Izium

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Izium
Ізюм
Izum WWII Monument Panorama without border.jpg
Izium is located in Kharkiv Oblast
Izium
Izium
Location of Izyum in Kharkiv Oblast
Izium is located in Ukraine
Izium
Izium
Location of Izyum in Ukraine
Coordinates: 49°12′46″N 37°15′25″E / 49.21278°N 37.25694°E / 49.21278; 37.25694Coordinates: 49°12′46″N 37°15′25″E / 49.21278°N 37.25694°E / 49.21278; 37.25694
CountryUkraine
OblastKharkiv Oblast
RaionIzium
Founded1681
City1765[1]
ControlOccupied by Russia[2][3]
Government
 • MayorValeriy Marchenko[4] (Servant of the People[4])
Area
 • Total43.6 km2 (16.8 sq mi)
Elevation
71 m (233 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total45,884
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Postal code
64300
Area code(s)380-5743
Licence plateАХ, КХ
Sister citiesTukums, Tukums Municipality, Latvia

Andrychów, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

Khoni, Mkhare, Georgia
Websitecity-izyum.gov.ua

Izium (Ukrainian: Ізюм, lit.'Raisin', pronounced [iˈzʲum]; also Romanized Izum, Izyum, Russian: Изюм, romanizedIzium) is a city on the Donets River in Kharkiv Oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. Izium is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) southeast of the oblast capital, Kharkiv. Izium has a population of 45,884 as of 2021.[5] Since April 2022, the city has been under Russian military occupation.

History

In 1681 a Russian fortress was built.[6][7] In 1684 the five-domed Baroque cathedral of the Saviour's Transfiguration was built. The cathedral was renovated in 1902 and restored in 1955.

In 1765 Izium became a city. In 1780 Izium became an administrative centre of Izyumsky Uyezd, one of the subdivisions of the Kharkov Governorate of the Russian Empire.

The churches of Ascension (1819–21) and of St. Nicholas (1809–23) rank among the finest Neoclassical buildings in the region.

During World War II, the Red Army held a large bridgehead here. A Red Army salient was cut off by counterattacking German forces (during the Second Battle of Kharkov) and was eliminated in one of the most expensive learning errors for the Red Army.[8] Izium was occupied by the German Army from 24 June 1942 to 5 February 1943.[citation needed]

In January 1989 the population was 64,334 people.[9][1]

In January 2013 the population was 51,511 people.[10]

Until 18 July 2020, Izium was incorporated as a city of oblast significance and served as the administrative center of Izium Raion though it did not belong to the raion. In July 2020 the city of Izium was merged into Izium Raion, as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Kharkiv Oblast to seven.[11][12]

2014 Russian-Ukrainian conflict

Izium was the site of sporadic fighting during the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in 2014. In April 2014 Russian separatist forces occupied the city of Sloviansk 50 km (30 mi) south of Izium. An operation by Ukrainian forces to remove these forces bogged down and checkpoints around Izium were formed to stop a possible intrusion into the city. On June 15 a Ukrainian checkpoint outside the city was attacked by separatist forces.[citation needed]

On 19 June 2014 Ukrainian forces defeated a large group of separatists at Yampil, approximately 65 km (40 mi) southwest of Izium, signaling the furthest north the separatist forces would advance. As part of the Siege of Sloviansk and Battle of Kramatorsk both cities were recaptured by Ukrainian forces. Due to its proximity to the front line the city, along with the Kramatorsk Airfield which the Ukrainian military was able to control through the battles, served as a staging area for Ukrainian troops prior to Sloviansk and Kramatorsk being recaptured.[13][14][15]

European route E40 passes through Izyum, connecting Luhans'k-Sloviansk-Kharkiv, three important cities to both pro Russia and Ukrainian forces. Controlling the highway was instrumental as it was the fastest access route into Sloviansk, as well as allowing for possible expansion of separatist territory into Kharkiv region.[16]

The Sloviansk-Izyum highway was referred to as the "highway of death" by locals during the summer of 2014. Large scale fighting halted once Ukrainian forces liberated Sloviansk.[17] In early April 2016 the Security Service of Ukraine arrested an alleged saboteur who was accused of wanting to explode the railway near Izyum to aid the separatists.[18]

In order to comply with decommunization laws, the local "Lenin Square" was renamed to "John Lennon Square" in February 2016.[19]

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

According to Amnesty International, the town has been exposed to constant Russian rocket fire since 3 March 2022. The population is trapped in their basements with almost no food or water. As a result of these attacks, most of the town's residential areas are cut off from electricity, gas, heating, and mobile communication. According to Ukrainian authorities, eight civilians, including two children, were killed.[20]

As part of the northeastern Ukraine offensive of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, a senior US defense official reported Russian claims to have taken control of Izium on 17 March 2022.[21] This report was deemed incorrect by the Institute for the Study of War.[22] On March 24, 2022, the official representative of the Russian Ministry of Defense, Igor Konashenkov, stated that by the morning of March 24, the city of Izyum was completely taken under control by the units of the Russian army.[23]

This was later denied by Ukrainian officials.[24] The same day a city council deputy told CNN that Russians controlled the northern sector of the city, while the southern sector was controlled by the Ukrainians, with Russian forces attempting to surround them.[25] On 1 April, the Ukrainian military confirmed Izium was under Russian control.[2][3]

In May 2022 Russia attempted to cross the Seversky Donets River and advance south.[26]

Geography

Climate

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfb". (Warm Summer Continental Climate).[27]

Climate data for Izium (1981–2010, extremes 1949–2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.1
(55.6)
16.3
(61.3)
24.0
(75.2)
31.0
(87.8)
36.7
(98.1)
37.4
(99.3)
39.1
(102.4)
39.4
(102.9)
34.4
(93.9)
31.1
(88.0)
22.0
(71.6)
20.0
(68.0)
39.4
(102.9)
Average high °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.0
(41.0)
14.7
(58.5)
21.6
(70.9)
25.1
(77.2)
27.4
(81.3)
26.8
(80.2)
20.6
(69.1)
12.9
(55.2)
4.3
(39.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
12.9
(55.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
1.3
(34.3)
9.5
(49.1)
15.6
(60.1)
19.5
(67.1)
21.5
(70.7)
20.1
(68.2)
14.4
(57.9)
8.0
(46.4)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.9
(26.8)
8.4
(47.1)
Average low °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−7.2
(19.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
4.5
(40.1)
10.2
(50.4)
14.3
(57.7)
16.0
(60.8)
14.9
(58.8)
9.9
(49.8)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
−5.7
(21.7)
4.2
(39.6)
Record low °C (°F) −35.0
(−31.0)
−36.1
(−33.0)
−29.7
(−21.5)
−9.0
(15.8)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.1
(34.0)
3.0
(37.4)
1.1
(34.0)
−6.7
(19.9)
−17.0
(1.4)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−33.2
(−27.8)
−36.1
(−33.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47.9
(1.89)
43.3
(1.70)
44.0
(1.73)
37.9
(1.49)
48.3
(1.90)
62.8
(2.47)
58.8
(2.31)
38.2
(1.50)
48.9
(1.93)
43.0
(1.69)
46.0
(1.81)
46.2
(1.82)
565.3
(22.26)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.4 8.8 8.4 7.0 7.2 8.5 7.5 5.2 6.7 6.5 7.7 9.2 93.1
Average relative humidity (%) 84.9 81.8 77.3 67.5 64.9 68.2 68.2 67.5 73.4 79.2 85.1 85.5 75.3
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[28]
Source 2: Climatebase.ru (extremes)[29]

Administration

Izium serves as the administrative center of Izium Raion (district). Izium hosts the administration of the Izium urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[30]

Gallery

  • Izium City Hall

  • A monument commemorating the battle of Vladimir Monomakh against Polovtsians

  • A historical building in Izium

  • The Spartak cinema

  • The Ascension Church

  • The Transfiguration Church

  • The Holy Cross Church

  • A holy well in Izium

  • Izyum railway station

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Изюм // Большой энциклопедический словарь (в 2-х тт.). / редколл., гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров. том 1. М., "Советская энциклопедия", 1991. стр.481
  2. ^ a b На Київщині ЗСУ звільнили 15 населених пунктів – зведення Генерального штабу
  3. ^ a b Росіяни контролюють Ізюм – Генштаб ЗСУ
  4. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) "Elections in Kharkiv Region: Kernes' Son in the Regional Council and Local Success "Servants of the People"". The Ukrainian Week. 2020-11-11. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  5. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  6. ^ Изюм // Большая Советская Энциклопедия. / редколл., гл. ред. Б. А. Введенский. 2-е изд. том 17. М., Государственное научное издательство «Большая Советская энциклопедия», 1952. стр.522
  7. ^ Изюм // Украинская Советская Энциклопедия. том 4. Киев, «Украинская Советская энциклопедия», 1980. стр.231
  8. ^ The Second World War on the Eastern Front by Lee Baker, Routledge, 2009, ISBN 9781405840637 (page 60)
  9. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик, их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу
  10. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2013 року. Державна служба статистики України. Київ, 2013. стор.96
  11. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 2020-07-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  12. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
  13. ^ "Ukraine – Shooting At Checkpoint Near Izium". United Patriot. Archived from the original on 2015-01-20. Retrieved 2015-01-20.
  14. ^ "Ukraine rebels speak of heavy losses in battle against government troops". Reuters. 2014-06-19.
  15. ^ Rosenberg, Steven (2014-07-08). "Fears remain as rebels flee Sloviansk". BBC News. BBC.
  16. ^ "Дорога смерти Изюм – Славянск: как это было". Information Resistance. Archived from the original on 2018-06-24. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
  17. ^ "Дорога смерти Изюм – Славянск: как это было". Information Resistance. Archived from the original on 2018-06-24. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
  18. ^ (in Ukrainian) In Kharkiv detained a saboteur who planned to blow up the track. Ukrayinska Pravda (6 April 2016)
  19. ^ Not Back in the USSR! Beatles star John Lennon gets a street named after him in Ukraine, Ukraine Today (2 March 2016)
    Poroshenko signed the laws about decomunization. Ukrayinska Pravda. 15 May 2015
    Poroshenko signs laws on denouncing Communist, Nazi regimes, Interfax-Ukraine. 15 May 20
    Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols, BBC News (14 April 2015)
  20. ^ "Ukraine: Beleaguered town of Izium at breaking point after constant attack from Russian forces – new testimony". Amnesty International. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  21. ^ "Pentagon says Russian advance is frozen". BBC. 17 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  22. ^ Clark, Mason; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (18 March 2022). "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, March 18". Institute for the Study of War. Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 20 March 2022. A Senior US Defense Official reportedly claimed that Russian forces took control of Izyum on March 17, though either the statement itself or media reporting was incorrect.
  23. ^ "Российские военные взяли под контроль город Изюм в Харьковской области" (in Russian). РИА Новости. 2022-03-24.
  24. ^ "Ukraine denies Russian troops have captured key east city Izyum". The Times of Israel. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  25. ^ "FIRST ON CNN: Major infrastructure in central Izyum is destroyed, new satellite images show". 25 March 2022.
  26. ^ Marc Santora (May 13, 2022). "Ukraine decimated Russian forces trying to cross a river in the east, Britain's defense ministry says". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  27. ^ Climate Summary
  28. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  29. ^ "Izmium, Ukraine Climate data (Period supervision: 1949–2011)". Climatebase. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
  30. ^ "Изюмская городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.

External links

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