Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Filename extension
Internet media type
Type of format
Linked Data
Extended fromJSON
StandardJSON-LD 1.1 / JSON-LD 1.1 API
Open format?Yes
StatusW3C Recommendation
Year started2010
    • Gregg Kellogg
    • Pierre-Antoine Champin
    • Dave Longley
Previous editors
    • Manu Sporny
    • Markus Lanthaler
AuthorsManu Sporny, Dave Longley, Gregg Kellogg, Markus Lanthaler, Niklas Lindström
Base standards
DomainSemantic Web, Data Serialization

JSON-LD (JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data) is a method of encoding linked data using JSON. One goal for JSON-LD was to require as little effort as possible from developers to transform their existing JSON to JSON-LD.[1] JSON-LD allows data to be serialized in a way that is similar to traditional JSON.[2] It was initially developed by the JSON for Linking Data Community Group[3] before being transferred to the RDF Working Group[4] for review, improvement, and standardization,[5] and is currently maintained by the JSON-LD Working Group.[6] JSON-LD is a World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation.


JSON-LD is designed around the concept of a "context" to provide additional mappings from JSON to an

HTTP Link header


  "@context": {
    "name": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name",
    "homepage": {
      "@id": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/workplaceHomepage",
      "@type": "@id"
    "Person": "http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person"
  "@id": "https://me.example.com",
  "@type": "Person",
  "name": "John Smith",
  "homepage": "https://www.example.com/"

The example above describes a person, based on the

FOAF (friend of a friend) ontology. First, the two JSON properties name and homepage and the type Person are mapped to concepts in the FOAF vocabulary and the value of the homepage property is specified to be of the type @id. In other words, the homepage id is specified to be an IRI in the context definition. Based on the RDF model, this allows the person described in the document to be unambiguously identified by an IRI. The use of resolvable IRIs allows RDF documents containing more information to be transcluded which enables clients to discover new data by simply following those links; this principle is known as 'Follow Your Nose'.[7]

By having all data semantically annotated as in the example, an RDF processor can identify that the document contains information about a person (@type) and if the processor understands the FOAF vocabulary it can determine which properties specify the person's name and homepage.


The encoding is used by Schema.org,[8] Google Knowledge Graph,[9][10] and used mostly for search engine optimization activities. It has also been used for applications such as biomedical informatics,[11] and representing provenance information.[12] It is also the basis of Activity Streams, a format for "the exchange of information about potential and completed activities",[13] and is used in ActivityPub, the federated social networking protocol.[14] Additionally, it is used in the context of Internet of Things (IoT), where a Thing Description,[15] which is a JSON-LD document, describes the network facing interfaces of IoT devices.

See also


  1. ^ "JSON-LD Syntax 1.1". 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  2. ^ "On Using JSON-LD to Create Evolvable RESTful Services"., M. Lanthaler and C. Gütl in Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on RESTful Design (WS-REST 2012) at WWW2012.
  3. ^ "JSON for Linking Data Community Group". json-ld.org.
  4. ^ "RDF Working Group". w3.org.
  5. ^ JSON-LD 1.0, A JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data, W3C Recommendation 16 January 2014, 2014-01-16, retrieved 2020-12-10
  6. ^ "JSON-LD Working Group". w3.org.
  7. ^ "Linked Data Patterns, Chapter 5: Follow Your Nose". 2023-06-07. Retrieved 2023-06-07.
  8. ^ "Data Model". Schema.org. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
  9. ^ "Understanding structured data". Bendev Junior. 14 June 2022.
  10. ^ "Method Entities in Search". Google Developers. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
  11. PMID 29390967
  12. ^ Prodromou, Evan (May 2017). "Activity Streams 2.0". W3C Recommendation – via W3C.
  13. ^ Tallon, Jessica (Jan 2018). "ActivityPub". W3C Recommendation – via W3C.
  14. ^ "Web of Things (WoT) Thing Description, W3C Proposed Recommendation". www.w3.org. Retrieved 2020-03-26.

External links