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Kyiv, also spelled Kiev,[a] is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine. It is in north-central Ukraine along the Dnieper River. As of 1 January 2022, its population was 2,952,301, making Kyiv the seventh-most populous city in Europe. Kyiv is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural center in Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, and historical landmarks. The city has an extensive system of public transport and infrastructure, including the Kyiv Metro.
The city's name is said to derive from the name of
The city prospered again during the Russian Empire's
- English: Kyiv (// KEE-yiv, // KEEV) or Kiev (// KEE-ev)
- Ukrainian: Київ, romanized: Kyiv, pronounced [ˈkɪjiu̯] ⓘ
- Russian: Киев (pre-1918 Кіевъ), romanized: Kiev, pronounced [ˈkʲi(j)ɪf] ⓘ
Before standardization of the alphabet in the early 20th century, the name was also spelled Кыѣвъ, Киѣвъ, or Кіѣвъ with the now-obsolete letter
Old East Slavic chronicles, such as the
Kyiv is the romanized official Ukrainian name for the city, and it is used for legislative and official acts. Kiev is the traditional English name for the city, but because of its historical derivation from the Russian name, Kiev lost favor with many Western media outlets after the outbreak of the Russo-Ukrainian War in 2014.
The city was known by various names in history. In the Norse sagas it was Kænugarðr or Kœnugarðr,
In the Byzantine Greek of Constantine Porphyrogenitus's 10th-century
As a prominent city with a long history, its English name evolved with the language. Early English sources rendered the city's name as Kiou, Kiow, Kiew, and—as in Latin—Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Russiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae, published by Ortelius (London, 1570), the name of the city is spelled Kiou. On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, and the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall (London, 1772), the city is called Kiovia.
In English, Kiev appeared in print as early as 1804 in John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities", and in Mary Holderness's 1823 travelogue New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev. The Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation published by 1883, and Kyiv in 2018.
After Ukraine's independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names into the Latin alphabet for legislative and official acts in October 1995, according to which the Ukrainian name Київ is romanized Kyiv. These rules are applied for place names and addresses, as well as personal names in passports, street signs, and so on.
In 2018, the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry launched #CorrectUA, an online campaign to promote the use of official Ukrainian spellings by countries and organizations, in place of "outdated, Soviet-era" place-names. Specifically, for the capital, the campaign KyivNotKiev was developed as part of the broader campaign.
The place name Kyiv is standardized in the authoritative database of Ukraine's toponyms maintained by Ukraine's mapping agency Derzhheokadastr. It has also been adopted by the United Nations GEGN Geographical Names Database, the United States Board on Geographic Names, the International Air Transport Association, the European Union, English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions and governments, several international organizations, and the Encyclopædia Britannica. Some English-language news sources have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including the AP, CP, Reuters, and AFP news services, media organizations in Ukraine, and some media organizations in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, despite more resistance to the spelling change compared to others, like Beijing and Mumbai.
Alternative romanizations used in English-language sources include Kyïv (according to the ALA–LC romanization used in bibliographic cataloguing), Kyjiv (scholarly transliteration used in linguistics), and Kyyiv (the 1965 BGN/PCGN transliteration standard).
The first known humans in the region of Kyiv lived there in the late paleolithic period (Stone Age). The population around Kyiv during the Bronze Age formed part of the so-called Trypillian culture, as evidenced by artifacts from that culture found in the area. During the early Iron Age certain tribes settled around Kyiv that practiced land cultivation, husbandry and trading with the Scythians and ancient states of the northern Black Sea coast. Findings of Roman coins of the 2nd to the 4th centuries suggest trade relations with the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire. Notable archaeologists of the area around Kyiv include Vikentiy Khvoyka.
Scholars continue to debate when the city was founded: The traditional founding date is 482 CE, so the city celebrated
There are several legendary accounts of the origin of the city. One tells of members of a Slavic tribe (
There is little historical evidence pertaining to the period when the city was founded. Scattered
However, according to the 1773 Dictionary of Ancient Geography of Alexander Macbean, that settlement corresponds to the modern city of Chernobyl. Just south of Azagarium, there is another settlement, Amadoca, believed to be the capital of the Amadoci people living in an area between the marshes of Amadoca in the west and the Amadoca mountains in the east.
Another name for Kyiv mentioned in history, the origin of which is not completely clear, is Sambat, which apparently has something to do with the
At least three Arabic-speaking 10th century geographers who traveled the area mention the city of Zānbat as the chief city of the Russes. Among them are ibn Rustah,
The Primary Chronicle states that at some point during the late 9th or early 10th century Askold and Dir, who may have been of Viking or Varangian descent, ruled in Kyiv. They were murdered by
Other historians suggest that
According to the aforementioned scholars the building of the fortress of Kyiv was finished in 840 under the leadership of Keő (Keve), Csák, and Geréb, three brothers, possibly members of the Tarján tribe. The three names appear in the Kyiv Chronicle as Kyi, Shchek, and Khoryv and may be not of Slavic origin, as Russian historians have always struggled to account for their meanings and origins. According to Hungarian historian Viktor Padányi, their names were inserted into the Kyiv Chronicle in the 12th century, and they were identified as old-Russian mythological heroes.
The city of Kyiv stood on the
In March 1169, Grand Prince
These events had a profound effect on the future of the city and on the
In the early 1320s, a Lithuanian army led by Grand Duke
With the 1569
Occupied by Russian troops since the 1654
In 1834, the Russian government established Saint Vladimir University, now called the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv after the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko (1814–1861). (Shevchenko worked as a field researcher and editor for the geography department). The medical faculty of Saint Vladimir University, separated into an independent institution in 1919–1921 during the Soviet period, became the Bogomolets National Medical University in 1995.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, the
Following the gradual loss of Ukraine's autonomy, Kyiv experienced growing
From 1921 to 1991, the city formed part of the
In 1934, Kyiv became the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The city boomed again during the years of Soviet industrialization as its population grew rapidly and many industrial giants were established, some of which exist today.
Allegedly in response to the actions of the NKVD, the Germans rounded up all the local
Kyiv recovered economically in the post-war years, becoming once again the third-most important city of the Soviet Union. The catastrophic accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 occurred only 100 km (62 mi) north of the city. However, the prevailing south wind blew most of the radioactive debris away from Kyiv.
In the course of the
Geographically, Kyiv is on the border of the Polesia woodland ecological zone, a part of the European mixed woods area, and the East European forest steppe biome. However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. Kyiv is completely surrounded by Kyiv Oblast.
Originally on the west bank, today Kyiv is on both sides of the
The northern outskirts of the city border the Polesian Lowland. Kyiv expanded into the Dnieper Lowland on the left bank (to the east) as late as the 20th century. The whole portion of Kyiv on the left bank of the Dnieper is generally referred to as the Left Bank (Лівий берег, Livyi bereh). Significant areas of the left bank Dnieper valley were artificially sand-deposited, and are protected by dams.
Within the city the Dnieper River forms a branching system of
In total, there are 448 bodies of open water within the boundaries of Kyiv, which include the Dnieper itself, its reservoirs, and several small rivers, dozens of lakes and artificially created ponds. They occupy 7949 hectares. Additionally, the city has 16 developed beaches (totalling 140 hectares) and 35 near-water recreational areas (covering more than 1,000 hectares). Many are used for pleasure and recreation, although some of the bodies of water are not suitable for swimming.
According to the
Kyiv has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The warmest months are June, July, and August, with mean temperatures of 13.8 to 24.8 °C (56.8 to 76.6 °F). The coldest are December, January, and February, with mean temperatures of −4.6 to −1.1 °C (23.7 to 30.0 °F). The highest ever temperature recorded in the city was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) on 30 July 1936.
The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was −32.9 °C (−27.2 °F) on 11 January 1951. Snow cover usually lies from mid-November to the end of March, with the frost-free period lasting 180 days on average, but surpassing 200 days in some years.
|Climate data for Kyiv (1991–2020, extremes 1881–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||−0.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−32.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||38
|Average extreme snow depth cm (inches)||9
|Average rainy days||8||7||9||13||14||15||14||11||14||12||12||9||138|
|Average snowy days||17||17||10||2||0.2||0||0||0||0.03||2||9||16||73|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||42||64||112||162||257||273||287||252||189||123||51||31||1,843|
|Average ultraviolet index||1||1||2||4||6||7||6||6||4||2||1||1||3|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net, Central Observatory for Geophysics (extremes), World Meteorological Organization (humidity 1981–2010)|
|Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960) and Weather Atlas|
Legal status, local government and politics
Legal status and local government
The municipality of the city of Kyiv has a
The mayor of Kyiv is
Most key buildings of the national government are along
The city state administration and council is in the Kyiv City council building on Khreshchatyk Street. The oblast state administration and council is in the oblast council building on ploshcha Lesi Ukrayinky ("Lesya Ukrayinka Square"). The Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Raion state administration is near Kiltseva doroha ("Ring Road") on prospekt Peremohy ("Victory Parkway"), while the Kyiv-Sviatoshyn Raion local council is on vulytsia Yantarna ("Yantarnaya Street").
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2013)
The growing political and economic role of the city, combined with its international relations, as well as extensive
Kyiv is further informally divided into historical or territorial neighbourhoods, each housing from about 5,000 to 100,000 inhabitants.
The first known formal subdivision of Kyiv dates to 1810 when the city was subdivided into 4 parts:
During the Soviet era, as the city was expanding, the number of raions also gradually increased. These newer districts of the city, along with some older areas were then named in honour of prominent communists and socialist-revolutionary figures; however, due to the way in which many communist party members eventually, after a certain period of time, fell out of favour and so were replaced with new, fresher minds, so too did the names of Kyiv's districts change accordingly.
The last raion reform took place in 2001 when the number of raions was decreased from 14 to 10.
Under Oleksandr Omelchenko (mayor from 1999 to 2006), there were further plans for the merger of some raions and revision of their boundaries, and the total number of raions had been planned to be decreased from 10 to 7. With the election of the new mayor-elect (Leonid Chernovetskyi) in 2006, these plans were shelved.
This section needs to be updated.(February 2023)
|at 1 January of respective year.|
According to the
Kyiv's ethnic composition has shifted greatly over the last centuries. According to the census of March 2, 1874, conducted by the local branch of the Russian Geographical Society, there were 127,205 people living in Kyiv. Of these, 80% spoke "Russian," 11% spoke "Jewish," 6% spoke Polish and 2% spoke German. Of the "Russian" speakers, 39% were recorded as speaking Little Russian (Ukrainian), which meant that Ukrainian speakers accounted for 30% of the city as a whole. Of the remaining "Russian" speakers, however, there were only 10% who spoke Greater Russian (Russian) and 2% who spoke Belarusian. The remaining 49% spoke in "generally Russian speech." According to the official census of 1897, the number of Great Russian speakers rose to 54%; speakers of Little Russian accounted for 22%. Jewish speakers accounted for 12%, Polish 6.7%.
By the September 1917 city-census of Kyiv, conducted by the authorities of the
According to the 2001 census data, more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups reside within the territory of Kyiv.
A 2015 study by the
Both Ukrainian and Russian are commonly spoken in the city; approximately 75% of Kyiv's population responded "Ukrainian" to the 2001 census question on their native language, roughly 25% responded "Russian". According to a 2006 survey, Ukrainian is used at home by 23% of Kyivans, 52% use Russian, and 24% switch between both. In the 2003 sociological survey, when the question "What language do you use in everyday life?" was asked, 52% said "mostly Russian", 32% "both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure", 14% "mostly Ukrainian", and 4.3% "exclusively Ukrainian".
According to the census of 1897, of Kyiv's approximately 240,000 people approximately 56% of the population spoke the Russian language, 23% spoke the Ukrainian language, 13% spoke Yiddish, 7% spoke Polish and 1% spoke the Belarusian language.
A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that the languages spoken at home in Kyiv were Ukrainian (27%), Russian (32%), and an equal combination of Ukrainian and Russian (40%).
The Jews of Kyiv are first mentioned in a 10th-century letter. The Jewish population remained relatively small until the nineteenth century.
Jews began returning to Kyiv at the end of the war, but experienced another pogrom in September 1945.
Modern Kyiv is a mix of the old (Kyiv preserved about 70 percent of more than 1,000 buildings built during 1907–1914)
The plans of building massive monuments (of
Ukrainian independence at the turn of the millennium has heralded other changes. Western-style residential complexes, modern
Kyiv's most famous historical architecture complexes are the
One of Kyiv's widely recognized modern landmarks is the highly visible giant
Among Kyiv's best-known monuments are
Holy Dormition Cathedral
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Volodymyr's Cathedral
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral
Saint Andrew's Church
"House with Chimaeras"
Brodsky Choral Synagogue – Moorish Revival architecture
Kyiv was the historic cultural centre of the
Kyiv's theatres include, the
Other significant cultural centres include the
Numerous songs and paintings were dedicated to the city. Some songs became part of Russian, Ukrainian and Jewish folklore. The most popular songs are "How not to love you, Kyiv of mine?" and "Kyiv Waltz". Renowned Ukrainian composer Oleksandr Bilash wrote an operetta called "Legend of Kyiv".
It is said that one can walk from one end of Kyiv to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. Most characteristic are the horse-chestnuts (каштани, kashtany).
Kyiv is known as a green city with
Among the numerous islands, Venetsianskyi (or Hydropark) is the most developed. It is accessible by metro or by car, and includes an amusement park, swimming beaches, boat rentals, and night clubs. The Victory Park (Park Peremohy) near Darnytsia subway station is a popular destination for strollers, joggers, and cyclists. Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes in Kyiv. The area lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter and ice fishermen are a frequent sight, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of summer draws out a greater mass of people to the shores for swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures sometimes reaching 30 to 34 °C (86 to 93 °F).
The centre of Kyiv (Independence Square and Khreschatyk Street) becomes a large outdoor party place at night during summer months, with thousands of people having a good time in nearby restaurants, clubs and outdoor cafes. The central streets are closed for auto traffic on weekends and holidays. Andriyivskyy Descent is one of the best known historic streets and a major tourist attraction in Kyiv. The hill is the site of the Castle of Richard the Lionheart; the baroque-style St Andrew's Church; the home of Kyiv born
A wide variety of farm produce is available in many of Kyiv's farmer markets with the Besarabsky Market in the very centre of the city being most famous. Each residential region has its own market, or rynok. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish, cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made smetana (sour cream), caviar, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products with some markets devoted solely to specific wares such as automobiles, car parts, pets, clothing, flowers, and other things.
At the city's southern outskirts, near the historic Pyrohiv village, there is an outdoor museum, officially called the Museum of Folk Architecture and Life of Ukraine It has an area of 1.5 square kilometres (1 sq mi). This territory houses several "mini-villages" that represent by region the traditional rural architecture of Ukraine.
Kyiv also has numerous recreational attractions like bowling alleys, go-cart tracks, paintball venues, billiard halls and even shooting ranges. The 100-year-old Kyiv Zoo is on 40 hectares and according to CBC "the zoo has 2,600 animals from 328 species".
Museums and galleries
The National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War is a memorial complex commemorating the Eastern Front of World War II in the hills on the
Some of the buildings are restored and turned into a museum called the Kyiv Fortress, while others are in use in various military and commercial installations. The National Art Museum of Ukraine is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art. The Golden Gate is a historic gateway in the ancient city's walls. The name Zoloti Vorota is also used for a nearby theatre and a station of the Kyiv Metro. The small Ukrainian National Chernobyl Museum acts as both a memorial and historical center devoted to the events surrounding the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and its effect on the Ukrainian people, the environment, and subsequent attitudes toward the safety of nuclear power as a whole.
Kyiv has many professional and amateur football clubs, including
Other prominent non-football sport clubs in the city include: the
Most Ukrainian national teams play their home international matches in Kyiv. The Ukraine national football team, for example, will play matches at the re-constructed Olympic Stadium from 2011.
Since introducing a visa-free regime for EU-member states and Switzerland in 2005, Ukraine has seen a steady increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting the country. Before the 2008–09 recession, the average annual growth in the number of foreign visits in Kyiv was 23% over a three-year period. In 2009, a total of 1.6 million tourists stayed in Kyiv hotels, of whom almost 259,000 (c. 16%) were foreigners.
After UEFA Euro 2012, the city became the most popular destination for European tourists. A record number of 1.8 million foreign tourists was registered then along with about 2.5 million domestic tourists. More than 850,000 foreign tourists visited Kyiv in the first half of 2018, as compared to 660,000 tourists over the same period in 2013. As of 2018, the hotel occupancy rate from May to September averages 45–50%. Hostels and three-star hotels are approximately 90% full, four-star hotels 65–70%. Six five-star hotels average 50–55% occupancy. Ordinary tourists generally come from May to October, and business tourists from September to May.
In 2014, the Kyiv city's council established the city's anthem. It became a 1962 song, "Yak tebe ne liubyty, Kyieve mii!" (Як тебе не любити, Києве мій!, roughly "How can I not love you, Kyiv of mine!").
As with most
Official figures show that between 2004 and 2008 Kyiv's economy outstripped the rest of the country's, growing by an annual average of 11.5%.
Because the city has a large and diverse economic base and is not dependent on any single industry or company, its unemployment rate has historically been relatively low – only 3.75% over 2005–2008. Indeed, even as the rate of joblessness jumped to 7.1% in 2009, it remained far below the national average of 9.6%.
Kyiv is the undisputed center of business and commerce of Ukraine and home to the country's largest companies, such as
In May 2011, Kyiv authorities presented a 15-year development strategy which calls for attracting as much as EUR82 billion of foreign investment by 2025 to modernize the city's transport and utilities infrastructure and make it more attractive for tourists.
|Nominal GRP (USD bn)**||11.5||15.0||18.9||26.9||32.2||21.8||24.8||28.0||34.5|
|Nominal GRP per capita (USD)**||4,348||5,616||6,972||9,860||11,693||7,841||8,875||10,007||12,192||13,687|
|Monthly wage (USD)**||182||259||342||455||584||406||432||504||577|
Unemployment rate (%)***
|Retail sales (UAH bn)||n/a||n/a||n/a||34.87||46.50||42.79||50.09||62.80||73.00||77.14|
|Retail sales (USD bn)||n/a||n/a||n/a||6.90||8.83||5.49||6.31||7.88||9.14||9.65|
|Foreign direct investment (USD bn)||2.1||3.0||4.8||7.0||11.7||16.8||19.2||21.8||24.9||27.3|
- Kuznya na Rybalskomu, naval production
- Antonov Serial Production Plant (former Aviant), airplanes manufacturing
- Aeros, small aircraft production
- Kyiv Roshen Factory, confectionery
- Kyiv Arsenal(former arms manufacturer), specializes in production of optic-precision instruments
- Obolon, brewery
- Zhulyany Airport
Education and science
Scientific research is conducted in many institutes of higher education and, additionally, in many research institutes affiliated with the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Kyiv is home to Ukraine's ministry of education and science, and is also noted for its contributions to medical and computer science research.
In 2016, UNIT Factory (Ukrainian National IT Factory) opened. It offers a completely new format of IT education. The education is completely free for all trainees subject to compliance with the terms of the program. Within this project are the Technology Companies' Development Center (TCDC), BIONIC University open inter-corporate IT-university, as well as two hi-tech laboratories—VR Lab (Crytek) and Smart City lab.
Kyiv hosts many universities, the major ones being
There are about 530 general secondary schools and about 680 nursery schools and kindergartens in Kyiv. Additionally, there are evening schools for adults, specialist technical schools, and the Evangel Theological Seminary.
There are many libraries in the city, with the
Local public transport
Local public transportation in Kyiv includes the Metro, buses and
The publicly owned and operated Kyiv Metro is the fastest, the most convenient and affordable network that covers most, but not all, of the city. The Metro is expanding towards the city limits to meet growing demand, having three lines with a total length of 66.1 kilometres (41.1 miles) and 51 stations (some of which are renowned architectural landmarks). The Metro carries around 1.422 million passengers daily accounting for 38% of the Kyiv's public transport load. In 2011, the total number of trips exceeded 519 million.
The historic tram system was the first electric tramway in the former Russian Empire and the third one in Europe after the Berlin Straßembahn and the Budapest tramway. The tram system consists of 139.9 km (86.9 mi) of track, including 14 km (8.7 mi) two Rapid Tram lines, served by 21 routes with the use of 523 tram cars. Once a well maintained and widely used method of transport, the system is now gradually being phased out in favor of buses and trolleybuses.
The Kyiv Funicular was constructed during 1902–1905. It connects the historic Uppertown, and the lower commercial neighborhood of Podil through the steep Saint Vladimir Hill overseeing the Dnieper River. The line consists of two stations.
All public road transport (except for some minibuses) is operated by the united Kyivpastrans municipal company. It is heavily subsidized by the city.
The Kyiv public transport system, except for taxi, uses a simple flat rate tariff system regardless of distance traveled: tickets or tokens must be purchased each time a vehicle is boarded. Digital ticket system is already established in Kyiv Metro, with plans for other transport modes. Discount passes are available for grade school and higher education students. Pensioners use public transportation free. There are monthly passes in all combinations of public transportation. Ticket prices are regulated by the city government, and the cost of one ride is far lower than in Western Europe.
The taxi market in Kyiv is expansive but not regulated. In particular, the taxi fare per kilometer is not regulated. There is a fierce competition between private taxi companies.
Roads and bridges
Kyiv represents the focal point of Ukraine's "national roads" system, thus linked by road to all cities of the country. European routes , and intersect in Kyiv.
There are eight Dnieper bridges and dozens of grade-separated intersections in the city. Several new intersections are under construction. There are plans to build a full-size, fully grade-separated ring road around Kyiv.
In 2009, Kyiv's roads were in poor technical condition and maintained inadequately.
Traffic jams and lack of parking space are growing problems for all road transport services in Kyiv.
Kyiv is served by two international passenger airports: the
Railways are Kyiv's main mode of intracity- and suburban transportation. The city has a developed railroad infrastructure including a long-distance passenger station, 6 cargo stations, depots, and repairing facilities. However, this system still fails to meet the demand for passenger service. Particularly, the
Construction is underway for turning the large Darnytsia railway station on the left-bank part of Kyiv into a long-distance passenger hub, which may ease traffic at the central station. Bridges over the Dnieper River are another problem restricting the development of city's railway system. Presently, only one rail bridge out of two is available for intense train traffic. A new combined rail-auto bridge is under construction, as a part of Darnytsia project.
In 2011, the Kyiv city administration established the new Urban Train for Kyiv. This service runs at standard 4- to 10-minute intervals throughout the day and follows a circular route around the city centre, which allows it to serve many of Kyiv's inner suburbs. Interchanges between the Kyiv Metro and Fast Tram exist at many of the urban train's station stops.
Suburban 'Elektrichka' trains are serviced by the publicly owned Ukrainian Railways. The suburban train service is fast, and unbeatably safe in terms of traffic accidents. But the trains are not reliable, as they may fall significantly behind schedule, may not be safe in terms of crime, and the elektrichka cars are poorly maintained and are overcrowded in rush hours.
There are five elektrichka directions from Kyiv:
- Nizhyn (north-eastern)
- Hrebinka (south-eastern)
- Myronivka (southern)
- Fastiv (south-western)
- Korosten (western)
More than a dozen of elektrichka stops are within the city allowing residents of different neighborhoods to use the suburban trains.
- 12,038 km of power transmission lines with a voltage of 0.4–110 kV
- 64 substations with a voltage of 35–110 kV
- 243 transformer substationsat 10 kV
In line with the EU Third Energy Package, since 2019 state energy policy abandoned the Rotterdam plus system and has required transmission system operator (TSO) and regional utilities unbundling in order to separate electricity distribution and retail electricity supply.
Water and sanitation
The national government has delegated responsibility for water and sanitation services to local authorities. Kyivvodokanal is a private joint-stock company that provides such services to Kyiv. The length of water supply networks is 4231 km, of which 1798 km are dilapidated. The length of sewage networks is 2662 km, of which 830 km are dilapidated.
Twin towns – sister cities
- Ankara, Turkey (1993)
- Ashgabat, Turkmenistan (2001)
- Astana, Kazakhstan (1998)
- Athens, Greece (1996)
- Baku, Azerbaijan (1997)
- Beijing, China (1993)
- Berlin, Germany (2023)
- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (1997)
- Brasília, Brazil (2000)
- Bratislava, Slovakia (1969)
- Brussels, Belgium (1997)
- Bucharest, Romania (2022)
- Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000)
- Chicago, United States (1991)
- Chișinău, Moldova (1993)
- Copenhagen, Denmark (2023)
- Edinburgh, United Kingdom (1989)
- Florence, Italy (1967)
- Jakarta, Indonesia (2005)
- Kraków, Poland (1993)
- Kyoto, Japan (1971)
- Leipzig, Germany (1956)
- Lima, Peru (2005)
- Mexico City, Mexico (1997)
- Munich, Germany (1989)
- Odense, Denmark (1989)
- Osh Region, Kyrgyzstan (2002)
- Pretoria, South Africa (1993)
- Riga, Latvia (1998)
- Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2000)
- Santiago, Chile (1998)
- Sofia, Bulgaria (1997)
- Suzhou, China (2005)
- Tallinn, Estonia (1994)
- Tampere, Finland (1954)
- Tashkent, Uzbekistan (1998)
- Tbilisi, Georgia (1999)
- Toulouse, France (1975)
- Vilnius, Lithuania (1991)
- Warsaw, Poland (1994)
- Wuhan, China (1990)
Other cooperation agreements
Arts, literature, and entertainment
- Leonid Bronevoy (1928–2017), Soviet and Russian actor
- Mikhail Bulgakov (1891–1940), Soviet writer, medical doctor and playwright
- Eugenia Chuprina (born 1971), poet, novelist, writer and playwright
- Daniel the Traveller, 12th-century travel writer from the Kievan Rus'
- Ilya Ehrenburg (1891–1967), Soviet writer, journalist, translator and cultural figure
- Eastern Roman Empireand the Bulgarian Empire
- Dmytro Hnatyuk (1925–2016), Soviet and Ukrainian opera singer
- Milton Horn (1906–1995), Russian-American sculptor
- Vladimir Horowitz (1903–1989), American classical pianist
- Milla Jovovich (born 1975), American actress
- Sonya Koshkina (born 1985), Ukrainian journalist, editor-in-chief
- Kateryna Kukhar (born 1982), prima ballerina
- Ana Layevska (born 1982), Ukrainian-Mexican actress
- Boris Levit-Broun (born 1950), Russian poet, writer, and artist
- Serge Lifar (1905–1986), French ballet dancer
- geometric abstract art and the originator of the avant-garde Suprematist movement
- Natalya Marchenkova (born 1948), animator and animation director, born in Kyiv
- Natalia Matsak (born 1982), ballet dancer
- Galyna Moskvitina (born 1963), painter
- Ivan Putrov (born 1980), dancer, former Principal with The Royal Ballet in London
- Natalya Semenchenko (born 1976), professor, writer, and publicist
- Lev Shestov (1866–1938), Russian existentialist philosopher
- Oksana Shvets (1955–2022), Ukrainian actress
- Alexander Vertinsky (1889—1957), singer, composer, poet, cabaret artist and actor
- Ludmila Anatolievna Yaroshevskaya (1906–1975), composer
- Artemy Vedel (1767–1808), composer
Science and technology
- Nikolai Amosov (1913–2002), Soviet and Ukrainian heart surgeon and inventor
- Zino Davidoff (1906–1994), Swiss premium tobacco manufacturer; known as "King of Cigars"
- Jan Koum (born 1976), American computer programmer, CEO and co-founder of WhatsApp
- Viktor Kaspruk, (born 1955), political scientist
- Alexander Ostrowski (1893–1986), mathematician
- Borys Paton (1918–2020), scientist, chairman of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
- Igor Sikorsky (1889–1972), Russian-American aviation pioneer
- Nikolai Berdyaev (1874–1948), Russian Orthodox religious and political philosopher
- Jonathan Markovitch (born 1967), Chief Rabbi of Kyiv
- Petro Mohyla (1596–1647), Metropolitan bishop of Kyiv from 1633
- Mikhail Morgulis (1941–2021), Russian-language writer, editor and theologian
- Moses of Kiev, 12th century Talmudist
- Theophan Prokopovich (1681–1736), theologian, poet, mathematician and philosopher
- Eugeniusz Horbaczewski (1917–1944), Polish fighter pilot
- Yuliia "Taira" Paievska (born 1968), founder of "Taira's Angels"
- Oleg Blokhin (born 1952), Ukrainian football player
- Oleg Ladik (born 1971), Ukrainian-born Canadian Olympic wrestler
- Valeriy Lobanovskyi (1939–2002), Soviet and Ukrainian football coach
- Oleksandr Saliuk Jr. (born 1978), Ukrainian rally driver
- Andriy Shevchenko (born 1976), Ukrainian footballer
- Igor Slyusar (born 1989), Ukrainian professional ice hockey player
- Igor Skuz (born 1976), Ukrainian racing driver
- Rurikid prince who ruled 882–912
- Olga of Kiev (c. 900–969), a regent of Kievan Rus' for her son Sviatoslav from 945 until 960
- Nicholas Pritzker, scion of the Pritzker Family
- Vladimir the Great (c. 958–1015), Grand Prince of Kiev and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015
- Israel Markovich Brodsky(1823–1888), businessman and philanthropist
- List of national landmarks of cultural heritage in Kyiv
- List of crossings of the Dnieper River
- List of universities, colleges, and research institutions in Kyiv
- Outline of Ukraine
- See § Name for alternative spellings and pronunciations.
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