Khunale exclosure

Coordinates: 13°39′50″N 39°11′06″E / 13.664°N 39.185°E / 13.664; 39.185
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Khunale exclosure
Dogu’a Tembien district, Ethiopia
Nearest cityHagere Selam
Coordinates13°39′50″N 39°11′06″E / 13.664°N 39.185°E / 13.664; 39.185

Khunale is an

Dogu'a Tembien woreda of the Tigray Region in Ethiopia. The area has been protected since 1990 by the local community.[1]

Environmental characteristics[1]

  • Aspect: the exclosure is oriented towards the northwest
  • Minimum altitude: 2420 metres
  • Maximum altitude: 2480 metres
  • Lithology: mixed sandstone and limestone lithology, partly covered by transported vertic clay material[2]


As a general rule, cattle ranging and wood harvesting are not allowed. The grasses are harvested once yearly and taken to the homesteads of the village to feed livestock. Physical soil and water conservation has been implemented to enhance infiltration, and vegetation growth.

Benefits for the community

Setting aside such areas fits with the long-term vision of the communities were hiza’iti lands are set aside for use by the future generations. It has also direct benefits for the community:[3]

  • improved infiltration
  • improved
    ground water
  • honey production
  • climate ameliorator (temperature, moisture)
  • carbon sequestration, dominantly sequestered in the soil, and additionally in the woody vegetation)[4]

Water conservation

In the Khunale exclosure, more than 600 precise measurements were done in 2003 and 2004, using seven runoff plots, where the volume of runoff was measured daily. The rock type (Amba Aradam Sandstone and Antalo Limestone), slope gradient and slope aspect were the same, the only difference was the land management and vegetation density. Whereas in degraded rangeland, 11.8% of the rainfall flows directly away to the river (runoff coefficient), this happens only for 4.7% of the rain in a recent exclosure and 0.3% in an old exclosure.[1]

Improved ecosystem

With vegetation growth, biodiversity in this exclosure has strongly improved: there is more varied vegetation and


In the oldest parts of this exclosure,

species composition.[5]


  1. ^ .
  2. .
  3. .
  4. ^ De Deyn, Jonathan (2019). Benefits of reforestation on Carbon storage and water infiltration in the context of climate mitigation in North Ethiopia. Master thesis, Ghent University.
  5. S2CID 84941592

External links