List of basal eudicot families

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

"micrograph of pollen"
A microscopic pollen grain of Arabis, showing three colpi


core eudicots (the rest of the eudicots), they have pollen grains with three colpi (grooves) or other derived structures,[4] and usually have flowers with four or five petals (sometimes multiples of four or five, sometimes reduced or fused).[5] Unlike other eudicots, they sometimes have flowers with petals in twos or multiples of two.[6]

The basal eudicots include trees, shrubs, woody vines and herbaceous plants.[7] Cultivars of Buxus are used for hedges and topiary, and the high-quality wood is commonly used for decorative carvings and musical instruments.[8] The sacred lotus is the national flower of India and Vietnam, and the waratah is the floral emblem of the Australian state of New South Wales.[9] The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, a source of morphine, was cultivated thousands of years ago in Mesopotamia.[10] Macadamia nuts are mainly grown in Hawaii and Australia.[11]

The orders



From the glossary of botanical terms:

  • annual: a plant that completes its life cycle within a single year or growing season
  • evolutionary tree
  • climber: a vine that leans on, twines around or clings to other plants for vertical support
  • deciduous: shedding or falling seasonally, as with bark, leaves, or petals
  • glandular hair: a hair tipped with a secretory structure
  • herbaceous: not woody; usually green and soft in texture
  • perennial: lives for more than two years
  • unisexual: bearing only male or only female reproductive organs (i.e. not bisexual)
  • woody: hard and lignified; not herbaceous[14]

The APG IV system is the fourth in a series of plant taxonomies from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[2]

Dilleniales and Gunnerales families

Dilleniales and Gunnerales families
Family and a common name[13][b] Type genus and etymology[c] Total genera; global distribution Description and uses Order[13] Type genus images
Dilleniaceae (guineaflower family) Dillenia, for Johann Jacob Dillenius (1684–1747)[16][17] 11 genera, throughout the tropics and extending into Asia and Australia[16][18] Shrubs, trees, woody vines and a few herbaceous plants. Dillenia and Hibbertia species are grown as ornamentals, and some Dillenia fruits are edible.[19][16] Dilleniales[16]
(giant-rhubarb family)
Gunnera, for Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718–1773)[20] 1 genus, in the Southern Hemisphere and low northern latitudes[21][22] Small to very large herbaceous plants, usually perennials, with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The genus is planted along pond edges in many temperate gardens.[23][20] Gunnerales[20]
(resurrection-shrub family)
Myrothamnus, from Greek for "perfume bush"[24] 1 genus, in East Africa and Madagascar[24][25] Fragrant unisexual shrubs. This genus is the only woody resurrection plant; at the end of the dry season, the leaves resuscitate and turn green after wetting.[24][26] Gunnerales[24]

Basal eudicot families

Basal eudicot families
Family and a common name[27] Type genus and etymology Total genera; global distribution Description and uses Order[27] Type genus images
Berberidaceae (barberry family) Berberis, from an Arabic plant name[28][29][30] 13 genera, in temperate zones worldwide[31][32] Deciduous and evergreen shrubs, small trees and herbaceous perennials. Berberis fruits are sometimes used in cooking. The genus hosts stem rust, which can infest cereal grains.[23][31] Ranunculales[31]
Buxaceae (box family) Buxus, from a Latin plant name[33][34][35] 6 genera, on all continents except Australia and Antarctica[36][37] Mostly shrubs and trees, usually without hairs or scales. Pachysandra terminalis is planted as a shade-loving evergreen ground cover.[19][38] Buxales[38]
Circaeastera­ceae (witch's-star family) Circaeaster, for Circe, a witch of Greek myth[39][40] 2 genera, scattered in Asian montane habitats[41][42] Herbaceous perennials and annuals[41] Ranunculales[41]
Circaeaster agrestis
(Asian-elm family)
Euptelea, from Greek for "good elm"[43] 1 genus, in a variety of temperate zones in Asia[44][45] Deciduous shrubs and trees with spirally arranged leaves. Both species are grown as ornamental trees.[44] Ranunculales[44]
Lardizabalaceae (zabala-fruit family) Lardizabala, for Manuel de Lardizábal y Uribe (1744–1824), a politician[46][47] 7 genera, in southern South America and temperate East Asia[46][48] Woody vines, including climbers, and a few shrubs. Akebia quinata is a temperate garden ornamental, and its shoots are sometimes used in vegetable tempura in Japan.[23][46] Ranunculales[46]
Lardizabala biternata
Menisperma­ceae (moonseed family) Menispermum, from Greek for "moon seeds"[49][50] 76 genera, most in tropical rainforests[51][52] Woody vines, along with some shrubs, small trees and herbaceous plants. The arrow poison curare is made from Chondodendron.[19][51] Ranunculales[51]
Nelumbonaceae (sacred-lotus family) Nelumbo, from a Sinhalese plant name[53] 1 genus, in North America and southern and East Asia, in zones ranging from temperate to tropical[54][55] Herbaceous aquatic perennials with underground rhizomes that produce tubers. The tubers and seeds are popular in Asian cuisine. Leaf surfaces have superhydrophobic wax. [23][54] Proteales[54]
Papaveraceae (poppy family) Papaver, from a Latin plant name[56][57][58] 45 genera, mostly in temperate zones north of the equator[59][60] Mostly herbaceous annuals and perennials, with a few shrubs and fewer trees. Poppy seeds are widely used in baked goods. Papaver somniferum is harvested to produce opiates, including morphine.[59][61] Ranunculales[59]
Platanaceae (plane-tree family) Platanus, from a Greek plant name[62][63] 1 genus, in parts of North America, Europe and Asia.[64][65] Tall deciduous trees with peeling bark. Plane (sycamore) wood is durable, and traditionally used for butcher's blocks. The hairs on new shoots can cause an allergic reaction.[23][64] Proteales[64]
Proteaceae (sugarbush family) Protea, for Proteus, a Greek god[66][67] 80 genera, mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in Australia[68][69] Trees and shrubs, usually with bisexual flowers. Banksia, Leucadendron, Protea and other genera are grown as ornamentals and for the cut-flower trade. Chilean hazelnuts are eaten in South America and New Zealand.[61][70] Proteales[70]
Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Ranunculus, from Latin for "little frog" (some species are aquatic)[71][72][73] 50 genera, worldwide, mostly in temperate zones[74][75] Herbaceous plants, woody vines and small shrubs. Many genera are popular garden plants, including Aconitum, Anemone, Aquilegia, Clematis, Delphinium, Ranunculus and Thalictrum.[23][74] Ranunculales[74]
Sabiaceae (pao-hua family) Sabia, from a Hindi plant name[76][77] 3 genera, in tropical and warm temperate East Asia and Central and South America[76][78] Evergreen and deciduous shrubs, trees and woody vines[23][76] Proteales[76]
Trochodendra­ceae (wheel-tree family) Trochodendron, from Greek for "wheel" (of stamens) and "tree"[79][80][81] 2 genera, in subtropical and temperate East Asia[82][83] Evergreen shrubs and trees with spirally arranged leaves and limited vascular systems[82]

See also


  1. ^ The taxonomy (classification) in this list follows Plants of the World (2017)[1] and the fourth Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system.[2] Total counts of genera for each family come from Plants of the World Online.[3] (See the POWO license.) Extinct taxa are not included.
  2. ^ Each family's formal name ends in the Latin suffix -aceae and is derived from the name of a genus that is or once was part of the family.[15]
  3. ^ Some plants were named for naturalists (unless otherwise noted).


  1. ^ a b Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017.
  2. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2016.
  3. ^ POWO.
  4. ^ Judd & Olmstead 2004, p. 1627.
  5. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 115, 213.
  6. ^ Stevens 2023, Eudicots.
  7. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 213–231.
  8. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 228.
  9. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 224, 226.
  10. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 216.
  11. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 226.
  12. ^ Stevens 2023, Gunnerales,Dilleniales.
  13. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 229–231.
  14. ^ Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 638–670.
  15. ^ ICN, art. 18.
  16. ^ a b c d Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 231.
  17. ^ IPNI, Dilleniaceae, Type.
  18. ^ POWO, Dilleniaceae.
  19. ^ a b c POWO, Flora of Tropical East Africa.
  20. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 229–230.
  21. ^ Kubitzki 2007, pp. 2–7.
  22. ^ POWO, Gunneraceae.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g POWO, Neotropikey.
  24. ^ a b c d Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 229.
  25. ^ POWO, Myrothamnaceae.
  26. ^ POWO, Flora of Zambesiaca.
  27. ^ a b Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 213–229.
  28. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 63.
  29. ^ Coombes 2012, p. 64.
  30. ^ IPNI, Berberidaceae, Type.
  31. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 219–220.
  32. ^ POWO, Berberidaceae.
  33. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 74.
  34. ^ Coombes 2012, p. 73.
  35. ^ IPNI, Buxaceae, Type.
  36. ^ Kubitzki 2007, p. 2.
  37. ^ POWO, Buxaceae.
  38. ^ a b Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 227–228.
  39. ^ Burkhardt 2018, p. C-40.
  40. ^ IPNI, Circaeasteraceae, Type.
  41. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 216–217.
  42. ^ POWO, Circaeasteraceae.
  43. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 136.
  44. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 214.
  45. ^ POWO, Eupteleaceae.
  46. ^ a b c d Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 217.
  47. ^ IPNI, Lardizabalaceae, Type.
  48. ^ POWO, Lardizabalaceae.
  49. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 205.
  50. ^ IPNI, Menispermaceae, Type.
  51. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 218.
  52. ^ POWO, Menispermaceae.
  53. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 216.
  54. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 223–224.
  55. ^ POWO, Nelumbonaceae.
  56. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 230.
  57. ^ Coombes 2012, p. 223.
  58. ^ IPNI, Papaveraceae, Type.
  59. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 215–216.
  60. ^ POWO, Papaveraceae.
  61. ^ a b POWO, Flora of West Tropical Africa.
  62. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 243.
  63. ^ Coombes 2012, p. 237.
  64. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 224–225.
  65. ^ POWO, Platanaceae.
  66. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 249.
  67. ^ IPNI, Proteaceae, Type.
  68. ^ Kubitzki 2007, p. 12.
  69. ^ POWO, Proteaceae.
  70. ^ a b Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 225–226.
  71. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 255.
  72. ^ Coombes 2012, p. 251.
  73. ^ IPNI, Ranunculaceae, Type.
  74. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, p. 220.
  75. ^ POWO, Ranunculaceae.
  76. ^ a b c d Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 222–223.
  77. ^ IPNI, Sabiaceae, Type.
  78. ^ POWO, Sabiaceae.
  79. ^ Stearn 2002, p. 300.
  80. ^ Coombes 2012, p. 293.
  81. ^ IPNI, Trochodendraceae, Type.
  82. ^ a b c Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017, pp. 226–227.
  83. ^ POWO, Trochodendraceae.