaza street, 4 January 2024

Continuation of operations in Northern Gaza (December 2023 – January 2024)

The truce expired on 1 December, as Israel and Hamas blamed each other for failing to agree on extension. The disagreement centered on "how to define soldiers versus civilians and how many Palestinian prisoners Israel would release for its hostages".

Red Cross access to these hostages while the pause was in place", which "didn't happen and is still not happening".[403] The Palestinian Prisoners' Club said 240 Palestinian prisoners were released as part of the ceasefire deal, another 240 Palestinians were incarcerated. Released Palestinian prisoners reported mistreatment including beatings, overcrowding, food deprivation, and suspension of access for the Red Cross.[404] Released prisoners were forbidden to speak with the media and threatened with fines.[405]

Israel adopted a grid system to order precise evacuations within Gaza, released a map, and dropped leaflets with a QR code. Israel was criticized for the map being hard to access due to lack of electricity and internet connectivity, and for causing confusion. Some evacuation instructions have been vague or contradictory,[406][407] and Israel has struck "safe" areas it had told people to evacuate to.[408][409][410]

Law experts said they had not seen significant changes in how Israel waged war, due to its warnings to civilians appearing ineffective and it being unclear if anywhere in Gaza is safe.[411] Amnesty International said "US-made weapons facilitated the mass killings of extended families". Amnesty found no evidence of military targets at the sites of the strikes, or indication occupants were affiliated with Hamas, prompting it to request airstrikes be investigated as possible war crimes.[412] Decomposed babies were found in Al-Nasr Children's Hospital in north Gaza, two weeks after its forced evacuation.[413] US Secretary of Defense Austin warned against replacing "a tactical victory with a strategic defeat" if Israel does not work towards protecting Palestinian civilians.[414] The US State Department said it was too early to definitively assess whether Israel was heeding calls to protect civilians.[415]

Advance into Central Gaza (December 2023 – February 2024)

The IDF reported its troops had reached the centers of Khan Yunis, Jabalia, and Shejaiya reporting the most "intense fighting" since the invasion of Gaza began.

detained 150 men in the Gaza Strip, with dozens more detained on 10 December. According to Israel, the detentions followed a mass surrender of Hamas militants.[418][419] The New York Times reported that the statement about Hamas fighters surrendering was made after video and photos of "men stripped to their underwear, sitting or kneeling on the ground, with some bound and blindfolded" were seen on social media.[420]The Guardian reported that among those in the images were civilians, including a journalist. The ICRC said it was concerned and strongly emphasized "the importance of treating all those detained with humanity and dignity, in accordance with international humanitarian law".[421] The BBC reported that a video of the apparent surrender of weapons was unclear on whether a man is "surrendering" weapons, or just moving them as instructed, suggesting it was performed for the camera, rather than authentic surrender, and it is unknown if the individuals are involved with Hamas, or the 7 October attack.[422] Haaretz reported that Israel believed about 10% of the people shown in the video were affiliated with Hamas, and despite public statements by Israel, this was not a "mass surrender" by Hamas.[423] Amnesty International described the treatment of those detained on 7 December as a violation of international law.[424]

On 8 and 9 December, the IDF released footage of what it said was its soldiers engaging combatants inside schools in Shejaiya. According to the IDF, fighters discovered a tunnel from a school to a mosque.[425][426] It released footage of armament it stated was on the campus of Al-Azhar University, along with a tunnel shaft leading to a school.[427] The IDF said that, since it designated a humanitarian zone for civilians in the Gaza Strip on 18 October, 116 rockets had been fired from there toward Israel, including 38 falling inside Gaza.[428] The Pentagon announced on 9 December that the Biden administration had authorized the sale of around 14,000 rounds of tank ammunition to Israel without congressional authorization, using emergency powers.[429] On 29 December, it did so again with $148 million worth of artillery shells and related items.[430]

On 15 December, the IDF announced it had killed three of their own hostages by friendly fire. They "mistakenly identified three Israeli hostages as a threat" during operations in Shuja'iyya and fired, killing them.[431][432][433] According to an IDF official on 16 December, they were shirtless and carrying "a stick with a white cloth on it" when an Israeli soldier, who declared them to be "terrorists" after feeling "threatened", opened fire, killing two and injuring the third, who was killed by Israeli reinforcements.[434]

Withdrawal from Northern Gaza (January 2024 – February 2024)

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken and Israeli President Isaac Herzog in Tel Aviv, Israel, 9 January 2024

On 1 January 2024, Israel withdrew from neighbourhoods in North Gaza.[435] On 7 January the IDF conducted a targeted missile strike on a car carrying Al Jazeera journalists Hamza Dadouh and Mustafa Thuraya; they and their driver were killed.[436]

Rocket attacks on Israeli cities by Hamas decreased during this period with notable attacks on New Year's Eve and 29 January 2024.[437][438] On 15 January, Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant said the most intense fighting in the north of the Gaza Strip had ended, and a new phase of low intensity fighting was about to begin.[439] On 13 January, an Israeli tank fired at a convoy of Paltel repair workers on their way back to Rafah from the Paltel central offices in Khan Younis. Two were killed. The job they completed and the route they took were pre-approved by COGAT.[440]

By 18 January, the IDF stated that Hamas had begun to rebuild its armies in formerly occupied parts of North Gaza. The IDF had previously said that Hamas control over North Gaza was "dismantled" without providing any evidence.[441] By 18 January the fighting strength of Hamas' northern battalions had been significantly restored.[442]

On 22 January, 24 IDF soldiers died in the deadliest day for the IDF since the invasion began. Of these, 21 died in a single incident where Palestinian militants fired an RPG at a tank, and adjacent buildings soldiers were rigging to demolish, which caused the buildings to collapse. The IDF soldiers brought landmines into the empty building for the demolition process. It is unclear whether the collapse of the buildings was due to the primary RPG explosion, or secondary landmine explosions.[443][444][445] Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Defense Minister Yoav Gallant and President Isaac Herzog publicly mourned the loss.[446][447][448]

Preparations for the attack on Rafah (February 2024 – May 2024)

During February to early May 2024, Israeli preparations to invade Rafah became a dominant issue in public rhetoric made by Israeli officials. In February, Israel stated its next objective would be the

Al-Arabiya.[452] On 18 February, Israeli war cabinet member Benny Gantz warned that a ground offensive would be launched in Rafah on 10 March unless Hamas freed all hostages. Gantz added Israel would act in "a co-ordinated manner, facilitating the evacuation of civilians in dialogue with our American and Egyptian partners to minimise civilian casualties".[453]

On 29 February, more than

100 Palestinians were killed and 750 wounded during the flour massacre when Israeli forces opened fire on Palestinians waiting for food aid southwest of Gaza City, with many victims run over by trucks according to accounts.[454] Survivors described it as an ambush, stating that Israeli forces opened fire as people approached the aid trucks, resulting in a rush away from the gunfire that added to the death toll.[455][456]
On 1 March, the US announced they would begin an operation airdropping food aid into Gaza.[457] Some experts called the airdrops performative and claimed they would not alleviate the food situation.[458] During his State of the Union Address, Biden announced a new initiative for providing food and medications to Gaza by sea, setting up a temporary port on Gaza's coast to enable aid delivery.[459]

By 6 March, Israel had completed a new road in Gaza running from east to west. The IDF reported the road was an "active logistical route, constantly maintained during the war". It was intended to be used for mobilization of troops and supplies, to connect and defend IDF positions on al-Rashid and Salah al-Din streets, and prevent people in the south Gaza Strip from returning to the north.[460]

Re-occupation of al-Shifa Hospital and withdrawal from southern Gaza (March 2024 – April 2024)

Israeli forces raided al-Shifa hospital again between 18 March-1 April. The IDF clashed with Hamas in the area.[461] Israeli forces killed Faiq al-Mabhouh, who they said was head of the operations directorate of Hamas' internal security service. Hamas said al-Mabhouh was in charge of civil law enforcement and had been engaged in "purely civil and humanitarian activity,"[462] coordinating aid deliveries to north Gaza.[463][464] News agencies reported that the IDF assaulted and detained al-Jazeera correspondent Ismail al-Ghoul and more than 80 others, including medical staff and other journalists, and confiscated and destroyed media equipment.[465][466] Al-Ghoul was released the following day, but could not verify the whereabouts of his colleagues.[467][468] The Committee to Protect Journalists said it was "deeply alarmed and outraged by reports of the assault....Ismail Al-Ghoul...and other journalists while doing their jobs reporting on the Israeli offensive on the hospital".[468]

According to the IDF, senior Hamas leaders were killed during the fighting at the hospital, including Mahmoud Khalil Zakzuk, the deputy commander of Hamas's rocket unit in Gaza City and Raad Thabet, head of recruitment and supply acquisition.[469] Survivors of events at al-Shifa said workers in Gaza's civil government, were receiving their salaries at the hospital, before it was raided. Doctors, members of the civil government and those who refused to evacuate were executed.[470] The IDF said it killed 200 people in and around the hospital. Time Magazine said it provided "no evidence that all were militants."[471] Photos of the hospital after the withdrawal of Israeli forces showed its "walls blown out and frame blackened" by fire.[472] Hundreds of bodies were found on hospital grounds, and Palestinian witnesses reported massacres.[473]

A deputy military commander of Hamas Marwan Issa was reportedly killed in an airstrike in mid-March.[474] On 23 March, 19 Palestinians were killed by the IDF while waiting for humanitarian aid at the Kuwait roundabout in Gaza City.[475] On 25 March, the UN Security Council passed a resolution calling for an immediate ceasefire in Gaza, to last for the remainder of Ramadan. The US abstained, all other delegates voted in favor.[476] Israeli military activities in the Gaza Strip remained unchanged following adoption of the resolution. On 28 March, the IDF shot and killed two unarmed men in central Gaza, before burying them in sand with bulldozers.[477] The Council on American-Islamic Relations called for a UN investigation into the "heinous war crime."[478]

On 1 April, 7 aid workers from

Erez crossing for the first time since October 7 after US pressure.[484]

On April 7, Israel withdrew from the south Gaza Strip, with only one brigade remaining in the Netzarim Corridor in the north.

Iranian strikes on Israel.[487] On 25 April, Israel intensified strikes on Rafah ahead of threatened invasion.[488][489] On 5 May, Hamas launched a rocket attack from Rafah towards Kerem Shalom, killing 3 Israeli soldiers.[490]

Rafah offensive begins (6 May 2024 – present)

Israel Defense Forces operating in the eastern neighborhood of Rafah.

On 6 May, the Israeli military ordered civilians in eastern Rafah to evacuate to

Al-Mawasi, west of Khan Yunis, affecting about 100,000 people.[491] Later that day, Hamas announced that it had accepted the terms of a ceasefire brokered by Egypt and Qatar.[492] The deal included a 6-week ceasefire and exchange of prisoners.[493] However, Israel rejected this deal.[494] Israel responded that the terms Hamas had accepted were "far from Israel's basic requirements", but that it would send a delegation to further negotiate "to exhaust the possibility of reaching an agreement under conditions acceptable to Israel", while the military operation on Rafah would continue in the meantime to "exert military pressure on Hamas".[495][496]

Hours after Hamas' announcement, Israel ordered a series of airstrikes on Rafah, while the Israeli war cabinet voted to invade Rafah.[497][498] Later that day, the IDF entered the outskirts of Rafah and approached the Rafah Crossing and Egyptian border.[497][499][500] On 7 May, the Israeli military seized control of the Gaza side of the Rafah Crossing bordering Egypt.[501][502] Haaretz reported that as talks continued, Israel committed to Egypt and the United States that it would limit fighting to the Rafah crossing and transfer control of the area to an American security company. However, the State Department and White House denied any knowledge of this commitment.[503] The previous week, the US had paused a shipment of bombs to Israel over concerns of a Rafah offensive,[504] and on 8 May, US President Joe Biden said that the US would stop sending arms to Israel if it went ahead with a major invasion of Rafah.[505] By 11 May, the Israeli military ordered more residents to evacuate eastern and central Rafah.[506] By 15 May, an estimated 600,000 had fled Rafah and another 100,000 from the north, according to the United Nations.[507] On 24 May, the International Court of Justice ruled that Israel's military offensive and anything "which may inflict on the Palestinian group in Gaza conditions of life that could bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part" must be halted.[140][508]

On 24 May, the

Tel al-Sultan displacement camp in Rafah in an area designated by Israel as a safe zone, killing at least 45 people. The IDF said the strike hit a "militant compound" and killed two senior Hamas officials.[510][511] The bombing provoked a skirmish between Egyptian and Israeli soldiers at the Gaza border in which one Egyptian soldier was killed.[512] Despite global outrage and calls from government officials from around the world to halt its Rafah offensive, less than 48 hours after the Tel al-Sultan massacre, the Al-Mawasi refugee camp, another designated civilian evacuation zone, was bombed, killing at least 21 people, thirteen of them women and girls.[513][514] The IDF denied involvement in the attack.[515]

On 31 May, the United States announced a

ceasefire framework for ending the war.[516]

On 6 June, Israel bombed a UN-run school sheltering displaced people in the Nuseirat refugee camp in central Gaza, killing at least 33 Palestinians, including nine children and three women.[517] Israel said that the school housed a Hamas compound. Analyses found that US-made munitions and parts were used in the strike.[518][519]

On 8 June, Israel conducted an attack on Nuseirat refugee camp which resulted in the rescue of four hostages. The IDF said that the four hostages were found in sound medical condition.[520] This was a joint operation by the IDF, the Shin Bet and Yamam.[521] The United States provided advice and intelligence to Israeli forces during the raid, through its "hostage cell" stationed in Israel.[520][522] Israeli forces disguised their vehicles as humanitarian aid trucks to infiltrate the camp.[523] The attack resulted in the deaths of 274 Palestinians, including 64 children and 57 women.[524] Witnesses reported that entire residential blocks were wiped out.[525] The operation also resulted in the death of an Israeli officer in Yamam.[526]

Other confrontations

Hezbollah in southern Lebanon and the

retaliatory airstrikes on Israel.[531][532] Over 100 Palestinians have been killed in confrontations with Israeli soldiers and settlers in the West Bank since 7 October. Settler violence has been heavily criticized by the IDF.[533][534]

West Bank and Israel

Areas A & B)
  West Bank under Israeli control (Area C)
  Israeli-annexed Jerusalem/East Jerusalem

Amnesty International released a report[535] on 5 February 2024 stating that Israel is carrying out unlawful killings in the West Bank and displaying "a chilling disregard for Palestinian lives" and that Israeli forces are carrying out numerous illegal acts of violence that constitute clear violations of international law.[536][537]

Even before the war, 2023 was the deadliest year for Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied West Bank in 20 years. From 7 to 31 October, B'Tselem said that Israeli forces had killed more than 100 Palestinians while Israeli settlers had killed at least seven, leading to fears that the situation would escalate out of control.[533] About 1,000 Palestinians have been forcibly displaced by settlers since 7 October and almost half of clashes have included "Israeli forces accompanying or actively supporting Israeli settlers while carrying out the attacks" according to a U.N. report.[538] According to the West Bank Protection Consortium, which is funded by the European Union, since the 7 October attacks six Palestinian communities have been abandoned due to the violence.[539]

By 10 October, confrontations between Palestinians and Israeli forces had left 15 Palestinians dead, including two in East Jerusalem.

Bani Naim, while another person was shot dead by the IDF near Bethlehem.[541] On 12 October, two Palestinians were killed after Israeli settlers interrupted a funeral procession for Palestinians killed in prior settler attacks and opened fire.[542][543][544]

On 18 October, protests broke out over the al-Ahli Arab Hospital explosion, with clashes reported in

Israeli raids across the West Bank. Those arrested included the movement's spokesperson in the West Bank, Hassan Yousef.[547]

On 22 October, Israel

On 1 November,

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs warned Israeli settler violence against Palestinians was on the rise.[552]

On 30 November, two Palestinian gunmen killed three and wounded eleven Israeli civilians at a bus stop on the Givat Shaul Interchange in Jerusalem. Hamas claimed responsibility.[553]

On 16 February 2024, a Palestinian gunman shot and killed two Israeli civilians and injured four others in Kiryat Malakhi, Israel. The shooter was killed by an off-duty IDF reservist at the scene.[554]

On 12 April 2024 a 14-old Israeli shepherd was killed and on 16 April 2024 two Palestinians were killed by Israeli settlers in Aqraba.[555]

On 20 April, fourteen Palestinians were killed in clashes during an Israeli raid in the West Bank. Palestinian sources identified one of the victims as a militant,[556] while Israel said that 14 gunmen were killed.[557]

On 13 May, at the Tarqumiya checkpoint, a convoy of trucks carrying food supplies to Gaza was attacked by Israeli settlers, who damaged the trucks and threw supplies on the ground.[558]

In December 2023, a military base at Sde Teiman in the Negev Desert was converted to a detention camp by the IDF. Whistleblowers reported beatings and torture of Palestinian detainees at the camp, as well as amputations of limbs due to injuries sustained from handcuffing.[559][560] After conditions in the camp came to light in May 2024, Israel's supreme court held a hearing and the IDF began transferring 1,200 of the prisoners to Ofer Prison.[561]

Israel–Lebanon border

Northern Israel sector of war
  Israel
  Israeli-occupied Golan Heights
  Hezbollah presence in Lebanon
  Syria
  Areas ordered evacuated by Israel

A

series of border clashes occurred along the Israel–Lebanon border. On 8 October, Hezbollah launched an artillery attack on Israeli positions in Shebaa Farms; this was met with immediate retaliation.[562][563] Skirmishes have occurred every day since, spilling over to the occupied Golan Heights. The clashes resulted in the deaths of 513 Lebanese militants and 15 Israeli soldiers,[564][565] as well as over 72 Lebanese civilians, 15 Syrian civilians and six Israeli civilians,[566][567] one Lebanese Army soldier,[568] and the displacement of 100,000 people in Lebanon and 80,000 more in Israel.[569][570]

Yemen and the Red Sea

Houthi attacks on commercial ships in the Bab-el-Mandeb strait

Several strikes against Israel and commercial ships in the

Houthi militants in Yemen.[571][572][573] On 19 October, the United States Navy destroyer USS Carney shot down several missiles that were traveling north over the Red Sea towards Israel.[574] On 31 October, Houthi military spokesperson Yahya Saree said that the group had launched ballistic missiles and drones towards Israel, and that they would continue to do so "to help the Palestinians to victory"[575] in an event that has been misrepresented in some news sites as a declaration of war by Yemen.[576] On 19 November, tensions increased when the Galaxy Leader, a cargo ship chartered by a Japanese logistics company with 25 individuals on board, was hijacked by the Houthis using a Mil Mi-17 helicopter.[577]

On 3 December, the Houthis said that they had attacked two ships, the Unity Explorer and Number 9, allegedly linked to Israel, in order "to prevent Israeli ships from navigating the Red Sea".[578][579] Any ship destined for Israel, according to the group, was a "legitimate target". Saree announced in a post on X that the "horrific massacres" against the Palestinians in Gaza was the reason for this decision and that they will not stop until the Gaza Strip is supplied with food and medicine. Israeli National Security Adviser Tzachi Hanegbi called this development a "global issue" and that Israel is "giving the world some time to organize in order to prevent this" otherwise, the country "would will act in order to remove this naval siege".[580]

Iraq

Since November 2023, the Islamic Resistance in Iraq has claimed responsibility for drone and missile attacks against targets within Israel in retaliation for Israeli attacks on Palestinian civilians in Gaza. The group stated it would continue to "strike enemy strongholds". Strikes were recorded in Eilat,[581] the Dead Sea coastline,[582][583] the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights,[584] the Karish rig,[585] Haifa Bay,[586] Ashdod,[587] Kiryat Shmona,[588] Tel Aviv,[589][590] Ramon Airport,[591] and in Elifelet.[592]

Syria

On 10 October 2023, Israel exchanged rocket and mortar fire with forces in southern Syria. On 12 October, Israel bombed the Damascus and Aleppo airports ahead of a visit to Syria by Iranian foreign minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian.[528] Since 2024, Israel has continued to launch airstrikes at targets in Syria, including in Damascus[530] and Aleppo.[593] Some of its targets include officials and locations associated with Iran such as members of the Quds Force[594] and the Iranian consulate in Damascus.[595][596]

Iran

On 24 November 2023, a suspected Iranian drone attacked the CMA CGM Symi, owned by

Shahed-136 drone. The attack caused damage to the ship but did not injure any of the crew.[597]

In December, the US military was reportedly looking to build a maritime task force to protect trade against Iranian harassment.[598]

On 23 December, a suspected Iranian drone attacked the Israel-affiliated oil tanker MV Chem Pluto in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Gujarat. The attack did not harm any of its 20 crew members, but caused a fire that was extinguished. The vessel was reportedly carrying Saudi oil to Mangalore, India.[599]

On 13 April, following an Israeli

IRGC Navy boarded the Portuguese-registered and Madeira-flagged container ship MSC Aries in the Strait of Hormuz via helicopter, and directed it to Iranian territory for "violating maritime law". The ship is leased by MSC from Gortal Shipping, an affiliate of Zodiac Maritime, whose principal is Israeli.[603][604]

Casualties

Palestinian man surrounded by body bags in Jabalia refugee camp

As of 22 June 2024, over 38,000 people (37,396 Palestinian[605] and 1,478 Israeli[617] have been reported as killed in the Israel–Hamas war, including 108 journalists (103 Palestinian, 2 Israeli and 3 Lebanese)[618] and over 224 humanitarian aid workers, including 179 employees of UNRWA.[619]

The vast majority of casualties have been in the Gaza Strip. The death toll reported by the UN OCHA comes from the Gaza Health Ministry.[620] The breakdown of the figures in the UN OCHA report only includes casualties whose identities have been confirmed, while the overall figure is the number of reported deaths.[621] Over 24,000 of the dead have been fully identified by the Gaza Health Ministry;[622] of these, 52% are women and minors, 40% are men, and 8% are elderly of both sexes.[623] Some have speculated that the total death toll in Gaza might be higher than reported, with roughly 10,000 Gazans believed still buried under the rubble.[624][625][626][627] The number of deaths do not include those who have died from "preventable disease, malnutrition and other consequences of the war".[623]

The

October 7 attacks on Israel killed 1,139 people, including 764 civilians and 373 Israeli security personnel. A further 251 persons were taken hostage during the initial attack on Israel to the Gaza Strip.[606][628][629] A further 479 Palestinians, including 116 children, and 9 Israelis have been killed in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem).[605] Casualties have also occurred in other parts of Israel, as well as in southern Lebanon, and Syria.[630]

Humanitarian crisis

People stand amid the rubble of a building and looking at the ground. A man is carrying a large flower-patterned object.
Residents inspect the ruins of an apartment in Gaza destroyed by Israeli airstrikes

The

blockade on the Gaza Strip, which has resulted in significant shortages of fuel, food, medication, water, and essential medical supplies.[631][633][634] This siege resulted in a 90% drop in electricity availability, impacting hospital power supplies, sewage plants, and shutting down the desalination plants that provide drinking water.[635] Widespread disease outbreaks have spread across Gaza.[632]

Heavy bombardment by Israeli airstrikes caused catastrophic damage to Gaza's infrastructure, further deepening the crisis. Direct attacks on telecommunications infrastructure by Israel, electricity blockades and fuel shortages caused the near-total collapse of Gaza's largest cell network providers.[636][637][638] Lack of internet access has obstructed Gazan citizens from communicating with loved ones, learning of IDF operations, and identifying both the areas most exposed to bombing and possible escape routes.[636] The blackouts have also impeded emergency services, making it more difficult to locate and access the time-critical injured,[636] and have impeded humanitarian aid agencies and journalists as well.[636] By December 2023, 200,000 Gazans (approximately 10% of the population) had received internet access through an eSIM provided by Connecting Humanity.[639]

The

Rafah Crossing as "gates to a living nightmare."[648]

War crimes

Both Israel and Hamas have been accused of attempted or imminent

UN Commission to the Israel–Palestine conflict stated that there is "clear evidence that war crimes may have been committed in the latest explosion of violence in Israel and Gaza, and all those who have violated international law and targeted civilians must be held accountable."[650][651][652] On 27 October, a spokesperson for the OHCHR called for an independent court to review potential war crimes committed by both sides.[653]

On 29 December,

a case against Israel at the International Court of Justice, alleging that Israel's conduct amounted to genocide.[654]

The International Criminal Court confirmed that its mandate to investigate alleged war crimes committed since June 2014 in the State of Palestine extends to the current conflict.[655][656][657] On 20 May, ICC Prosecutor Karim Khan announced his intention to seek arrest warrants against Hamas leaders Yahya Sinwar, Mohammed Deif and Ismail Haniyeh, as well as Israeli leaders Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Minister of Defense Yoav Gallant, for alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity during the war.[658][659][660]

On 7 June 2024, both Israel and Hamas were added to the list of shame, an annex attached to an annual report submitted by the UN Secretary-General documenting rights violations against children in armed conflict. While past reports accused Israel of grave rights violations against children, the country was never included in the annex.[661][662][663]

On 19 June 2024, the UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Occupied Palestinian Territory presented a detailed report to the United Nations Human Rights Council covering the war from 7 October to 31 December 2023, affirming that both Hamas and Israel committed war crimes and that Israel's actions also constituted crimes against humanity.[664][665][666][667]

The report found that the military wing of Hamas and six other Palestinian armed groups, are responsible for the war crimes of intentionally directing attacks against civilians, murder or willful killing, torture, inhuman or cruel treatment, destroying or seizing the property of an adversary, outrages upon personal dignity, and taking hostages, including children.[668][669] In relation to Israeli military operations and attacks in Gaza, the commission concluded that Israeli authorities are responsible for the war crimes of starvation as a method of warfare, murder or willful killing, intentionally directing attacks against civilians and civilian objects, forcible transfer, sexual violence, torture and inhuman or cruel treatment, arbitrary detention and outrages upon personal dignity. It also found that Israel committed numerous crimes against humanity, including carrying out the extermination of Palestinians and gender persecution targeting Palestinian men and boys.[670][671][672] The commission said that they had submitted 7,000 pieces of evidence to the International Criminal Court related to crimes committed by Israel and Hamas, as part of the International Criminal Court investigation in Palestine.[673]

Diplomatic impact

The war sparked a major

diplomatic crisis, with many countries around the world reacting strongly to the conflict that affected the momentum of regional relations.[674] At least nine countries took the drastic step of recalling their ambassadors and cutting diplomatic ties with Israel.[675][676]
The war has also resulted in a renewed focus on a two-state solution to the broader conflict.[677][678] Global public opinion of Israel has dropped during the war as well; a Morning Consult poll published in January 2024 indicated that the United States was the only remaining wealthy country in which Israel had net positive approval.[679]

Negotiations have focused on the possibility of a ceasefire in the war, with Egypt and Qatar serving as mediators in negotiations between Israel and Hamas.[680][681] The United Nations Security Council passed resolution 2728 in March 2024, demanding an immediate ceasefire and the unconditional release of hostages for the month of Ramadan.[682][683]

Reactions

Israel

The Israeli government's response to the

2023 Hamas-led attack on Israel has multiple aspects, including a military response leading to the Israeli invasion of the Gaza Strip. In October, the Knesset approved a war cabinet in Israel, adding National Unity ministers and altering the government; Benjamin Netanyahu and Benny Gantz
froze non-war legislation, establishing a war cabinet with military authority.

The IDF's subsequent large-scale

protests in Israel. The Knesset's law criminalizing "terrorist materials" consumption drew criticism.[685]

In an interview to the Wall Street Journal on 25 December, Netanyahu said that Israel's objectives were to "destroy Hamas, demilitarize Gaza and deradicalize the whole of Palestinian society".[686] There was broad support in Israeli society for military operations in Gaza.[687][688][689]

Palestinian territories

Initially, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas asserted the Palestinians' right to self-defense against the "terror of settlers and occupation troops"[690] and condemned the orders by Israel for residents to evacuate north Gaza, labeling it a "second Nakba".[691] Later, Abbas rejected the killing of civilians on both sides, and said that the Palestinian Liberation Organization was the sole representative of the Palestinians.[692]

International

Significant geopolitical divisions emerged during the war. Much of the Western world provided "strong" support to Israel militarily and diplomatically,[693] including the United States,[694] United Kingdom,[695] and Germany[696] although the strong support is "at odds with the attitudes of Western publics which continue to shift away from Israel", according to Hugh Lovatt, a senior policy fellow with the Middle East and North Africa Programme at the European Council on Foreign Relations. Lovatt says that during the Cold War, Israel sided with the West against the Arab countries supported by the Soviets, and Western leaders generally see Israel "as a fellow member of the liberal democratic club" and that this partially "explains the continued strong Western support for Israel – which has now largely become reflexive".[693] At least 44 nations denounced Hamas and explicitly condemned its conduct on October 7 as terrorism, including a joint statement by the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. [697]

In contrast, the Islamic world and much of the Global South denounced the actions of Israel and its allies, criticizing the "moral authority of the West" and alleging that it holds double standards surrounding human rights.[693][698] The double standards, in their view, is condemning an illegal occupation in Ukraine while standing firmly behind Israel that has occupied Palestinian lands.[699] Bolivia has cut all ties with Israel as a result of the conflict, while fellow South American countries Colombia and Chile recalled their ambassadors to the country.[700][701]

The United States, United Kingdom, and Germany have supplied Israel with substantial military and medical aid.[695][702][703]

The Israeli government's response prompted international protests, arrests, and harassment.[704]

Evacuations of foreign nationals

Brazil announced a rescue operation of nationals using an air force transport aircraft.[705] Poland announced that it would deploy two C-130 transport planes to evacuate 200 of its nationals.[706] Hungary evacuated 215 of its nationals from Israel using two aircraft on 9 October, while Romania evacuated 245 of its citizens, including two pilgrimage groups, on two TAROM planes and two private aircraft on the same day.[707] Australia also announced repatriation flights.[708] 300 Nigerian pilgrims in Israel fled to Jordan before being airlifted home.[709]

On 12 October, the United Kingdom arranged flights for its citizens in Israel; the first plane departed Ben Gurion Airport that day. The government had said before that it would not be evacuating its nationals due to available commercial flights. However, most commercial flights were suspended.[710] Nepal arranged a flight to evacuate at least 254 of its citizens who were studying in Israel.[711] India launched Operation Ajay to evacuate its citizens from Israel.[712] Ukraine has facilitated the evacuation of around 450 of its citizens from Israel as of 18 October, with additional evacuation flights in the planning for the near future.[713]

Regional effects

According to Daniel Byman and Alexander Palmer, the attack showcased the decline of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the rise of Hamas as a power center in Palestinian politics. They predicted the PLO's further decline if the status quo held.[714] Laith Alajlouni wrote that the immediate effect of the Hamas offensive was to unite Hamas and PLO. However, it may soon lead to conflict between them, possibly leading the PLO to lose control of the security situation in the West Bank, if more militant groups there begin to launch their independent attacks.[715]

Political journalist Peter Beaumont described the attack as "an intelligence failure for the ages" on the part of the Israeli government.[716] The Jewish News Syndicate deemed it a "failure of imagination".[717] A BBC report on the intelligence failure commented that "it must have taken extraordinary levels of operational security by Hamas".[718] US officials expressed shock at how Israeli intelligence appeared to be unaware of any preparations by Hamas.[719] Israeli officials later anonymously reported to Axios that the IDF and Shin Bet had detected abnormal movements by Hamas the day before the attack, but decided to wait for additional intelligence before raising the military's alert level. They also did not inform political leaders of the intelligence reports.[720]

Amit Segal, chief political commentator for Israel's Channel 12, said that the conflict would test Benjamin Netanyahu's survival as prime minister, noting that past wars had toppled the governments of several of his predecessors such as that of Golda Meir following the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Menachem Begin following the 1982 Lebanon War, and Ehud Olmert following the 2006 Lebanon War.[721] Prior to the formation of an emergency unity government on 11 October, Politico described the then-potential move as Netanyahu's opportunity to correct his course and save his political legacy.[722] Citing the Israeli intelligence failure, which some observers attributed to the incumbent government focusing more on internal dissent, the judicial reform, and efforts to deepen Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories,[723] some commentators criticized Netanyahu for putting aside the PLO and propping up Hamas,[223] and described him as a liability.[247][724]

In an analysis by The Times of Israel, the newspaper wrote, "Hamas has violently shifted the world's eyes back to the Palestinians and dealt a severe blow to the momentum for securing a landmark US-brokered deal between Israel and Saudi Arabia."[725] Andreas Kluth wrote in his Bloomberg News column that Hamas "torched Biden's deal to remake the Middle East", arguing that the deal that was being discussed between Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the United States would have left Palestinians in the cold, so the group decided to "blow the whole thing up". He added that viewed from Gaza, things were only going to get worse, considering that Netanyahu's coalition partners opposed a two-state solution for the conflict. He suggested they would prefer to annex the entirety of the West Bank, even at the expense of turning Israel into an apartheid state.[726]

Economic impact

On 9 November, the Bank of Israel reported that the drop in labor supply caused by the war was costing the Israeli economy $600 million a week, or 6% of weekly GDP. The bank also stated that the estimate does not reflect total damage and did not include damages caused by the absence of Palestinian and foreign workers.[727] In the final quarter of 2023, the Israeli economy shrank by 5.2% quarter-to-quarter due to labour shortages in construction and from the mobilization of 300,000 reservists.[728] While Israel did still see economic growth of 2%, this was down from 6.5% growth in the year before the war. Further consequences of the war were that consumer spending declined by 27%, imports declined by 42% and exports were reported to decline by 18%.

Israel's high-tech factories reported on 25 December that they had been having trouble with electronic imports from China due to recent bureaucratic obstacles, leading to higher import costs and delayed delivery times.[729] Israeli officials also reported that China had refused to send workers to their country during the war against the backdrop of a worker shortage in Israel's construction and farming sectors.[730] China's actions were described as a de facto sanction.[731][729]

The Water Transport Workers Federation of India, a trade union representing 11 major Indian ports and 3,500 workers, said it would refuse to operate shipments carrying weapons to Israel.[732] The declaration came a few months after one Indian company halted production of Israeli police uniforms due to the war in Gaza.[733]

About 9,855 Thai workers in the agricultural sector, 4,331 workers in the construction sector and 2,997 in the nursing sector left Israel following al-Aqsa Flood. In addition, the prevention of 85,000 Palestinian workers from entering Israel created a shortage of about 100,000 foreign and Palestinian workers.[734]

It has been calculated that the carbon cost in terms of climate impact of rebuilding Gaza would exceed the annual greenhouse emissions of 135 countries.[735]

Media coverage

Criticism from journalists

Over 750 journalists signed an open letter condemning "Israel's killing of reporters in Gaza and criticizing Western media's coverage of the war". The letter said newsrooms are "accountable for dehumanizing rhetoric that has served to justify ethnic cleansing of Palestinians". Signers of the letter were criticized for potentially impeding their organizations' ability to gather news and could face management backlash,[736] Semafor reported that Los Angeles Times journalists who signed the letter were barred from covering the Gaza war "in any way" for at least three months.[737]

On 13 November eleven international news organizations sent a letter to Israel and Egypt, asking for access to the Gaza Strip to cover the war.[738]

CBS reported on 14 December a statement of the International Federation of Journalists noting that "the number of journalists killed in the past two months in the war in Gaza has surpassed the amount killed in the Vietnam War, which lasted two decades".[739] More than 50 Palestinian journalists died.[739] Various dangerous conditions such as airstrikes, lack of food, risks related to lack of clean water and shelter make it such that "Palestine is one of the most dangerous places for a journalist to do their job".[739] Reporters Without Borders filed a complaint with the International Criminal Court under section 8.2.b of the Rome Statute, accusing Israel of committing war crimes against 8 journalists.[740][741] It also lodged a complaint against Hamas, under section 8.2.a of the Rome Statute for the killing of a reporter covering the 7 October attack.[740]

The Committee to Protect Journalists has accused Israel of targeting journalists reporting from Gaza and their families, saying that in at least two cases, "journalists reported receiving threats from Israeli officials and Israel Defense Forces officers before their family members were killed".[742]

Unsubstantiated reports of certain 7 October atrocities

In the aftermath of the initial Hamas assault, witnesses from the IDF and the Israeli organization ZAKA reported on various media outlets that they had seen bodies of beheaded infants and children at the site of the Kfar Aza massacre.[743][744][745] This claim was repeated by the US President Biden and by Secretary of State Blinken with the White House subsequently saying that the President was referring to the reports of beheadings.[746][747]

However, these stories were later found to be untrue or unverified.[748][747][749] In reality, only three babies were known to have died on 7 October, one from a bullet and the other due to complications after birth.[748]

Embedded journalists with Israel

Foreign media such as CNN, ABC, NBC, The New York Times, and Fox News, have limited access to Gaza only in the presence of Israeli soldiers. Vox reported that the news organizations "have to submit all materials and footage to the IDF for review before publication".[741]

Censorship by social media companies

On 20 December, Human Rights Watch issued a 51-page report documenting Meta's pattern of removal and suppression of speech on Facebook and Instagram including peaceful expression in support of Palestine and public debate about Palestinian human rights.[750]

Israel's ban of Al Jazeera

On 5 May 2024, the Israeli government shut down Al Jazeera in Israel and authorized seizing its equipment.[751][752]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Activity outside the Gaza Strip is unconfirmed for PRC and PFLP-GC.
  2. ^ Lions' Den are only active in the West Bank.
  3. ^ In the Gaza Strip, smaller Palestinian groups fighting in the war include: Palestinian Freedom Movement (Al-Ansar Brigades),[5][6] Jaysh al-Ummah,[8] and various minor al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades splinter groups (several of which possibly rejoined the al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades just before the war).[6] Furthermore, a number of Palestinian militant groups in the West Bank have involved themselves in the conflict, including: Lions' Den,[9] and various al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades sub-groups such as Hornets' Nest,[10] Jenin Battalion,[11] Qalqilya Battalion, etc.[11]
  4. ^ Leader of the Crisis Management Team in Gaza's Ministry for the Interior and National Security.
  5. ^ The Minister of National Security since 2022.[19]
  6. ^ Combined forces of Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad,[20][21] estimates for Hamas alone are highly variable, from 20,000 to over 40,000.[22][23]
  7. ^ Including 169,500 active personnel[24] and 360,000 reservists[25]
  8. ^ Per the UN[29]
  9. ^ Per Hamas-run Gaza Health Ministry,[26] the number of deaths recorded is 37,084,[27]
    The number of dead identified is 24,686, including:[28]
    • 10,006 men[28]
    • 7,797 children[28]
    • 4,959 women[28]
    • 1,924 elderly[28]
    • 496+ paramedics and medical staff[27]
    • 153+ UN staff[h]
    • 200+ journalists[27]

    37 confirmed deaths from malnutrition and dehydration,[30] but true figure is likely to be far higher.[31][32]


    Per Hamas

    • ≤ 20% Hamas fighters (late April 2024)[33]

    Per Israel:[34]

    • 16,000 civilians
    • ≤17,000 Hamas fighters killed[35]

    Per US intelligence:

    • 9,000–12,000 militants (as of 06 June 2024)[36] [37]
  10. ^ 10,000 people are missing under rubble, mostly presumed dead.[38]
  11. ^ 82,777+ wounded[27]
    • including 3000 children with amputated limbs.[39]
    • additionally, 8000 children have required medical treatment for acute malnutrition.[40]
  12. ^ 3000 children have had one or more limbs amputated, no widely published figures for adults.[39]
  13. ^ Per the Abbas-run Palestinian Authority
  14. ^ Including: 132 children[43][44]
  15. ^ Per Israel.[48]
  16. ^ Since 7 October 2023, the Qassam Brigades (Hamas militant wing) have released only 3 obituaries. Three fighters from Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon who allegedly died attacking Moshav Margaliot in northern Israel.[49]
  17. ^ Per Israel
  18. ^ Per Hezbollah, Lebanon and Israel
  19. ^ Including a Canadian, Australian and Syrian national[64][65]
  20. ^ Including: [67][68][69]
  21. ^ Per the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights
  22. ^ Including:[72][73][74][75]
    • 96 Iran-backed militiamen
    • 52 Syrian soldiers
    • 47 Hezbollah fighters
    • 27 IRGC soldiers
    • 2 Palestinian Islamic Jihad fighters
    • 16 civilians
  23. ^ Including:
  24. ^ Including:[92][93]
  25. ^ Including:[97][98][99]
    • <132 soldiers
    • 120+ civilians[100][101]
    • 52
      foreign or dual nationals

  26. ^ A widely publicised previous estimate, attributed to Yahya Sinwar in late December 2023 allegedly said that 5000 IDF soldiers had been wounded, and of those approximately one third had been killed.[verification needed][106]
  27. ^ 3,611 wounded "according to the enemy’s army’s confession" and 7,306 wounded according to the reports from hospitals.[107]
  28. ^ Including Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
  29. ^ These casualty numbers exclude the invading Palestinian militants who died in the subsequent fighting with Israeli armed personnel.
  30. ^ Sources that say Hamas calls for Israel's destruction cite the 1988 Hamas charter, while sources that say Hamas has accepted the 1967 borders cite the 2017 Hamas charter, 2005 Palestinian Cairo Declaration and 2006 Palestinian Prisoners' Document.
  31. ^ Israeli UN Ambassador Gilad Erdan responded directly to Guterres, stating, "Shame on [Guterres]... More than 30 minors – among them a 9-month-old baby as well as toddlers and children who witnessed their parents being murdered in cold blood – are being held against their will in the Gaza Strip. Hamas is the problem in Gaza, not Israel's actions to eliminate this terrorist organization."[641][642]

References

  1. ^ "UNRWA Situation Report #1 on the Situation in the Gaza Strip"] (Situation Report)". United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. United Nations. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023. At 06:30 on the morning of 7 October 2023, Hamas launched more than 5,000 rockets reportedly fired towards Israel from multiple locations in Gaza, as well as ground operation into Israel.
  2. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (9 October 2023). "Officer, 2 soldiers killed in clash with terrorists on Lebanon border; mortars fired". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  3. ^ "Who are Hamas's allies in Gaza? From Islamic Jihad to Marxist militants". The National. 15 November 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  4. ^ a b Abdelali Ragad; Richard Irvine-Brown; Benedict Garman; Sean Seddon (24 November 2023). "How Hamas built a force to attack Israel on 7 October". BBC. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  5. ^ a b Guy Van Vlierden (14 October 2023). "HLN Onderzoek. Van jihadisten tot communisten: zeker 10 groeperingen deden mee met actie Palestijnse terroristen (HLN Research. From jihadists to communists: at least 10 groups participated in Palestinian terrorist action)". Het Laatste Nieuws. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023.
  6. ^ a b c Smyth, Phillip (December 2023). "The Path to October 7: How Iran Built Up and Managed a Palestinian 'Axis of Resistance'". CTC Sentinel. 16 (11). Combating Terrorism Center.
  7. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (19 October 2023). "IDF says it killed head of military wing of Gaza's Popular Resistance Committees". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 19 October 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  8. ^ Joe Truzman (19 December 2023). "Al Qaeda-aligned Jaysh al-Ummah says it is fighting Israeli troops in Gaza". FDD's Long War Journal. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  9. ^ Burke, Jason (26 November 2023). "Disappointed, disenchanted, defiant: inside the world of the West Bank's angry armed youths". The Observer. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  10. ^ "Iran Update, December 23, 2023". Institute for the Study of War.
  11. ^ a b "Iran Update, December 20, 2023". Institute for the Study of War.
  12. ^ "Israel Army Fires Artillery at Lebanon as Hezbollah Claims Attack". Asharq Al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  13. ^ Nada Homsi (31 October 2023). "'We're with the resistance': Hezbollah allies the Fajr Forces join Lebanon-Israel front". The National. Archived from the original on 12 November 2023. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  14. ^ "الوكالة الوطنية للإعلام - القومي أعلن استشهاد أحد مقاتليه وسام محمد سليم" [The National News Agency announced the martyrdom of one of its fighters, Wissam Muhammad Salim.]. nna-leb.gov.lb (in Arabic). 15 December 2023.
  15. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Archived from the original on 15 January 2024. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  16. ^ Dahan, Maha El (31 October 2023). "Yemen's Houthis enter Mideast fray, hardening spillover fears". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 31 October 2023.
  17. ^ Ben-Ari, Lior; Zitun, Yoav (22 December 2023). "Iran-backed militias in Iraq claim struck Israel's Karish natural gas rig in Mediterranean". Ynetnews. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  18. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  19. ^ "Far-right extremist gets Israeli security job as coalition deals struck". The Guardian. Reuters. 25 November 2022. Archived from the original on 25 November 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  20. ^ Abraham, Yuval (3 April 2024). "'Lavender': The AI machine directing Israel's bombing spree in Gaza". +972 Magazine. Retrieved 12 June 2024. as many as 37,000 Palestinians as suspected militants
  21. ^ "How Israel is using 'Lavender' and 'Daddy' to identify 37,000 Hamas operatives". The Economic Times. 9 April 2024. Retrieved 12 June 2024. The "Lavender" system is designed to identify individuals suspected of being part of Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), even targeting those with lower ranks for potential aerial bombardments. In the initial stages of the conflict, the military heavily relied on Lavender, leading to the system labeling up to 37,000 Palestinians as militants, along with their residences, for potential airstrikes.
  22. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (22 May 2024). "Gaza Strip". The World Factbook
    . Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  23. ^ "How Hamas secretly built a 'mini-army' to fight Israel". Reuters. 13 October 2023. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  24. from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  25. ^ "Israel's massive mobilization of 360,000 reservists upends lives". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  26. ^ van der Merwe, Ben (4 April 2024). "Israel-Hamas war: Gaza's morgue network has effectively collapsed - how are they recording their dead?". Sky News. Sky News. Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  27. ^ a b c d "Health Ministry In Hamas-run Gaza Says War Death Toll At 36,479". Barron's. 3 June 2024. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  28. ^ a b c d e "Hostilities in the Gaza Strip and Israel - reported impact". UN OCHA. Retrieved 30 May 2024.
  29. ^ "133 UN agency staffers killed due to Israeli airstrikes on Gaza Strip". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  30. ^ "Child dies of malnutrition and dehydration: Report". Al Jazeera. 1 June 2024.
  31. ^ "Newborns die of hunger and mothers struggle to feed their children as Israel's siege condemns Gazans to starvation". CNN. 6 March 2024.
  32. ISSN 0261-3077
    . Retrieved 13 June 2024.
  33. ^ "Women and children of Gaza are killed less frequently as war's toll rises, AP data analysis finds". AP News. 7 June 2024. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  34. ^ "Israel publishes new civilian death toll in Gaza". Voice of America. 21 May 2024. Retrieved 24 May 2024.
  35. ^ Seth J. Frantzman (17 June 2024). "Hamas sees daily small attacks as success in Gaza - analysis". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 17 June 2024.
  36. ^ Nakhoul, Samia; Pamuk, Humeyra; Landay, Jonathan. "Diminished Hamas switches to full insurgent mode in Gaza". Retrieved 6 June 2024.
  37. ^ "Hamas Toll Thus Far Falls Short of Israel's War Aims, U.S. Says". The Washington Post. 21 January 2024.
  38. ^ a b "Hostilities in the Gaza Strip and Israel | Flash Update #160 [EN/AR/HE]". ReliefWeb. 1 May 2024. Retrieved 2 May 2024. More than 10,000 people are estimated to be missing under rubble in Gaza, according to the Palestinian Civil Defense
  39. ^ a b "Gaza's child amputees: At least 3,000 have lost their limbs in Israel's war". Al Jazeera English. 7 June 2024. Retrieved 15 June 2024.
  40. ^ "Gaza: 8,000 children diagnosed with malnutrition amid ongoing shelling | UN News". news.un.org. 13 June 2024. Retrieved 15 June 2024.
  41. ^ "Number of Palestinians detained by Israel rises to 9,312". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  42. ^ Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle (6 December 2023). "UN rights chief warns of heightened risk of 'atrocity crimes' in Gaza". Reuters. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  43. ^ "PCBS - Martyrs". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  44. ^ a b Alsaafin, Linah; Osgood, Brian. "Israel-Gaza war in maps and charts: Live tracker". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 15 February 2024. Retrieved 28 May 2024.
  45. ^ "7 killed by Israeli forces on West Bank-Xinhua". english.news.cn. Retrieved 21 May 2024.
  46. ^ "Israeli man shot and killed in his car in West Bank's Qalqilya in apparent terror".
  47. ^ Nashed, Mat. "More than 7,350 West Bank Palestinians arrested by Israel during Gaza war". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 June 2024.
  48. ^ הבקשה של פיקוד הדרום בלילה שלפני הטבח - והסירוב | פרסום ראשון
  49. ^ "Three Al Qassam mujahideen who rose during their storming of an enemy position in northern occupied Palestine" (in Arabic). 15 October 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  50. ^ Fabian, Emanuel; Pacchiani, Gianluca (1 November 2023). "IDF estimates 3,000 Hamas terrorists invaded Israel in Oct. 7 onslaught". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  51. ^ Abdallah, Muntasser (27 May 2024). "International community condemns 'horror' following Israeli strike on Rafah: Day 234 of the Gaza war". L'Orient le Jour. Retrieved 28 May 2024.
  52. ISSN 1561-3410
    .
  53. ^ "Israeli strikes in Lebanon kill three including Hezbollah commander, sources say". Reuters. 16 April 2024. Archived from the original on 19 April 2024. Retrieved 5 May 2024.
  54. ^ O'Neill, Jesse (13 March 2024). "Hamas terrorist Hadi Ali Mustafa killed by IDF". Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  55. ^ "Israel Firing In South Lebanon Kills 200 Since Start Of Gaza War". www.barrons.com. AFP. Archived from the original on 22 January 2024. Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  56. ^ "Israel, Hezbollah trade fire, Israeli minister warns of 'hot summer' at Lebanon border". Reuters. 8 May 2024. Retrieved 8 May 2024.
  57. ^ "Israel intensifies attacks on southern Lebanon". Arab News. 12 February 2024. Retrieved 13 February 2024.
  58. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Archived from the original on 15 January 2024. Retrieved 16 January 2024.
  59. ^ "بالأسماء... شهداء حركة أمل!". Archived from the original on 5 February 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  60. ^ "'الجماعة الإسلامية' في لبنان تنعى 3 شهداء". MTV Lebanon (in Arabic). Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  61. ^ "The Latest | Israeli drone strike kills 2 in Lebanon after Hezbollah fires at an Israeli convoy". AP News. 26 April 2024. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  62. ^ "3 Hezbollah fighters killed in Lebanon-Israel border confrontations". Archived from the original on 8 January 2024. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  63. ^ "Lebanon army says one soldier killed in Israeli shelling on border post". Al-Jazeera. 5 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  64. ^ "Global Affairs confirms 8th Canadian death since start of Israel-Hamas war". CBC News. 3 December 2023. Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  65. ^ "3 killed in confrontations on Lebanon-Israel borders". english.news.cn. Xinhua News Agency. 2 January 2024.
  66. ^ "Four Lebanese civilians killed in Israeli strike on border village". Reuters. 5 May 2024. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  67. ^ "Israel launches 'offensive action' in Lebanon as Gaza pummelled". France 24. 24 April 2024. Retrieved 24 April 2024.
  68. ^ "Three civilians killed in Israel strike on Lebanon". Arab News. 5 March 2024. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  69. ^ "5 killed, 6 injured by Israeli airstrikes on S. Lebanon-Xinhua". english.news.cn. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 15 February 2024.
  70. ^ YAGMUR, Esra. "Israel border fighting displaces 76,000 in Lebanon: IOM". TRT World.
  71. ^ "100,000 people displaced by Israeli attacks in southern Lebanon". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 24 May 2024.
  72. ^ "Since the Israeli war on Gaza, Israel has carried out 14 assassinations, during which it killed 72 members of Hezbollah and Iranian groups of Syrian and non-Syrian nationalities" (in Arabic). Syrian Observatory for Human Right. 20 January 2024. Archived from the original on 20 January 2024. Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  73. ^ Regan, Helen; Hamdi Alkhshali; Tamara Qiblawi (2 April 2024). "Iran vows revenge as it accuses Israel of deadly airstrike on Syria consulate in deepening Middle East crisis". CNN. Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  74. ^ "In an infinite toll: 14 were killed in the Israeli raid on a building attached to the Iranian embassy" (in Arabic). Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 2 April 2024. Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  75. ^ "Several Killed in Israeli Attack in Syria, State Media Reports". Reuters. 2 June 2024. Retrieved 3 June 2024.
  76. ^ "Israel social security data reveals true picture of Oct 7 deaths". Agence France-Presse. 15 December 2023. Archived from the original on 17 December 2023. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  77. ^ "14 kids under 10, 25 people over 80: Up-to-date breakdown of Oct 7 victims we know about". Times of Israel. 4 December 2023. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  78. +972 magazine. Archived from the original
    on 7 November 2023.
  79. ^ a b c d "רשימת שמות החטופים לעזה". The list of names of those abducted to Gaza (in Hebrew). Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  80. ^ Berman, Lazar; Fabian, Emanuel (6 February 2024). "At least 32 of the 136 hostages held in Gaza killed, 20 others feared dead – NYT". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 6 February 2024. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  81. ^ "US, Israeli officials fear most hostages held by Hamas are dead — report". The Times of Israel. 11 April 2024. Retrieved 13 April 2024.
  82. ^ "Israeli Army Says Two Thai Hostages Were Killed on Oct. 7, Their Bodies Held in Gaza by Hamas".
  83. ^ Fabian, Emanuel; Horovitz, Michael. "Israeli civilian killed by anti-tank missile in north as Hezbollah attacks continue". Times of Israel. No. 7 December 2023. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  84. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (14 January 2024). "Israeli man killed in Hezbollah anti-tank missile attack in Kfar Yuval, northern Israel". Times of Israel. Retrieved 14 January 2024.
  85. ^ "Hezbollah barrages deal heavy damage in northern Israel".
  86. ^ Abu Mayzer, Sinan. "Palestinian gunmen shoot dead West Bank motorist, two assailants killed - police". Reuters. No. 22 February 2024. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  87. ^ Ghert-Zand, Renee (5 April 2024). "Lidor Levy, 34, dies of wounds from Gan Yavne terror stabbing attack". The Times of Israel.
  88. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (13 April 2024). "Body of Israeli teen found in West Bank; IDF says he was murdered in terror attack". The Times of Israel.
  89. ^ "Defense Ministry contractor succumbs to wounds sustained in southern Gaza mortar attack".
  90. ^ "Deadly clashes erupt in West Bank after elderly Israeli killed in carjacking".
  91. ^ "Israeli man shot and killed in his car in West Bank's Qalqilya in apparent terror".
  92. ^ Fabian, Emanuel. "Authorities name 662 soldiers, 62 police officers killed in Gaza war". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2024.
  93. ^ "Two Israeli Reservists Killed in Fighting in Central Gaza Strip".
  94. ^ "One person remains missing from Oct. 7. Her family has accepted she's gone". Times of Israel. 25 February 2024. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  95. ^ Ghert-Zand, Renee (17 December 2023). "War caught Israeli rehab hospitals unprepared to handle number of wounded". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  96. ^ Benson, Pesach (22 January 2024). "13,572 Israelis injured since Oct. 7". Jewish News Syndicate. Retrieved 24 May 2024.
  97. ^ Boxerman, Aaron (10 November 2023). "Israel-Hamas War: Israel Lowers Oct. 7 Death Toll Estimate to 1,200". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  98. ^ a b "IDF soldier rescued from Gaza in first public message: 'Happy I got my life back'". Times of Israel. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  99. ^ a b Fabian, Emanuel (4 January 2024). "IDF says 3 Israelis missing since October 7 are among Gaza hostages; 1 of them is dead". Times of Israel. Retrieved 5 January 2024.
  100. ^ "Bodies of several Israelis retrieved in Gaza raids – IDF". The Guardian. 14 October 2023. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023. Israel's military said earlier this morning that it has confirmed that more than 120 civilians are being held hostage in Gaza by Hamas.
  101. ^ "A Week Into War, Gazans Flee Homes As Israeli Ground Offensive Looms". Barron's. Agence France-Presse. 14 October 2023. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023. Israel's army has confirmed contacting the families of 120 civilian hostages so far.
  102. ^ "The mothers whose children are held hostage by Hamas: 'I heard him crying, begging them not to take him'". The Guardian. 9 November 2023. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  103. ^ "IDF safely rescues 2 hostages from Rafah in special operation". Times of Israel. 12 February 2024. Archived from the original on 12 February 2024. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  104. ^ "Hamas armed wing says seven hostages killed in Gaza". Reuters. 1 March 2024. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  105. ^ Tal, Amir; Lister, Tim; Greene, Richard Allen (5 January 2024). "25 Israeli hostages have died since October 7, prime minister's office says in an update". CNN. Retrieved 5 January 2024.
  106. ^ "ההזיות של סינוואר: הרגנו 1,600 חיילים ישראלים" (in Hebrew). Srugim. 25 December 2023. Archived from the original on 25 December 2023. Retrieved 25 December 2023. Quote: The Al Jazeera network today published a letter from Sinwar to the political office of Hamas located in Turkey and Qatar in which he detailed the battles that his men have been waging against Israel since the beginning of the ground maneuver… "During the ground war, the Al-Qassam battalions attacked at least 5,000 soldiers and officers, a third of them were killed, another third were seriously injured and the last third was permanently disabled". }}
  107. ^
    Arabic: …والتي أسفرت حتى اللحظة عن مقتل (636) ضابطاً وجندياً وإصابة أكثر من (3611) آخرين حسب اعتراف جيش العدو، وما يزيد عن (7306) جريح حسب تقارير المستشفيات…, lit.
    '...which has so far resulted in the killing of (636) officers and soldiers and the wounding of more than (3611) others, according to the confession of the enemy army, and more than (7306) wounded according to hospital reports...'
  108. ^ "Around Half A Million Israelis Displaced Inside Israel: Military". Barron's. 16 October 2023. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  109. ^ "Israel sharpens warning to Lebanon as cross-border hostilities spike". Reuters. 13 November 2023. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  110. ^ https://www.davar1.co.il/501396/
  111. ^ Cairo, Nabila El-Gaafary ــ Egypt- (28 May 2024). "Second Egyptian soldier reportedly dies from Rafah border clash". The New Arab. Retrieved 28 May 2024.
  112. ^ "At least seven injured as Israeli tank 'accidentally' hits Egyptian border". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  113. ^ "Blasts hit two Egyptian Red Sea towns near Israel border, six injured". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  114. ^
    AP News. Archived
    from the original on 23 October 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  115. ^ "Hamas says it has enough Israeli captives to free all Palestinian prisoners". Al-Jazeera. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  116. ^ a b c d "Fears of a ground invasion of Gaza grow as Israel vows 'mighty vengeance'". Al Jazeera. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  117. ^ a b c McKernan, Bethan; Michaelson, Ruth; Graham-Harrison, Emma; Kierszenbaum, Quique; Balousha, Hazem; Taha, Sufian; Sherwood, Harriet; Beaumont, Peter (14 October 2023). "Seven days of terror that shook the world and changed the Middle East". The Observer. Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  118. ^ Pacchiani, Luca (7 October 2023). "Hamas deputy chief anticipates hostages will be swapped for Palestinian prisoners". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  119. ^ "Text of the speech by Ismail Haniyeh, on the first day of Operation Al-Aqsa Flood". Crescent International. 9 October 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  120. ^ Khoury, Jack (21 January 2024). "Hamas Releases Memo Explaining Why It Waged War on Israel; Gazans Question Timing, Cite Criticism of Hamas". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 7 February 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  121. ^ Frankel, Julia (21 December 2023). "Israel's military campaign in Gaza is among the most destructive in history, experts say". PBS NewsHour. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 April 2024. Retrieved 22 April 2024.
  122. ^ "Israeli bombardment destroyed over 70% of Gaza homes: Report". Al Jazeera. 31 December 2023. Archived from the original on 23 April 2024. Retrieved 22 April 2024.
  123. ^ "Can Israel achieve its war goals in Gaza?". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 7 April 2024. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  124. ^ "Netanyahu says IDF will control Gaza after war, rejects notion of international force". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 12 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  125. ^ "UN Says Gaza Death Toll Still Over 35000". Reuters.
  126. ^ "UN says women and children account for at least 56% of Gaza war deaths". France 24. 14 May 2024.
  127. ^ Krauss, Joseph (14 May 2024). "Palestinians mark 76 years of dispossession as a potentially even larger catastrophe unfolds in Gaza". AP News. Retrieved 14 June 2024. The war in Gaza, which was triggered by Hamas' Oct. 7 attack into Israel, has killed over 35,000 Palestinians, according to local health officials, making it by far the deadliest round of fighting in the history of the conflict.
  128. ^ "Mass forced displacement in Gaza highlights urgent need for Israel to uphold Palestinians' right to return". Amnesty International. 14 May 2024.
  129. ^ "Israel Widens Attack on Hamas; Palestinians Pour Into Southern Gaza". Voice of America. 29 December 2023.
  130. ^ Lev, Gid'on (27 February 2024). "The tragedy of Israel's 135,000 displaced citizens". Haaretz. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  131. ^ Lakhani, Nina (27 February 2024). "Israel is deliberately starving Palestinians, UN rights expert says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 February 2024. Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  132. ^ Palumbo, Daniele; Abutaleb, Abdelrahman; Cusiac, Paul; Rivault, Erwan (30 January 2024). "At least half of Gaza's buildings damaged or destroyed, new analysis shows". BBC News. Archived from the original on 31 January 2024. Retrieved 1 February 2024.
  133. ^ "No Traces of Life, Israel's Ecocide in Gaza 2023 - 2024". Forensic Architecture. Archived from the original on 8 April 2024. Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  134. ISSN 0261-3077
    . Retrieved 7 April 2024.
  135. ^ UN experts deeply concerned over 'scholasticide' in Gaza United Nations 18 April 2024
  136. ^ "How Israel has destroyed Gaza's schools and universities". Al Jazeera. 24 January 2024. Archived from the original on 24 January 2024. Retrieved 26 April 2024.
  137. ISSN 0029-7712
    . Retrieved 27 March 2024. A recent report by the Palestinian culture ministry into Israeli damage to Palestinian heritage said Israel's bombardment of Gaza had destroyed 207 buildings of cultural or historical significance, including 144 in the old city and 25 religious sites.
  138. ^ Diamond, Jeremy (20 January 2024). "At least 16 cemeteries in Gaza have been desecrated by Israeli forces, satellite imagery and videos reveal". CNN. Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  139. from the original on 20 March 2024. Retrieved 22 March 2024.
  140. ^ a b "ICJ orders Israel to halt its offensive on Rafah, Gaza in new ruling". Al Jazeera. 24 May 2024. Retrieved 24 May 2024.
  141. ^ "Germany, a Loyal Israel Ally, Begins to Shift Tone as Gaza Toll Mounts". NYT. 29 March 2024. Archived from the original on 29 March 2024. Retrieved 29 March 2024.
  142. ^ "Yemen's Houthis 'will not stop' Red Sea attacks until Israel ends Gaza war". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2023. Archived from the original on 8 February 2024. Retrieved 9 February 2024. The Houthis would only halt their attacks if Israel's "crimes in Gaza stop and food, medicines and fuel are allowed to reach its besieged population", al-Bukhaiti said.
  143. ^
    OCHAoPt). Archived
    from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  144. ^ a b c Alfonseca, Kiara (11 October 2023). "Palestinian civilians suffer in Israel-Gaza crossfire as death toll rises". ABC News. Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  145. ^ "Israeli-Egyptian Peace: Forty Years After the 1973 War and Holding". www.washingtoninstitute.org. Archived from the original on 20 April 2024. Retrieved 20 April 2024.
  146. ^ "Intifada". Encyclopedia Britannica. 23 October 2023. Archived from the original on 14 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  147. ^ "What are areas A, B, and C of the occupied West Bank?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  148. ^ "Timeline: How the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process Fell Apart in the Three Decades After the 1993 Oslo Accord". Frontline. PBS. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  149. ^ "Frequently asked questions on ICRC's work in Israel and the occupied territories". International Committee of the Red Cross. 13 October 2023. Archived from the original on 29 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  150. ^ "Gaza Strip explained: Who controls it and what to know". NBC News. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  151. ^ 'Gaza Strip: Interim Damage Assessment,' World Bank/European Union/United Nations 29 March 2024.p.5
  152. ^ Perry, Tom; McDowall, Angus (7 October 2023). Harvey, Jan (ed.). "Timeline of conflict between Israel and Palestinians in Gaza". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  153. ^ Kane, Alex; Cohen, Mari; Shamir, Jonathan; Scher, Isaac (10 October 2023). "The Hamas Attacks and Israeli Response: An Explainer". Jewish Currents. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  154. ^ a b c Meakem, Allison (10 October 2023). "The Geopolitics of Palestine, Explained". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  155. ISBN 978-0-86210-502-0. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023. This compounded the impact of a 15-year ongoing Israeli blockade that amounts to illegal collective punishment * "Deprived and Endangered: Humanitarian Crisis in the Gaza Strip". Human Rights Watch. 13 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2023. The blockade is a form of collective punishment in violation of international law. * "Hamas hardliner Yahya Sinwar elected as Gaza leader". BBC News. 13 February 2017. Archived
    from the original on 22 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023. Israel and Egypt maintain a blockade around Gaza aimed at preventing attacks by militants there, though the measure has been condemned by rights groups as a form of collective punishment.
  156. ^ Ackerman, Seth (4 January 2024). "There was an Iron Wall in Gaza". Jacobin. Archived from the original on 5 January 2024. Retrieved 8 January 2024. The unemployment rate soared to "probably the highest in the world", four-fifths of the population were forced to rely on humanitarian assistance, three-quarters became dependent on food aid, more than half faced "acute food insecurity", one in ten children were stunted by malnutrition, and over 96 percent of potable water became unsafe for human consumption.
  157. ^ Abdulrahim, Raja (7 October 2023). "Gaza Has Suffered Under 16-Year Blockade". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  158. ^ Benhorin, Yitzhak (20 June 2010). "Cabinet: All non-military items can enter Gaza freely". Ynet. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  159. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (15 July 2022). "A New Palestinian Leader Rises in the West Bank. He's Very Unpopular". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  160. from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023. Since Israel's disengagement from Gaza in 2006... Hamas has sometimes used rocket fire to exact concessions from Israel... Israel has frequently reacted to Hamas rocket attacks with bombing campaigns, an approach Israeli strategists have referred to as 'mowing the grass'...
  161. ^ a b Beauchamp, Zack (7 October 2023). "Why did Hamas invade Israel?". Vox. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  162. ^ "These six charts show the scale of human loss in the Israel-Gaza war". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 November 2023. Archived from the original on 2 February 2024. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  163. ^ Tan, Joanna (12 November 2023). "Charts show a stark difference in the human cost of Israeli-Palestinian conflicts over the years". CNBC. Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  164. ^ Narea, Nicole (19 October 2023). "A timeline of Israel and Palestine's complicated history". vox.com. Vox. Archived from the original on 8 March 2024. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  165. ^ "Two Years On: People Injured and Traumatized During the "Great March of Return" are Still Struggling". un.org. United Nations. Archived from the original on 4 March 2024. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  166. ^ Fayyad, Huthifa. "Gaza's Great March of Return protests explained". aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 17 February 2024. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  167. ^ Muaddi, Qassam (19 June 2023). "Most Palestinians 'back armed resistance' as Israeli occupation intensifies". The New Arab. Archived from the original on 20 September 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  168. ^ Baniya, Sudesh (16 November 2023). "Two-state solution losing grounds in Israel and Palestine even before terror attacks, surveys show". Euronews. Archived from the original on 29 October 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  169. ^ "Where We Work. Gaza Strip". United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  170. ^ "Economic Recovery in the Gaza Strip". Oxfam Library. 27 October 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  171. ^ "The Gaza Strip: The humanitarian impact of 15 years of blockade". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  172. ^ Roy, Sara. "Econocide in Gaza". Deluge: Gaza and Israel from Crisis to Cataclysm. OR books: 54–73.
  173. ^ Roy, Sara (2016). The Gaza Strip: The Political Economy of De-development. Institute for Palestine Studies.
  174. ^ Hall, Richard. "The US has ignored the hopelessness of the Israel-Palestine conflict for too long". Voices. The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  175. ^ a b c d "The lesson from the Hamas attack: The U.S. should recognize a Palestinian state". Opinion. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  176. ^ Bigg, Matthew. "What We Know About the War Between Israel and Hamas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  177. ^ "Who are the Hamas leaders behind the attacks on Israel?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  178. ^ Messier, Ashlyn (12 October 2023). "Israel, Australia, Japan, UK, US, others have officially designated Hamas a terrorist organization". Fox News. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  179. from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  180. on 16 November 2023.
  181. ^ Dixon, Hugo (30 October 2023). "Israel war tests US appeal to global swing states". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  182. ^ Waldo, Cleary; Epstein, Gabriel; Hilbush, Sydney (11 October 2023). "International Reactions to the Hamas Attack on Israel". PolicyWatch 3793. The Washington Institute. Archived from the original on 16 October 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  183. ^ "UN rejects US motion to condemn Hamas". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 23 October 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  184. ^
    +972 magazine. Archived from the original
    on 29 November 2023.
  185. ^ "Hamas Says Its Attack on Israel Was Planned for Two Years". The Wall Street Journal. 14 October 2023. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  186. ^ a b Pacchiani, Luca (7 October 2023). "Hamas deputy chief anticipates hostages will be swapped for Palestinian prisoners". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  187. ^ a b Pacchiani, Gianluca (7 October 2023). "Hamas commander says attacks are in defense of Al-Aqsa, claims 5,000 missiles fired". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  188. ^ McKernan, Bethan (7 October 2023). "Hamas launches surprise attack on Israel as Palestinian gunmen reported in south". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  189. ^ "Statement by Al-Qassam Brigades Chief of Staff Mohammed Deif". Ezzedeen AL-Qassam Brigades (English). EQB Information Office. Retrieved 12 April 2024. As the Israeli occupation maintains its siege of the Gaza Strip and continues its crimes against our Palestinian people showing utmost disregard for international laws and resolutions amid US and Western support and international silence, we have decided to put an end to all of that and announce a military operation "Al-Aqsa Flood" against the Israeli occupation.
  190. ^ Nakhoul, Samia; Bassam, Laila (11 October 2023). "How a secretive Hamas commander masterminded the attack on Israel". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023. He also said Hamas had in the past asked Israel for a humanitarian deal to release Palestinian prisoners, but this was rejected. "In light of the orgy of occupation and its denial of international laws and resolutions, and in light of American and western support and international silence, we've decided to put an end to all this," he said.
  191. ^ "'The Guest': the Palestinian mastermind behind deadly Israel incursion". Financial Times. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  192. ^ Srivastava, Mehul (8 October 2023). "'The Guest': the Palestinian mastermind behind deadly Israel incursion". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 21 June 2024. "In light of the continuing crimes against our people, in light of the orgy of occupation and its denial of international laws and resolutions, and in light of American and Western support, we've decided to put an end to all this," said the speaker, filmed shrouded in shadows, "so that the enemy understands that he can no longer revel without being held to account."
  193. ^ a b "Statement by Al-Qassam Brigades Chief of Staff Mohammed Deif". Ezzedeen AL-Qassam Brigades (English). EQB Information Office. Retrieved 12 April 2024. The Israeli occupation has seized thousands of dunums of Palestinian territory and uprooted Palestinian citizens from their homes and lands to build illegal settlements while providing cover for colonial settlers to rampage through Palestinian towns villages and attack and terrorise the Palestinian citizens.
  194. ^ a b "We announce the start of the al-Aqsa Flood". Fondazione Internazionale Oasis. 13 December 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2024.
  195. ^ "What is Hamas and why is it fighting with Israel in Gaza?". 7 October 2023. Retrieved 23 May 2024. Hamas justified its attack as a response to what it calls Israeli crimes against the Palestinian people. These include security raids on Islam's third holiest site – the al-Aqsa Mosque, in occupied East Jerusalem – and Jewish settlement activity in the occupied West Bank.
  196. ^ "خطاب "طوفان الأقصى"". مؤسسة الدراسات الفلسطينية (Institute for Palestine Studies) (in Arabic). Institute for Palestine Studies. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  197. ^ "Why did Hamas attack Israel, and why now?". CBS News. 25 October 2023. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  198. ^ Sources that say Hamas has called for Israel's destruction:
    * May, Tiffany (8 October 2023). "A Quick Look at Hamas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
    * "Two-state solution: Israeli-Palestinian history". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
    * Edwards, Christian (16 November 2023). "Have war crimes been committed in Israel and Gaza and what laws govern the conflict?". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  199. ^ a b Hoffman, Bruce (10 October 2023). "Understanding Hamas's Genocidal Ideology". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  200. .
  201. ^ Hamed, Qossay (2023). Hamas in Power: The Question of Transformation. IGI Global. p. 161.
  202. Springer International Publishing
    . pp. 88–89.
  203. ^ "Khaled Meshaal: Struggle is against Israel, not Jews". Al-Jazeera. 6 May 2017. Archived from the original on 19 November 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  204. ^ "Hamas says new document 'not a substitute for founding charter'". 11 May 2017.
  205. ^ Seurat, Leila (2022). The foreign policy of Hamas: ideology, decision making and political supremacy. I.B. Tauris. p. 62. ISBN 9781838607456.
  206. ^ Wintour, Patrick (May 2017). "Hamas presents new charter accepting a Palestine based on 1967 borders". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 16 February 2024.
  207. Wilson Center. 20 October 2023. Archived from the original
    on 14 November 2023.
  208. ^ "Behind Hamas's Bloody Gambit to Create a 'Permanent' State of War". The New York Times. 8 November 2023. Archived from the original on 11 November 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  209. ^ "In rare apology, Israeli minister says she 'sinned' for her role in reforms that tore country apart". Associated Press. 31 December 2023. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  210. ^ "Hamas carried out years-long campaign to fool Israel before attack, source says". Times of Israel. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 14 February 2024. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
  211. ^ a b "Hamas says October 7 attacks 'necessary step' but admits to 'faults'". Le Monde.fr. 21 January 2024. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  212. lbcgroup.tv. Archived
    (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  213. ^ "Hamas says its October 7 assault on Israel was a 'normal response' to Israeli 'conspiracies'". The Times of Israel. 21 January 2024. Archived from the original on 21 January 2024. Retrieved 21 January 2024.
  214. ^ Khoury, Jack. "Hamas Releases Memo Explaining Why It Waged War on Israel; Gazans Question Timing, Cite Criticism of Hamas". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 7 February 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  215. ^ Silkoff, Shira. "Against all evidence, Hamas says it morally, religiously opposes harming women, kids". timesofisrael.com. Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 7 February 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  216. ^ "Israel's Yair Lapid and Benny Gantz: Dynamic duo or natural rivals?". The Jerusalem Post. 12 August 2022. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  217. ^ a b c d e "For years, Netanyahu propped up Hamas. Now it's blown up in our faces". The Times of Israel. 8 October 2023. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  218. ^ a b "Israel's Big New Shift in Hamas Policy". Foreign Policy. 15 June 2021. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  219. ^ a b c "How Years of Israeli Failures on Hamas Led to a Devastating Attack". The New York Times. 30 October 2023. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 30 October 2023.
  220. ^ a b Pipes, Daniel (17 November 2023). "Appeasement not victory: Israel has quickly reverted to its bad policies". The Washington Times. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  221. ^ "How Hamas duped Israel as it planned devastating attack". Reuters. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  222. AP News. Archived
    from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  223. ^ a b Schneider, Tal (8 October 2023). "For years, Netanyahu propped up Hamas. Now it's blown up in our faces". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  224. ^ a b c "How Netanyahu's Hamas policy came back to haunt him — and Israel". CBC News. 28 October 2023. Archived from the original on 28 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  225. ^ Heer, Jeet (11 December 2023). "Why Netanyahu Bolstered Hamas". thenation.com. The Nation. Archived from the original on 14 March 2024. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  226. ^ Raz, Adam (20 October 2023). "A Brief History of the Netanyahu-Hamas Alliance". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 9 March 2024. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  227. ^ Keller-Lynn, Carrie (12 November 2023). "Netanyahu on responsibility for Oct. 7: Did people ask the same about Pearl Harbor, 9/11?". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  228. ^ Matar, Haggai (7 October 2023). "Gaza's shock attack has terrified Israelis. It should also unveil the context". +972 Magazine. +972 Magazine. Archived from the original on 31 December 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  229. ^ Sforza, Lauren (9 October 2023). "Tlaib, Bush criticized by Democrats over statements calling for end to Israel support". The Hill. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  230. ^ "John Mearsheimer: Israel is choosing 'apartheid' or 'ethnic cleansing'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  231. ^ Schenker, Hillel (12 October 2023). "The Catastrophe of October 7. Why Did It Happen?". The Nation. Archived from the original on 31 December 2023. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  232. ^ Barghouti, Mariam. "On October 7, Gaza broke out of prison". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  233. AP News. Archived
    from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  234. ^ Israel's Apartheid Against Palestinians: Cruel System of Domination and Crime Against Humanity (PDF) (Report). Amnesty International. January 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  235. ^ "A regime of Jewish supremacy from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea: This is apartheid". B'Tselem. 12 January 2021. Archived from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 6 November 2023. A regime that uses laws, practices and organized violence to cement the supremacy of one group over another is an apartheid regime. Israeli apartheid, which promotes the supremacy of Jews over Palestinians, was not born in one day or of a single speech. It is a process that has gradually grown more institutionalized and explicit, with mechanisms introduced over time in law and practice to promote Jewish supremacy. These accumulated measures, their pervasiveness in legislation and political practice, and the public and judicial support they receive – all form the basis for our conclusion that the bar for labeling the Israeli regime as apartheid has been met.
  236. ^ Holmes, Oliver (27 April 2021). "Israel is committing the crime of apartheid, rights group says". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  237. ^ "Israël : l'Assemblée nationale rejette une résolution communiste dénonçant un "régime d'apartheid"" [Israel: National Assembly rejects communist resolution denouncing 'apartheid regime']. Le Figaro (in French). 4 May 2023. Archived from the original on 14 June 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  238. ^ Hutzler, Alexandra; Peller, Lauren. "House passes resolution saying Israel isn't a 'racist or apartheid state'". ABC News. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  239. ^ a b c d "Israel retaliation kills 230 Palestinians after Hamas operation". Al Jazeera. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  240. AP News. 7 October 2023. Archived
    from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  241. ^ a b Frankel, Julia (1 August 2023). "Israel holds over 1,200 detainees without charge. That's the most in 3 decades, a rights group says". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  242. ^ Shefaz, Hagar (3 August 2023). "A Quarter of Palestinians Jailed in Israel Are Imprisoned Without Charges or Trial". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 5 August 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  243. ^ a b c d e Murphy, Brian; Taylor, Adam; Westfall, Sammy; Pietsch, Bryan; Hendrix, Steve (9 October 2023). "What's behind the violence in Israel and Gaza? Here's what to know". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  244. ^ "Explosion kills five at Gaza rally marking 2005 Israel pullout". Al Jazeera. 13 October 2023. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  245. ^ "Qatar mediates opening of Gaza-Israel crossing as protests end". Al Jazeera. 29 September 2023. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  246. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (28 September 2023). "Israel reopens Gaza crossings, lets Palestinians back to work after two weeks". Reuters. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  247. ^ a b c Tisdall, Simon (9 October 2023). "In the midst of war, Benjamin Netanyahu is a liability who can only make things worse. He must go". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  248. ^ Wong, Edward; Nereim, Vivian (7 October 2023). "The war could upend Biden's diplomacy on Saudi-Israel normalization". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  249. ^ "Hamas Attack Raises Questions Over an Israeli Intelligence Failure". The New York Times. 8 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  250. ^ "US intelligence warned of the potential for violence days before Hamas attack". CNN. Washington. 13 October 2023. Archived from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  251. ^ "Egypt intelligence official says Israel ignored repeated warnings of 'something big'". The Times of Israel. Associated Press. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  252. ^ Lis, Jonathan (13 October 2023). "'Utterly Fake': Israel's National Security Adviser Denies Receiving Egyptian Warning of Hamas Attack". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  253. ^ "Senior US lawmaker says Egypt warned Israel 3 days before onslaught". The Times of Israel. Agence France-Presse. 11 October 2023. Archived from the original on 11 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  254. ^ Bergman, Ronen; Goldman, Adam (1 December 2023). "Israel Knew Hamas's Attack Plan Over a Year Ago". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  255. The Financial Times. Archived
    from the original on 24 November 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  256. ^ Dettmer, Jamie (21 November 2023). "Our warnings on Hamas were ignored, Israel's women border troops say". Politico. Archived from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 24 November 2023.
  257. ^ Fink, Rachel (18 June 2024). "Report: New Evidence Reveals IDF Had Detailed Prior Knowledge of Hamas Plan to Raid Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved 18 June 2024.
  258. ^ "3 weeks before Oct. 7, IDF Gaza Division warned of Hamas plan to attack, take 250 hostages". The Times of Israel. 17 June 2024. Retrieved 18 June 2024.
  259. ^ Kaye, Dalia Dassa (17 August 2023). "The Case Against an Israeli-Saudi Deal". Foreign Affairs. In an early August interview with Bloomberg, Netanyahu...called the Palestinian issue no more than a "checkbox" and reiterated his opposition to a Palestinian state.
  260. ^ "Israel-Saudi peace can end all hope for Palestinian statehood - opinion". The Jerusalem Post. 10 August 2023. To which [Palestinian state] Bibi emphatically says, "No, never." Many in Israel and elsewhere are confident that the Saudis aren't really serious about Palestinian statehood and are unwilling to sacrifice their own interests for it.
  261. ^ "Netanyahu: Normalisation with Saudi not linked to creation of Palestinian state". Middle East Monitor. 8 August 2023.
  262. ^ a b c Kingsley, Patrick; Kershner, Isabel (7 October 2023). "Israel-Gaza Conflict: Gaza and Israel on War Footing After Militants Launch Surprise Assaults". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  263. ^ Ackerman, Spencer (10 October 2023). "A Mideast Deal Signed in Blood". The Nation. It is not lost on anyone, least of all the Palestinians, that in 2002, then–Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz conditioned recognition for Israel on Palestinian statehood. Now–Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman has removed that condition.
  264. CNN News
    . [MBS] effectively abandoning a two-decade-old Saudi pledge to only make peace with Israel after it fully withdraws from land it occupies.
  265. ^ Haq, Sana Noor (22 September 2023). "Netanyahu says Israel nears normalization deal with Saudi Arabia but refuses to outline concessions to Palestinians". CNN. [bin Salman] stopped short of calling for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state, which has been Riyadh's official stance for two decades.
  266. ^ a b Magid, Jacob (26 September 2023). "Saudis putting aside Arab Peace Initiative amid Israel normalization talks – officials".
  267. ^ Nakhoul, Samia (29 September 2023). "Exclusive: US-Saudi defence pact tied to Israel deal, Palestinian demands put aside". Reuters.
  268. ^ Shehada, Muhammad (14 August 2023). "For the Palestinians, Israeli-Saudi normalization would be disastrous". Haaretz.
  269. ^ Klawans, Justin; published, The Week US (11 October 2023). "How the Israel-Hamas war could derail peace with Saudi Arabia". theweek.
  270. ^ "Peace With Saudi Arabia Is Transformative But Requires Choices". www.washingtoninstitute.org. Riyadh understands that immediate Palestinian statehood is not an option
  271. ^ "Hamas attack aimed to disrupt Saudi-Israel normalization, Biden says". Reuters. 21 October 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  272. ^ "Saudi Arabia: no Israel ties without recognition of Palestinian state | Reuters". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 February 2024. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  273. ^ Estrin, Daniel (7 October 2023). "In surprise deadly attacks, Israel says Palestinian militants infiltrated from Gaza". NPR. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  274. ^ a b c d Federman, Josef; Adwan, Issam (7 October 2023). "Hamas militant group has started a war that 'Israel will win,' defense minister says". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  275. ^ "Around 1,000 dead in Israel-Hamas war, as Lebanon's Hezbollah also launches strikes". South China Morning Post. 8 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  276. ^ a b c d e "Israel-Palestine escalation live news: Hamas starts Operation Al-Aqsa Flood". Al Jazeera. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  277. ^ McKernan, Bethan (7 October 2023). "Hamas launches surprise attack on Israel as Palestinian gunmen reported in south". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  278. Ynetnews. 7 October 2023. Archived
    from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  279. ^ a b c d e f Gritten, David (7 October 2023). "Strikes on Gaza after Palestinian militants enter Israel". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  280. ^ a b "Israeli army declares 'state of readiness' for war". Anadolu Agency. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  281. ^ "Hamas Fighters Trained in Iran Before Oct. 7 Attacks". The Wall Street Journal. 25 October 2023. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  282. ^ Fabian, Emanuel; Pacchiani, Gianluca (1 November 2023). "IDF estimates 3,000 Hamas terrorists invaded Israel in Oct. 7 onslaught". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  283. ^ Beaule, Victoria (12 October 2023). "A detailed look at how Hamas secretly crossed into Israel". ABC News. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  284. ^ Gritten, David (7 October 2023). "Strikes on Gaza after Palestinian militants enter Israel". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  285. ^ "This is How Al-Qassam's Naval Units Stormed Zakim's Fortified Military Base – Video". Palestine Chronicle. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  286. ^ a b "Netanyahu says Israel is 'at war' after Hamas launches surprise air and ground attack from Gaza". CNN. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  287. ^ "Militants infiltrate Israel from Gaza as Hamas claims major rocket attack". CNN. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  288. Ynetnews. 7 October 2023. Archived
    from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  289. ^ "Border town identifies at least 15 of its residents killed in Hamas attack". The Times of Israel. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  290. ^ "10 Percent of Kibbutz Population Found Dead After Hamas Massacre in Southern Israel". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 11 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  291. ^ a b c "Hamas's attack was the bloodiest in Israel's history". The Economist. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  292. ^ "In pictures: Scenes of war and chaos after Hamas launch surprise attack on Israel". France 24. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  293. ^ a b Vinograd, Cassandra; Kershner, Isabel (9 October 2023). "Hamas Took Scores of Hostages From Israel. Here's What We Know About Them". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  294. ^ Breiner, Josh (18 November 2023). "Israeli Security Establishment: Hamas Likely Didn't Have Advance Knowledge of Nova Festival". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 19 November 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2023. According to a police source, the investigation also indicates that an IDF combat helicopter that arrived to the scene and fired at terrorists there apparently also hit some festival participants.
  295. ^ Zitun, Yoav (15 October 2023). הטעיה של חמאס למסוקי צה"ל והכוונת טייסים בוואטסאפ [Hamas deception of IDF helicopters]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  296. ^ "Israel's Dead: The Names of Those Killed in Hamas Attacks, Massacres and the Israel-Hamas War". Haaretz. 19 October 2023. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  297. ^ "Hostages Held by Hamas: The Names of Those Abducted From Israel". Haaretz. 22 October 2023. Archived from the original on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  298. ^ Gunter, Joel (23 October 2023). "Israel shows Hamas bodycam attack footage to journalists". BBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  299. ^ Carroll, Rory (23 October 2023). "Israel shows footage of Hamas killings 'to counter denial of atrocities'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 October 2023. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  300. ^ "Images of the Mass Kidnapping of Israelis by Hamas". The Atlantic. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  301. ^ Jones, Sam; Fidler, Matt (18 October 2023). "Who are the hostages taken by Hamas from southern Israel?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  302. ^ Edwards, Alice Jill (6 May 2024). "Egypt Is Obliged to Let Gaza Refugees In". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 7 May 2024. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  303. ^ Rubin, Shira (25 November 2023). "Israel investigates an elusive, horrific enemy: Rape as a weapon of war". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 28 November 2023. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  304. ^ "Sexual Violence Evidence Against Hamas Is Mounting, but the Road to Court Is Still Long". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 23 November 2023. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  305. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original
    on 6 March 2024. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  306. ^ Hubbard, Ben; Abi-Habib, Maria (8 November 2023). "Behind Hamas's Bloody Gambit to Create a 'Permanent' State of War". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  307. ^ Rubin, Shira; Warrick, Joby (13 November 2023). "Hamas envisioned deeper attacks, aiming to provoke an Israeli war". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  308. ^ "Many Israelis accuse government's of inept, chaotic response to October 7 massacre". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  309. ^ a b c d e Zitun, Yoav (15 October 2023). הטעיה של חמאס למסוקי צה"ל והכוונת טייסים בוואטסאפ [Hamas deception of IDF helicopters]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  310. ^ Breiner, Josh (18 November 2023). "Israeli Security Establishment: Hamas Likely Didn't Have Advance Knowledge of Nova Festival". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 19 November 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2023. According to a police source, the investigation also indicates that an IDF combat helicopter that arrived to the scene and fired at terrorists there apparently also hit some festival participants.
  311. ^ "Israel Police slams 'Haaretz' claim IDF helicopter may have harmed civilians on Oct. 7". The Times of Israel. 19 November 2023. Archived from the original on 19 November 2023. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  312. ^ "Barrages of rockets fired from Gaza as Hamas launches unprecedented operation against Israel". France 24. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  313. Israel Defence Forces. Archived
    from the original on 13 October 2023.
  314. Ynetnews. 7 October 2023. Archived
    from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  315. ^ "Security cabinet says Israel will destroy military, governmental abilities of Hamas, Islamic Jihad". The Times of Israel. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  316. ^ "Israeli strikes flatten buildings, mosques in Gaza". Al Jazeera. 8 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  317. ^ a b Bayer, Lili; Ho, Vivian; Fulton, Adam; Yang, Maya (7 October 2023). "Israel declares state of war after Hamas fires thousands of rockets and 'militants cross border' – live". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  318. ^ a b "Missiles strike southern & central Israel; police declare state of war". Jordan News. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  319. ^ "Army says it is fighting Gaza militants who entered Israel by land, sea and air". Al Arabiya. 7 October 2023. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  320. ^ "Ben Gurion airport stays open as foreign airlines cancel flights". Globes. 10 August 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  321. ^ "Page Capture" עדכונים ושינויים בתנועת הרכבות, עד להודעה חדשה [Updates and changes in train traffic until further notice]. רַכֶּבֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל [Israel Railways] (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  322. ^ Goldberg, Jeremaya (10 October 2023). "War with Gaza cuts train services in Israel". International Railway Journal. Archived from the original on 11 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  323. ^ Saunders, Aaron (10 October 2023). "Cruise Lines Change, Cancel Itineraries Following Israel Attack". Cruise Critic. Archived from the original on 10 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  324. ^ a b Knell, Yolande; Abu Alouf, Rushi; Gritten, David (8 October 2023). "Israeli forces fight to drive out Hamas militants and free hostages". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  325. ^ Davies, Harry; McKernan, Bethan; Sabbagh, Dan (1 December 2023). "'The Gospel': how Israel uses AI to select bombing targets in Gaza". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 December 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  326. +972 magazine. Archived
    from the original on 3 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  327. ^ Federman, Josef; Adwan, Issam (9 October 2023). "Israel strikes and seals off Gaza after incursion by Hamas, which vows to execute hostages". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  328. ^ Abu Alouf, Rushdi (8 October 2023). "Gaza: Fear and chaos for Palestinians as Israel strikes back". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  329. ^ Rahhou, Jihane (8 October 2023). "Israeli Strike Destroys Al-Amin Muhammad Mosque in Gaza". Morocco World News. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  330. ^ Goldenberg, Tia; Shurafa, Wafaa (8 October 2023). "Hamas fighters storm Israeli towns in surprise attack; Israel responds with deadly strikes on Gaza". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  331. ^ "Israel officially declares war for 1st time since 1973 as death toll mounts to 600". The Times of India. 8 October 2023. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  332. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (9 October 2023). "Defense minister announces 'complete siege' of Gaza: No power, food or fuel". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  333. ^ "Israel-Hamas war live updates: 9 Americans killed; Gaza Strip faces full siege". The Washington Post. 9 October 2023. Archived from the original on 9 October 2023.
  334. ^ "Fergal Keane: Aid convoy tragedy shows fear of starvation haunts Gaza". 2 March 2024. Archived from the original on 15 March 2024. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  335. ^ "In pictures: Trucks carry aid into Gaza for the first time since the outbreak of the Israel-Hamas war". CNBC. 21 October 2023. Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  336. ^ "1st fuel truck enters Gaza". ABC. 15 November 2023. Retrieved 30 December 2023.
  337. ^ "IAF flies hundreds of off-duty troops back to Israel from Europe". The Times of Israel. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 11 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  338. ^ Cook, Ellie (12 October 2023). ""Elite" Hamas unit behind Saturday massacre targeted in Israel air strikes". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
  339. ^ "Israel: White Phosphorus Used in Gaza, Lebanon". Human Rights Watch. Beirut. 12 October 2023. Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  340. ^ Wintour, Patrick (13 October 2023). "Israel denies using white phosphorus munitions in Gaza". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  341. ^ Debre, Isabel; Lederer, Edith M.; Shurafa, Wafaa (13 October 2023). "Israel's military orders civilians to evacuate Gaza City, ahead of a feared ground offensive". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  342. ^ Khraiche, Dana (13 October 2023). "UN Calls Israel Order to Evacuate 1.1 Million in Gaza Impossible". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  343. Doctors Without Borders. 13 October 2023. Archived
    from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  344. OHCHR. 13 October 2023. Archived
    from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  345. from the original on 13 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  346. ^ "Israel announces 6-hour window for Gazans fleeing south, as troops gather near border". CNN. 14 October 2023. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  347. ^ McKernan, Bethan; Taha, Sufian (15 October 2023). "Gaza civilians afraid to leave home after bombing of 'safe routes'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 October 2023. Retrieved 20 October 2023.
  348. ^ El Damanhoury, Kareem; Mezzofiore, Gianluca; Murphy, Paul (14 October 2023). "CNN authenticates video that show explosions along Gaza evacuation routes". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023. It's unclear what caused the widespread devastation
  349. ^ "Hamas seen blocking evacuation routes in Gaza – IDF". The Jerusalem Post. 15 October 2023. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  350. ^ Srivastava, Mehul; Joiner, Sam; Andringa, Peter (15 October 2023). "Did Israel bomb a civilian evacuation route in Gaza?". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  351. ^ Fabian, Emanuel (14 October 2023). "IDF says it's completing preparations to strike Gaza 'from air, sea and land'". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  352. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (15 October 2023). "Palestinians fleeing to the south find no escape from danger". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  353. ^ Guterres, António (6 November 2023). "Secretary-General's press conference on the Middle East". United Nations. Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  354. AP News. 13 November 2023. Archived
    from the original on 13 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  355. ^ "Hamas are notorious for using civilians as 'human shields'". news.com.au. 1 November 2023.
  356. ^ רויטרס (14 November 2023). הבית הלבן: יש מידע שחמאס משתמש בבתי החולים בעזה, גם להחזקת חטופים [The White House: There is information that Hamas uses the hospitals in Gaza, also to hold hostages]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 14 November 2023. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  357. KAN 11 (in Hebrew). Archived
    from the original on 10 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  358. ^ Jobain, Najib; Kullab, Samya; Nessman, Ravi (17 October 2023). "Israel bombs Gaza region where civilians were told to seek refuge, as mediators try to unlock aid". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  359. ^ "Israel bombs homes in southern Gaza, kills more than 70 people". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2023. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  360. ^ Brennan, David (17 October 2023). "Top Hamas commander killed in Israeli strike". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  361. ^ Magid, Jacob (17 October 2023). "'They had nowhere else to go': UN says Israeli strike on school in Gaza kills 6". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  362. ^ "Gaza hospital blast: What does new analysis tell us?". BBC News. 26 October 2023. Archived from the original on 26 October 2023. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
  363. ^ Fabian, Emanuel; Bachner, Michael (18 October 2023). "IDF presents evidence misfired Gazan rocket caused hospital blast, slams Hamas 'lies'". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  364. ^ "Israel and Palestinian militants blame each other after hospital blast kills hundreds in Gaza". ABC News. 17 October 2023. Archived from the original on 24 October 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  365. ^ Said, Summer; Faucon, Benoit; Kalin, Stephen (8 October 2023). "Iran Helped Plot Attack on Israel Over Several Weeks". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  366. ^ "Human Rights Watch says rocket misfire likely cause of deadly Gaza hospital blast". Reuters. 26 November 2023. Archived from the original on 26 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  367. ^ Watson, Kathryn (18 October 2023). "In Israel, Biden says it appears "the other team" is to blame for Gaza hospital explosion". CBS News. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2023.
  368. ^ "Canada says it is confident Israel not behind deadly blast at Gaza hospital". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  369. ^ "French intel says Palestinian rocket likely cause of Gaza hospital blast". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  370. from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  371. ^ "Revisiting a key video used to assess the Gaza hospital blast". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 16 November 2023.
  372. ^ Ravid, Barak (28 October 2023). "Israeli military launches major ground incursion in Gaza". Axios. Archived from the original on 28 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  373. ^ Gal Perl, "The IDF's unique advantage, the commanders are the secret to its strength": Lessons learned from 1982 to 2023 Archived 10 May 2024 at the Wayback Machine, The Dado Center for Interdisciplinary Military Studies, April 30, 2024.
  374. ^ a b Jackson, Patrick. "Israel Gaza live news: Doctors in Gaza say Israel has told them to evacuate a key hospital in Gaza City". BBC News. Archived from the original on 30 October 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  375. ^ Lowe, Yohannes; Hall, Rachel; Ratcliffe, Rebecca (29 October 2023). "Israel-Hamas war live: WHO 'deeply concerned' by report of evacuation warning to Gaza's al-Quds hospital". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 November 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  376. ^ "Dozens reported killed in Gaza refugee camp blast". BBC News. 30 October 2023. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  377. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Rose, Emily; Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (31 October 2023). "Israel strikes dense Gaza camp, says it kills Hamas commander". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  378. ^ "Photos: Dozens killed in Israeli air attack on Jabalia refugee camp in Gaza". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  379. ^ "Jabalia: Israel air strike reportedly kills dozens at Gaza refugee camp". BBC News. 31 October 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  380. ^ Pacchiani, Gianluca. "Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Qatar condemn Israeli strikes in Gaza's Jabaliya". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  381. ^ Ramos, Daniel (1 November 2023). "Bolivia severs ties with Israel, others recall envoys over Gaza". Reuters. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  382. ^ "Israel-Gaza war live updates: Injured Gazans enter Egypt; new strike on Jabalya camp, hospital says". The Washington Post. 1 November 2023. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  383. ^ Koettl, Christoph; Tiefenthäler, Ainara; Willis, Haley; Cardia, Alexander (3 November 2023). "Israel Used 2,000-Pound Bombs in Strike on Jabaliya, Analysis Shows". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023.
  384. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original
    on 15 November 2023. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  385. ^ "Gaza: Israeli Strike Killing 106 Civilians an Apparent War Crime". Human Rights Watch. 4 April 2024. Archived from the original on 4 April 2024. Retrieved 4 April 2024.
  386. ^ Al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Williams, Dan (1 November 2023). "First evacuees leave Gaza after another night of Israeli bombardments". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2023.
  387. ^ "Israel's strikes on Gaza refugee camp could be war crimes, UN says". South China Morning Post. 2 November 2023. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  388. ^ "Nasrallah says Oct. 7 assault '100% Palestinian,' Hezbollah knew nothing about it". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
  389. Ynetnews. 1 November 2023. Archived
    from the original on 22 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  390. ^ "Israel strikes ambulance near Gaza hospital, 15 reported killed". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  391. ^ a b c d "Palestinian Red Crescent condemns deadly strike on Gaza ambulance". The Guardian. 4 November 2023. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  392. ^ a b Al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Lewis, Simon; Al-Khalidi, Suleiman (4 November 2023). "Palestinians say Israeli strike hits U.N.-run school as Blinken meets Arab leaders". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 November 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  393. ^ "Israeli airstrikes kill 80 in Palestinian refugee camp". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 November 2023. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  394. ^ a b c "Israel agrees to ceasefire deal, paving way for some captives' release". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 29 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  395. ^ from the original on 29 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  396. ^ "Israel, Hamas agree to ceasefire deal that also sees captives exchanged". CBC News. 21 November 2023. Archived from the original on 4 December 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  397. ^ "Israel-Hamas truce extends by two days, Qatar says: Live updates". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 November 2023. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  398. ^ "Israel-Hamas war live updates: Gaza cease-fire extended a day; Jerusalem shooting kills 3". NBC News. 30 November 2023. Archived from the original on 30 November 2023. Retrieved 30 November 2023.
  399. ^ Kingsley, Patrick; Hubbard, Ben; Fuller, Thomas (1 December 2023). "Israel Resumes Offensive in Gaza Strip After Truce With Hamas Ends". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  400. ^ "Who are the remaining Gaza hostages?". France24. 12 February 2024. Archived from the original on 22 February 2024. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  401. ^ "Israeli prisoner release shines light on system of detaining Palestinians without charge". NBC News. 30 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 May 2024. Retrieved 9 May 2024.
  402. ^ Pietromarchi, Usaid; Siddiqui, Virginia (2 December 2023). "Israel-Gaza war updates: 'No negotiations now on truce', says Hamas". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 December 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  403. Times of Israel. 3 December 2023. Archived
    from the original on 13 December 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  404. ^ "Released Palestinians allege mistreatment in Israeli prisons". France24. 5 December 2023. Archived from the original on 9 May 2024. Retrieved 9 May 2024.
  405. ^ "Israeli prisoner release shines light on system of detaining Palestinians without charge". NBC. 30 November 2023. Archived from the original on 8 May 2024. Retrieved 9 May 2024.
  406. ^ "Israel-Gaza live news: IDF resumes strikes as ceasefire with Hamas ends". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 December 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  407. ^ Smith, Alexander; Talmazan, Yuliya (5 December 2023). "Israel's new grid maps add to confusion and anger in Gaza". NBC News. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 7 December 2023.
  408. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma; Burke, Jason (2 December 2023). "Israel has started using its new grid system for evacuation warnings". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  409. ^ Barbakh, Arafat; Salem, Mohammed (4 December 2023). "Israel presses ground offensive in southern Gaza, air strikes intensify". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 December 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  410. ^ Hendrix, Steve; Berger, Miriam (6 December 2023). "Israel touts civilian warning system, but for Gazans, nowhere is safe". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 25 December 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2023.
  411. ^ Hubbard, Ben (5 December 2023). "Israel-Hamas War: New Phase of Israel's Military Campaign Remains Deadly for Gazans". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  412. ^ Hammer, Mathias (5 December 2023). "U.S. Military Equipment Traced to Possible War Crimes in Gaza, Report Finds". Time. Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  413. ^ Salam, Yasmine; Abdelkader, Rima; Mulligan, Matthew. "Abandoned babies found decomposing in Gaza hospital weeks after it was evacuated". NBC News. Archived from the original on 4 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  414. ^ "Israel risks 'strategic defeat' if civilians aren't protected, Pentagon chief says". The Hill. 2 December 2023. Archived from the original on 16 December 2023. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  415. ^ Lewis, Simon; Pamuk, Humeyra; Mason, Jeff; Pamuk, Humeyra; Mason, Jeff (4 December 2023). "Too early to assess if Israel heeding US calls to protect civilians -US spokesperson". Reuters. Archived from the original on 11 December 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  416. ^ "IDF: Troops fighting in the heart of Khan Younis in most intensive battles since ground op began". The Times of Israel. 5 December 2023. Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  417. ^ "Israeli army surrounds Khan Younis as southern Gaza attacks intensify". Al Jazeera. 5 December 2023. Archived from the original on 5 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  418. ^ היום ה-65 של המלחמה | עדכונים שוטפים [The 65th day of the war | Regular updates]. Ynet (in Hebrew). Archived from the original on 10 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  419. i24news. 7 December 2023. Archived
    from the original on 9 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  420. ^ Kershner, Isabel (7 December 2023). "Israel Says It Detained Hundreds of Terrorism Suspects in Gaza". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  421. ^ Beaumont, Peter (8 December 2023). "Footage shows IDF parading scores of Palestinian men around in underwear". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  422. ^ "Israel-Gaza war: Video shows Gaza detainees allegedly 'surrendering guns' – what we know". BBC News. 10 December 2023. Archived from the original on 16 December 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  423. ^ "Israel-Hamas War Day 65: Israeli Army Kills Hamas Commander in Gaza; Syria: Israel Struck Near Damascus". Haaretz. 10 December 2023. Archived from the original on 12 December 2023. Retrieved 11 December 2023.
  424. ^ "Urgently investigate inhumane treatment and enforced disappearance of Palestinians detainees from Gaza". Amnesty International. 20 December 2023. Archived from the original on 22 December 2023. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  425. Times of Israel. Archived
    from the original on 9 December 2023. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  426. ^ Halabi, Einav (9 December 2023). "Israel-Hamas war: IDF finds elevator in Gaza tunnel, weapons in school". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 9 December 2023. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  427. Times of Israel. Archived
    from the original on 10 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  428. ^ "Israel suffers heaviest combat losses since October, diplomatic isolation". Reuters. 13 December 2023. Archived from the original on 13 December 2023. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  429. ^ "Biden bypasses Congress to sell tank shells to Israel amid further fighting in Khan Younis". The Guardian. 10 December 2023. Archived from the original on 13 December 2023. Retrieved 10 December 2023.
  430. NHK World
    . 30 December 2023.
  431. ^ Tabachnick, Cara (15 December 2023). "3 hostages in Gaza were killed by friendly fire, Israeli military says". CBS News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  432. ^ "Israel-Hamas war live updates: IDF says it mistakenly killed 3 Israeli hostages during fighting". NBC News. 15 December 2023. Archived from the original on 15 December 2023. Retrieved 15 December 2023.
  433. Times of Israel. Archived
    from the original on 16 December 2023. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  434. ^ Lubell, Maayan (16 December 2023). "Israeli hostages killed in Gaza were holding white flag, official says". Reuters. Retrieved 16 December 2023.
  435. ^ Bassam, Laila; Al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Barbakh, Arafat (3 January 2024). "Israeli drone kills Hamas deputy leader in Beirut -Lebanese, Palestinian sources". Reuters.
  436. ^ "Drone footage raises questions about Israeli justification for deadly strike on Gaza journalists". Washington Post. 19 March 2024. Retrieved 21 March 2024.
  437. ^ "Hamas fires barrage of rockets just as Israel ushers in the new year". The Times of Israel. 1 January 2024. Archived from the original on 30 January 2024. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  438. ^ "Rocket fire on Tel Aviv for 1st time in over a month". Ynet. 29 January 2024. Archived from the original on 29 January 2024. Retrieved 30 January 2024.
  439. Wall Street Journal. 15 January 2024. Archived
    from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  440. ^ Iraqi, Amjad (1 May 2024). "A Gaza team went to repair a telecoms machine. An Israeli tank fired at them". +972 Magazine. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  441. ^ "Israel army says Hamas command structure 'dismantled' in north Gaza". South China Morning Post. 7 January 2024.
  442. ^ Kubovich, Yaniv (18 January 2024). "Hamas Begins Rehabilitating Militant Units in Northern Gaza the Israeli Army Declared Dismantled". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 19 January 2024.
  443. ^ Kubovich, Yaniv. "IDF spokesperson: 21 soldiers killed from building collapsing due to RPG fire by Hamas in southern Gaza". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  444. ^ "Hamas causes buildings to collapse – 21 IDF soldiers dead, several injured". The Jerusalem Post. 23 January 2024. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  445. ^ Kingsley, Patrick; Bergman, Ronen; Odenheimer, Natan (23 January 2024). "The Israeli military says 21 of the soldiers were killed in a single explosion". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  446. ^ Sokol, Sam. "PM mourns deaths of soldiers in Gaza: 'We must learn the necessary lessons'". timesofisrael.com. Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  447. Times of Israel. Archived
    from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  448. from the original on 23 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  449. ^ "Israeli strikes hit Rafah after Biden warns Netanyahu to have 'credible' plan to protect civilians". ap.com. Associated Press. 11 February 2024. Archived from the original on 19 February 2024. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  450. ^ Jared Malsin; Summer Said. "WSJ News Exclusive: Egypt Builds Walled Enclosure on Border as Israeli Offensive Looms". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  451. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original
    on 16 February 2024. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  452. Ahram Online. 15 February 2024. Archived
    from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  453. ^ "Israel indicates March deadline for Gaza ground offensive in Rafah". BBC News. 19 February 2024. Archived from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  454. ^ Salman, Abeer; Diamond, Jeremy (29 February 2024). "More than 100 killed as Israeli forces open fire in chaos at Gaza food lines, Palestinian health ministry says". CNN. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  455. ^ "Flour massacre: How Gaza food killings unfolded, and Israel's story changed". Al Jazeera. 1 March 2024. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  456. ^ "'Massacre': Dozens killed by Israeli fire in Gaza while collecting food aid". Al Jazeera. 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
  457. ^ "Biden says US military to airdrop food and supplies into Gaza". Reuters. 1 March 2024. Retrieved 2 March 2024.