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London

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

London
London is located in Earth
London
London
London (Earth)
Coordinates: 51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750)
Postcode areas
22 areas
Area codes
  • 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992
Budget£19.376 billion
($25 billion)
GeoTLD
.london
Websitewww.london.gov.uk Edit this at Wikidata

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million.[1] It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a 50-mile (80 km) estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a major settlement for two millennia.[9] The City of London, its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the Romans as Londinium and retains its medieval boundaries.[note 1][10] The City of Westminster, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries hosted the national government and parliament. Since the 19th century,[11] the name "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire,[12] which largely comprises Greater London,[13] governed by the Greater London Authority.[note 2][14]

As one of the world's major

natural and applied sciences, the London School of Economics in social sciences, and the comprehensive University College London.[20][21] London is the most visited city in Europe and has the busiest city airport system in the world.[22] The London Underground is the oldest rapid transit system in the world.[23] London is home to the most 5-star hotels of any city.[24]

London's diverse cultures encompass over 300 languages.[25] The mid-2018 population of Greater London of about 9 million[26] made it Europe's third-most populous city,[27] accounting for 13.4% of the population of the United Kingdom[28] and over 16% of the population of England. The Greater London Built-up Area is the fourth-most populous in Europe with about 9.8 million inhabitants at the 2011 census.[29][30] The London metropolitan area is the third-most populous in Europe with about 14 million inhabitants in 2016,[note 3][5][31] granting London the status of a megacity.

London has four

Wimbledon Tennis Championships and the London Marathon. In 2012, London became the first city to host three Summer Olympic Games.[34]

Toponymy

London is an ancient name, already attested in the first century AD, usually in the Latinised form Londinium;[35] for example, handwritten Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70–80 include the word Londinio ('in London').[36]

Over the years, the name has attracted many mythically based explanations. The earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136.[35][37]

Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources: Latin (usually Londinium), Old English (usually Lunden), and Welsh (usually Llundein), with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *Londonjon or something similar. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English.[38]

The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is debated. Prominent was

Proto-Indo-European root *lendh- ('sink, cause to sink'), combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo- (used to form place-names). Peter Schrijver has specifically suggested that the name originally meant "place that floods (periodically, tidally)".[40][38]

Until 1889, the name "London" applied officially only to the City of London, but since then it has also referred to the County of London and to Greater London.[41]

In writing, "London" is occasionally contracted to "LDN".[42][43] Such usage originated in SMS language and often appears in a social media user profile, suffixing an alias or handle.

History

Prehistory

In 1993, remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore upstream from Vauxhall Bridge.[44] This either crossed the Thames or reached a now-lost island in it. Two of the timbers were radiocarbon dated to 1750–1285 BCE.[44]

In 2010, foundations of a large timber structure, dated to 4800–4500 BCE,[45] were found on the Thames's south foreshore downstream from Vauxhall Bridge.[46] The function of the mesolithic structure is unclear. Both structures are on the south bank of the Thames, where the now-underground River Effra flows into the Thames.[46]

Roman London

In 1300, urban area of the City was still largely confined within the Roman walls
.

Despite the evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years[2] after the invasion of 43 AD.[47] This only lasted until about 61 AD, when the Iceni tribe led by Queen Boudica stormed it and burnt it to the ground.[48] The next planned incarnation of Londinium prospered, superseding Colchester as capital of the Roman province of Britannia in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of about 60,000.[49]

Anglo-Saxon and Viking-period London

With the early 5th-century collapse of Roman rule, London ceased to be a capital and the walled city of

Viking assaults brought decline. Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed.[52]

The Lancastrian siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a Yorkist
sally.

The

Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until a dramatic increase in about 950.[53]

By the 11th century, London was clearly the largest town in England.

Middle Ages

After winning the

Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. It became the basis of a new Palace of Westminster.[58][59]

In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto followed the royal English court around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed, for most purposes at Westminster, although the royal treasury, having been moved from Winchester, came to rest in the Tower. While the City of Westminster developed into a true governmental capital, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre and flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. In 1100, its population was some 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.[60] Disaster struck in the form of the Black Death in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population.[61] London was the focus of the Peasants' Revolt in 1381.[62]

London was also a centre of England's Jewish population before their expulsion by Edward I in 1290. Violence against Jews occurred in 1190, when it was rumoured that the new king had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation.[63] In 1264 during the Second Barons' War, Simon de Montfort's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts.[64]

Early modern

During the

Woollen cloth was shipped undyed and undressed from 14th/15th century London to the nearby shores of the Low Countries, where it was considered indispensable.[67]

Yet English maritime enterprise hardly reached beyond the seas of

Mediterranean was normally through Antwerp and over the Alps; any ships passing through the Strait of Gibraltar to or from England were likely to be Italian or Ragusan. The reopening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565 spurred a burst of commercial activity.[68] The Royal Exchange was founded.[69] Mercantilism grew and monopoly traders such as the East India Company were founded as trade expanded to the New World. London became the main North Sea port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from about 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.[65]

In the 16th century,

Puritan authorities shut down the theatres in the 1640s and 1650s.[70] The ban on theatre was lifted during the Restoration in 1660, and London's oldest operating theatre, Drury Lane, opened in 1663 in what is now the West End theatre district.[71]

By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still compact. There was an assassination attempt on

James I in Westminster, in the Gunpowder Plot of 5 November 1605.[72]

In 1637, the government of

Liberties of London, coupled with a lack of interest in administering these additional areas or concern by city guilds of having to share power, caused the Corporation's "The Great Refusal", a decision which largely continues to account for the unique governmental status of the City.[73]

In the

Royalists in 1642, culminating in the battles of Brentford and Turnham Green, London was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the Lines of Communication. The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months.[74]
The fortifications failed their only test when the New Model Army entered London in 1647,[75] and they were levelled by Parliament the same year.[76]

London was plagued by disease in the early 17th century,[77] culminating in the Great Plague of 1665–1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of the population.[78]

The Great Fire of London broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings.[79] Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by polymath Robert Hooke as surveyor for the City of London.[80][81][82] In 1708 Christopher Wren's masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, was completed. During the Georgian era, new districts such as Mayfair were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in South London. In the east, the Port of London expanded downstream. London's development as an international financial centre matured for much of the 18th century.[83]

In 1762,

George III acquired Buckingham House, which was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was said to be dogged by crime,[84] and the Bow Street Runners were established in 1750 as a professional police force.[85] A total of more than 200 offences were punishable by death,[86] including petty theft.[87] Epidemics during the 1720s and 30s saw most children born in the city die before reaching their fifth birthday.[88]

Coffee-houses became a popular place to debate ideas, as growing literacy and development of the printing press made news widely available, with Fleet Street becoming the centre of the British press. The invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies led many financiers to relocate to London and the first London international issue was arranged in 1817. Around the same time, the Royal Navy became the world's leading war fleet, acting as a major deterrent to potential economic adversaries. The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre.[89][90] According to Samuel Johnson:

You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.

— Samuel Johnson, 1777[91]

Late modern and contemporary

With the onset of the

urbanisation took place, and the number of High Streets (the primary street for retail in Britain) rapidly grew.[92][93] London was the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925,[94] with a population density of 325 per hectare.[95] In addition to the growing number of stores selling goods such as Harding, Howell & Co. on Pall Mall—a contender for the first department store—the streets had scores of street sellers loudly advertising their goods and services.[92] London's overcrowded conditions led to cholera epidemics,[96] claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866.[97] Rising traffic congestion led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council was created out of county areas surrounding the capital.[98]

From the early years of the 20th century onwards, teashops were found on High Streets across London and the rest of Britain, with Lyons, who opened the first of their chain of teashops in Piccadilly in 1894, leading the way.[99] The tearooms, such as the Criterion in Piccadilly, became a popular meeting place for women from the suffrage movement.[100] The city was the target of many attacks during the suffragette bombing and arson campaign, between 1912 and 1914, which saw historic landmarks such as Westminster Abbey and St Paul's Cathedral bombed.[101]

A bombed-out London street during the Blitz, World War II

London was

Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German Luftwaffe killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city.[103]

The

Great Smog of 1952 led to the Clean Air Act 1956, which ended the "pea soup fogs" for which London had been notorious[107] and had earned it the nickname the "Big Smoke".[108]

Starting mainly in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for worldwide

Old Bailey bombing.[115][116] Racial inequality was highlighted by the 1981 Brixton riot.[117]

Greater London's population declined in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8.6 million in 1939 to around 6.8 million in the 1980s.[118] The principal ports for London moved downstream to Felixstowe and Tilbury, with the London Docklands area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the Canary Wharf development. This was born out of London's increasing role as an international financial centre in the 1980s.[119] The Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the North Sea.[120]

The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, leaving London with no central administration until 2000 and the creation of the

Millennium Bridge were constructed.[122] On 6 July 2005 London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics, as the first city to stage the Olympic Games three times.[123] On 7 July 2005, three London Underground trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a series of terrorist attacks.[124]

In 2008,

global cities.[125] In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8.63 million, its highest since 1939.[126] During the Brexit referendum in 2016, the UK as a whole decided to leave the European Union, but most London constituencies voted for remaining.[127]

Administration

Local government

Supporters: Two dragons with wings elevated and addorsed argent on each wing a cross gules; Crest: On a dragon's wing displayed sinister a cross gules[128]

The administration of London is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local tier. Citywide administration is coordinated by the

, which scrutinises the mayor's decisions and can accept or reject the mayor's budget proposals each year.

The headquarters of the GLA is

London boroughs and the City of London Corporation.[133] They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools, social services, local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such as waste management, are provided through joint arrangements. In 2009–2010 the combined revenue expenditure by London councils and the GLA amounted to just over £22 billion (£14.7 billion for the boroughs and £7.4 billion for the GLA).[134]

The

Her Majesty's Coastguard and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate on the River Thames,[137][138] which is under the jurisdiction of the Port of London Authority from Teddington Lock to the sea.[139]

National government

10 Downing Street, official residence of the Prime Minister

London is the seat of the

Parliament. As of December 2019, 49 are from the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, and three are Liberal Democrats.[141] The ministerial post of minister for London was created in 1994. The current Minister for London is Paul Scully MP.[142]

Policing and crime

Policing in Greater London, with the exception of the City of London, is provided by the Metropolitan Police ("The Met"), overseen by the mayor through the Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC).[143][144] The Met is also referred to as Scotland Yard after the location of its original headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The City of London has its own police force – the City of London Police.[145] The British Transport Police are responsible for police services on National Rail, London Underground, Docklands Light Railway and Tramlink services.[146] The Ministry of Defence Police is a special police force in London, which does not generally become involved with policing the general public.[147]

Crime rates vary widely across different areas of London. Crime figures are made available nationally at

Ward level.[148] In 2015, there were 118 homicides, a 25.5% increase over 2014.[149] The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000.[150][151]

Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There were 50 murders from the start of 2018 to mid April 2018. Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved.[152]

Geography

Scope

suburbs, causing "London" to be defined several ways.[153]

Forty per cent of Greater London is covered by the

area code (020) covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some just outside included. The Greater London boundary has been aligned to the M25 motorway in places.[156]

Further urban expansion is now prevented by the

Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall, are about 51°30′26″N 00°07′39″W / 51.50722°N 0.12750°W / 51.50722; -0.12750.[160] Based on the centre of gravity of its map, the geographical centre of London is in the London Borough of Lambeth, 0.1 miles (150 m) to the north-east of Lambeth North tube station.[161]

Status

Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are counties for the purposes of lieutenancies.[162] The area of Greater London includes areas that are part of the historic counties of Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex and Hertfordshire.[163] London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed by statute or in written form.[note 5]

Its status as a capital was established by

royal court, and thus the political capital of the nation.[167] More recently, Greater London has been defined as a region of England and in this context is known as London.[168]

Topography

London from Primrose Hill

Greater London encompasses a total area of 611 square miles (1,583 km2) an area which had a population of 7,172,036 in 2001 and a population density of 11,760 inhabitants per square mile (4,542/km2). The extended area known as the London Metropolitan Region or the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, comprises a total area of 3,236 square miles (8,382 km2) has a population of 13,709,000 and a population density of 3,900 inhabitants per square mile (1,510/km2).[169]

Modern London stands on the Thames, its primary geographical feature, a navigable river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley is a flood plain surrounded by gently rolling hills including Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. Historically London grew up at the lowest bridging point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width.[170]

Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.[171] The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in high water level caused by climate change and by the slow 'tilting' of the British Isles (up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southern parts of England, Wales and Ireland) as a result of post-glacial rebound.[172][173]

In 1974 a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.[174]

London has had a small number of earthquakes over the years, notably those of 1750 which macroseismic information indicates had their epicentres directly under the city. In 2018, two active faults were discovered running parallel to each other, directly under the centre of the city.[175] Furthermore, the city has been damaged at least twice (with fatalities) in the earthquakes of 1382 and 1580. Those earthquakes had their epicentres under the English Channel.[176] London's building code is being redrawn so that every new structure must be able to withstand an earthquake of at least 6.5 on the Richter scale.[177]

Climate

London, England
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
59
 
 
8
3
 
 
45
 
 
9
3
 
 
39
 
 
12
4
 
 
42
 
 
15
6
 
 
46
 
 
18
9
 
 
47
 
 
22
12
 
 
46
 
 
24
14
 
 
53
 
 
23
14
 
 
50
 
 
20
12
 
 
65
 
 
16
9
 
 
67
 
 
11
5
 
 
57
 
 
9
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.3
 
 
47
37
 
 
1.8
 
 
48
37
 
 
1.5
 
 
53
39
 
 
1.7
 
 
59
43
 
 
1.8
 
 
65
48
 
 
1.9
 
 
71
54
 
 
1.8
 
 
75
58
 
 
2.1
 
 
74
57
 
 
2
 
 
68
53
 
 
2.6
 
 
60
48
 
 
2.6
 
 
53
41
 
 
2.2
 
 
48
38
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

London has a temperate

Sydney, Australia.[180][181][182] Despite its relatively low annual precipitation, London still receives 109.6 rainy days on the 1.0 mm threshold annually. However, London is vulnerable to climate change in the United Kingdom, and there is increasing concern among hydrological experts that London households may run out of water before 2050.[183]

Temperature extremes in London range from 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) at Heathrow on 19 July 2022 down to −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt on 1 January 1962.[184][185] Records for atmospheric pressure have been kept at London since 1692. The highest pressure ever reported is 1,049.8 millibars (31.00 inHg) on 20 January 2020.[186]

Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. London's average July high is 23.5 °C (74.3 °F). On average each year, London experiences 31 days above 25 °C (77.0 °F) and 4.2 days above 30.0 °C (86.0 °F). During the 2003 European heat wave prolonged heat led to hundreds of heat-related deaths.[187] There was also a previous spell of 15 consecutive days above 32.2 °C (90.0 °F) in England in 1976 which also caused many heat related deaths.[188] A previous temperature of 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) in August 1911 at the Greenwich station was later disregarded as non-standard.[189] Droughts can also, occasionally, be a problem, especially in summer, most recently in summer 2018,[190] and with much drier than average conditions prevailing from May to December.[191] However, the most consecutive days without rain was 73 days in the spring of 1893.[192]

Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation. Heavy snow is rare but snow usually falls at least once each winter. Spring and autumn can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable urban heat island effect,[193] making the centre of London at times 5 °C (9 °F) warmer than the suburbs and outskirts. This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, 15 miles (24 km) west of London, with the London Weather Centre.[194]


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63.0)
21.2
(70.2)
24.5
(76.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.8
(91.0)
35.6
(96.1)
40.2
(104.4)
38.1
(100.6)
35.0
(95.0)
29.5
(85.1)
21.1
(70.0)
17.4
(63.3)
40.2
(104.4)
Average high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.0
(48.2)
11.7
(53.1)
15.0
(59.0)
18.4
(65.1)
21.6
(70.9)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
20.2
(68.4)
15.8
(60.4)
11.5
(52.7)
8.8
(47.8)
15.7
(60.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.8
(42.4)
7.9
(46.2)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
16.8
(62.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.7
(65.7)
15.9
(60.6)
12.3
(54.1)
8.4
(47.1)
5.9
(42.6)
11.7
(53.1)
Average low °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
2.7
(36.9)
4.1
(39.4)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.0
(53.6)
14.2
(57.6)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
8.8
(47.8)
5.3
(41.5)
3.1
(37.6)
7.8
(46.0)
Record low °C (°F) −16.1
(3.0)
−12.2
(10.0)
−8.3
(17.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−3.1
(26.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.9
(39.0)
2.1
(35.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.5
(22.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−14.2
(6.4)
−16.1
(3.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58.8
(2.31)
45.0
(1.77)
38.8
(1.53)
42.3
(1.67)
45.9
(1.81)
47.3
(1.86)
45.8
(1.80)
52.8
(2.08)
49.6
(1.95)
65.1
(2.56)
66.6
(2.62)
57.1
(2.25)
615.0
(24.21)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.5 9.5 8.5 8.8 8.0 8.3 7.9 8.4 7.9 10.8 11.2 10.8 111.7
Average
relative humidity
(%)
80 77 70 65 67 65 65 69 73 78 81 81 73
Average dew point °C (°F) 3
(37)
2
(36)
2
(36)
4
(39)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
9
(48)
6
(43)
3
(37)
7
(44)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.1 78.8 124.5 176.7 207.5 208.4 217.8 202.1 157.1 115.2 70.7 55.0 1,674.8
Percent possible sunshine 23 28 31 40 41 41 42 45 40 35 27 21 35
Average ultraviolet index 1 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3
Source 1: Met Office[195][196][197] Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[198][199]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (percent sunshine and UV Index)[200] CEDA Archive[201] TORRO[202] Time and Date[203]

See Climate of London for additional climate information.

  1. ^ Averages are taken from Heathrow, and extremes are taken from stations across London.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
19.7
(67.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
30.0
(86.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.3
(95.5)
37.5
(99.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66.0)
15.0
(59.0)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
9.2
(48.6)
12.1
(53.8)
15.4
(59.7)
18.6
(65.5)
21.4
(70.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
15.8
(60.4)
11.6
(52.9)
8.9
(48.0)
15.3
(59.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
6.2
(43.2)
8.4
(47.1)
10.7
(51.3)
13.8
(56.8)
16.7
(62.1)
18.8
(65.8)
18.7
(65.7)
15.9
(60.6)
12.4
(54.3)
8.8
(47.8)
6.3
(43.3)
11.9
(53.4)
Average low °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.2
(37.8)
4.7
(40.5)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
9.0
(48.2)
6.1
(43.0)
3.8
(38.8)
8.1
(46.6)
Record low °C (°F) −9.4
(15.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.0
(41.0)
7.2
(45.0)
6.1
(43.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43.9
(1.73)
39.9
(1.57)
36.5
(1.44)
38.6
(1.52)
44.0
(1.73)
49.3
(1.94)
36.3
(1.43)
53.0
(2.09)
52.4
(2.06)
58.3
(2.30)
59.9
(2.36)
50.7
(2.00)
562.9
(22.16)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.5 9.2 7.9 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.1 8.2 7.9 10.3 10.6 10.2 105.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44.4 66.1 109.7 152.9 198.7 198.6 209.2 198.0 140.6 99.7 58.5 50.1 1,526.4
Source 1: Met Office[204][205][206]
Source 2: BBC Weather[207]

Districts

Places within London's vast urban area are identified using district names, such as Mayfair, Southwark, Wembley, and Whitechapel. These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs.

Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since 1965 Greater London has been divided into 32

London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.[208][209] The City of London is the main financial district,[210] and Canary Wharf has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the Docklands
to the east.

The

West London includes expensive residential areas where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds.[212] The average price for properties in Kensington and Chelsea is over £2 million with a similarly high outlay in most of central London.[213][214]

The

Architecture

London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery, are constructed from Portland stone. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of 1666, these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the city. Further out is, for example, the Tudor-period Hampton Court Palace, England's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in about 1515.[216]

Part of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches by Wren, neoclassical financial institutions such as the Royal Exchange and the Bank of England, to the early 20th century Old Bailey and the 1960s Barbican Estate.

The 1939

Paddington.[217] The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area and Canary Wharf, high residential densities in inner London, and lower densities in Outer London
.

Modern styles juxtaposed with historic styles; 30 St Mary Axe
(dubbed "The Gherkin")

In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers, such as

.

Other notable modern buildings include

Kings Cross and No 1 Poultry by James Stirling. What was formerly the Millennium Dome, by the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the O2 Arena.[224]

Cityscape

Houses of Parliament and Elizabeth Tower (Big Ben) on the right foreground, the London Eye on the left foreground and The Shard
with Canary Wharf
in the background; seen in September 2014

Natural history

The London Natural History Society suggests that London is "one of the World's Greenest Cities" with more than 40 per cent green space or open water. They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the tidal Thames supports 120 species of fish.[225] They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in central London and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London. London's wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. London has 38 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), two national nature reserves and 76 local nature reserves.[226]

common lizards, barred grass snakes and adders, are mostly only seen in Outer London.[227]

A fox on Ayres Street, Southwark, South London

Among other inhabitants of London are 10,000

Mammal Society found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around. This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole.[229][230]

Other mammals found in

Among the strange sights in London have been a whale in the Thames,[234] while the BBC Two programme Natural World: Unnatural History of London shows feral pigeons using the London Underground to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market, and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages.[235]

Herds of

Muntjac deer, which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the 20th century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.[237][238]

Demography

2011 Population of London by country of birth[239]
Country of Birth Population Percent
 United Kingdom 5,714,000 63.1
Non-United Kingdom 3,339,000 36.9
 India 349,000 3.9
 Nigeria 135,000 1.5
 Italy 118,000 1.3
 Poland 116,000 1.3
 Bangladesh 114,000 1.3
 Pakistan 111,000 1.2
 Romania 106,000 1.2
 Ireland 99,000 1.1
 United States 85,000 0.9
 France 82,000 0.9
Others 2,024,000 22.4
Total 9,053,000 100.0

The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London's population were foreign-born making it the city with the second largest immigrant population after New York, in terms of absolute numbers. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad.[240] The table to the right shows the commonest countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[241]

Increasing industrialisation swelled London's population throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was the most populous city in the world. It peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939, just before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 by the 2001 Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter.[242]

However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond Greater London and numbered 9,787,426 people in 2011,

metropolitan area in Europe. A net 726,000 immigrants arrived there in the period 1991–2001.[245]

The region covers 610 square miles (1,579 km2), giving a population density of 13,410 inhabitants per square mile (5,177/km2)

Age structure and median age

Children younger than 14 constituted 20.6% of the population in Outer London in 2018, and 18% in Inner London. The 15–24 age group was 11.1% in Outer and 10.2% in Inner London, those aged 25–44 years 30.6% in Outer London and 39.7% in Inner London, those aged 45–64 years 24% and 20.7% in Outer and Inner London respectively. Those aged 65 and over are 13.6% in Outer London, but only 9.3% in Inner London.[250]

The

median age of London in 2018 was 36.5, which was younger than the UK median of 40.3.[250]

Ethnic groups

Maps of Greater London showing percentage distribution of selected ethnic groups according to the 2011 Census

According to the

Bangladeshis at 2.7% each. Chinese peoples accounted for 1.5% and Arabs for 1.3%. A further 4.9% were classified as "Other Asian".[251]

15.6% of London's population were of

Black Caribbean and 2.1% as "Other Black". 5.0% were of mixed race.[251] The history of African presence in London extends back to the Roman period.[252]

As of 2007, one fifth of primary school across London were from ethnic minorities.[253] Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46.4% were White, 19.8% Asian, 19% Black, 10.8% Mixed and 4% another ethnic group.[254] In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that more than 300 languages were spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities had populations of more than 10,000.[255] Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that in 2010, London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 (33%), up from 1,630,000 in 1997.

The 2011 census showed that 36.7% of Greater London's population were born outside the UK.[256] Some of the German-born population were likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.[257] Estimates by the Office for National Statistics indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria.[258]

Religion

According to the

Muslims (12.4%), no response (8.5%), Hindus (5.0%), Jews (1.8%), Sikhs (1.5%), Buddhists (1.0%) and other (0.6%).[259]

London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City of London. The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres,[260] while the Archbishop of Canterbury, principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion, has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.[261]

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between

Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales.[263] Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is low within the denomination. Church attendance continues a long, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.[264]

Notable mosques include the

Bengali Muslim communities in the eastern boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Newham.[269]

Large Hindu communities are found in the north-western boroughs of

Neasden Temple.[271] London is also home to 44 Hindu temples, including the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir London. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.[272]

The majority of

Sephardic Jewish community. It is the only synagogue in Europe to have held regular services continually for over 300 years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any Orthodox synagogue in Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue (also in London) in 1998.[273] The London Jewish Forum was set up in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.[274]

Accents

Cockney is an accent heard across London, mainly spoken by working-class and lower-middle class Londoners. It is mainly attributed to the East End and wider East London, having originated there in the 18th century, although it has been suggested that the Cockney style of speech is much older.[275] Some features of Cockney include, Th-fronting (pronouncing "th" as "f"), example, "some fings in life are bad" (heard in opening of "Always Look on the Bright Side of Life" in Monty Python's Life of Brian), "th" inside a word is pronounced with a "v" (brother becomes brovva), H-dropping, example 'Ampshire for Hampshire (as Eliza Doolittle said in My Fair Lady), and, like most English accents, a Cockney accent drops the "r" after a vowel, for example, "car" is pronounced "cah".[276] John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary of 1859, makes reference to Cockney "use of a peculiar slang language" (Cockney rhyming slang) when describing the costermongers of the East End. Examples include: using the word "treacle" to mean sweetheart (rhymes with Treacle tart), and "porkies" to mean lies (rhymes with Pork pies).[277] Since the start of the 21st century the Cockney dialect is less common in parts of the East End itself, with modern strongholds including other parts of London and suburbs in the home counties.[278][279]

Estuary English is an intermediate accent between Cockney and Received Pronunciation.[280] It is widely spoken by people of all classes in London and south-eastern England, associated with the River Thames and its estuary.[281]

Multicultural London English (MLE) is a multiethnolect becoming increasingly common in multicultural areas amongst young, working-class people from diverse backgrounds. It is a fusion of an array of ethnic accents, in particular Afro-Caribbean and South Asian, with a significant Cockney influence.[282]

Received Pronunciation (RP) is the accent traditionally regarded as the standard for British English.[283] It has no specific geographical correlate,[284] although it is also traditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and south-eastern England.[285] It is mainly spoken by upper-class and upper-middle class Londoners.[286][287]

Economy

The City of London, one of the largest financial centres in the world[288]

London's gross regional product in 2019 was £503 billion, around a quarter of UK GDP.[289] London has five major business districts: the city, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m2 of office space. London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.[290][291] London is the world's most expensive office market according to world property journal (2015) report.[292] As of 2015 the residential property in London is worth $2.2 trillion – the same value as that of Brazil's annual GDP.[293] The city has the highest property prices of any European city according to the Office for National Statistics and the European Office of Statistics.[294] On average the price per square metre in central London is €24,252 (April 2014). This is higher than the property prices in other G8 European capital cities; Berlin €3,306, Rome €6,188 and Paris €11,229.[295]

The City of London

London's finance industry is based in the City of London and Canary Wharf, the two major business districts in London. London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance.[296][297] London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed before the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam (e.g. Hope, Baring), this was only time to move to London. Also, London's market-centred system (as opposed to the bank-centred one in Amsterdam) grew more dominant in the 18th century.[83] The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time.[89] This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. Writing about capitalism and the utility of diversity in his book on English society, French philosopher Voltaire expounded upon why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours:

Take a view of the Royal Exchange in London, a place more venerable than many courts of justice, where the representatives of all nations meet for the benefit of mankind. There the Jew, the Mahometan [Muslim], and the Christian transact together, as though they all professed the same religion, and give the name of infidel to none but bankrupts. There the Presbyterian confides in the Anabaptist, and the Churchman depends on the Quaker's word. If one religion only were allowed in England, the Government would very possibly become arbitrary; if there were but two, the people would cut one another's throats; but as there are such a multitude, they all live happy and in peace.

By the mid-19th century, London was the leading financial centre, and at the end of the century over half the world's trade was financed in British currency.[299] Still, as of 2016 London tops the world rankings on the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI),[300] and it ranked second in A.T. Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index.[301]

London's largest industry is finance, and its

financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. It is also the world's biggest currency trading centre, accounting for some 37 per cent of the $5.1 trillion average daily volume, according to the BIS.[302] Over 85 per cent (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in the services industries. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of 2007–2008. However, by 2010 the city had recovered, put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.[303] Along with professional services headquarters, the City of London is home to the Bank of England, London Stock Exchange, and Lloyd's of London insurance market.[304]

Over half the UK's top 100 listed companies (the

FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies have their headquarters in central London. Over 70 per cent of the FTSE 100 are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London.[305] In a 1992 report commissioned by the London Stock Exchange, Sir Adrian Cadbury, chairman of his family's confectionery company Cadbury, produced the Cadbury Report, a code of best practice which served as a basis for reform of corporate governance around the world.[306]

Media and technology

Broadcasting House in central London, headquarters of the BBC

Media companies are

metonym for the British national press. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.2 billion.[308] The Port of London is the second largest in the UK, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.[309]

A growing number of technology companies are based in London, notably in

geoTLD.[310][311][312] In February 2014 London was ranked as the European City of the Future[313] in the 2014/15 list by fDi Intelligence.[314] Computer science pioneer Alan Turing hails from Maida Vale, west London. A museum in Bletchley Park, where Turing was based during World War II, is in Bletchley, 40 miles (64 km) north of central London, as is The National Museum of Computing.[315][316]

The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc, SGN[317] and UK Power Networks.[318]

Tourism

London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits.

In 2015 the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: (with visits per venue)[325]

  1. British Museum: 6,820,686
  2. National Gallery: 5,908,254
  3. Natural History Museum (South Kensington): 5,284,023
  4. Southbank Centre: 5,102,883
  5. Tate Modern: 4,712,581
  6. Victoria and Albert Museum (South Kensington): 3,432,325
  7. Science Museum: 3,356,212
  8. Somerset House: 3,235,104
  9. Tower of London: 2,785,249
  10. National Portrait Gallery: 2,145,486

The number of hotel rooms in London in 2015 stood at 138,769, and is expected to grow over the years.[326]

Transport

Journeys in Greater London by mode from 1997 to 2018[327]

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,[328] but the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer-distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 the Mayor of London assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses. The public transport network is administered by Transport for London (TfL).[329]

The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created. Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.[330]

Aviation

Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in Europe as well as the second busiest in the world for international passenger traffic. (Terminal 5
C is pictured.)

London is a major international air transport hub with the

busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation
flights.

  • busiest airport in the world for international traffic, and is the major hub of the nation's flag carrier, British Airways.[331] In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened.[332] In 2014, Dubai gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic.[333]
  • Gatwick Airport,[334] south of London in West Sussex, handles flights to more destinations than any other UK airport[335] and is the main base of easyJet,[336] the UK's largest airline by number of passengers.[337]
  • Stansted Airport,[338] north-east of London in Essex, has flights that serve the greatest number of European destinations of any UK airport[339] and is the main base of Ryanair,[340] the world's largest international airline by number of international passengers.[341]
  • Luton Airport, to the north of London in Bedfordshire, is used by several budget airlines (especially easyJet and Wizz Air) for short-haul flights.[342]
  • London City Airport, the most central airport and the one with the shortest runway, in Newham, East London, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full-service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.[343]
  • Southend Airport, east of London in Essex, is a smaller, regional airport that caters for short-haul flights on a limited, though growing, number of airlines.[344] In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport.[345]

Rail

Underground and DLR

The London Underground is the world's oldest and third-longest rapid transit
system.

The London Underground, commonly referred to as the Tube or just the Underground, is the oldest[346] and third longest[347] metro system in the world. The system serves 272 stations.[348] and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.[349] It dates from 1863.[350]

Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year.

local metro system using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve the Docklands, Greenwich and Lewisham
.

Suburban

There are

is the busiest station in Europe by the number of trains passing.

With the need for more rail capacity in London, the

Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport.[357] It was Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost.[358][359]

Inter-city and international

St Pancras International is the main terminal for high-speed Eurostar and High Speed 1 services, as well as commuter suburban Thameslink and inter-city East Midlands Railway
services.

London is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 per cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.[360] King's Cross station and Euston station, which are both in London, are the starting points of the East Coast Main Line and the West Coast Main Line – the two main railway lines in Britain. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, directly linking London with most of Great Britain's major cities and towns.[361]

Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains, such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link St. Pancras International with Lille, Calais, Paris, Disneyland Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and other European tourist destinations via the High Speed 1 rail link and the Channel Tunnel.[362] The first high-speed domestic trains started in June 2009 linking Kent to London.[363] There are plans for a second high speed line linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire.[364]

Freight

Although

nuclear waste for reprocessing at Sellafield.[365]

Buses, coaches and trams

London's bus network runs 24 hours a day with about 9,300 vehicles, over 675 bus routes and about 19,000 bus stops.[366] In 2019 the network had over 2 billion commuter trips per year.[367] Since 2010 an average of £1.2 billion is taken in revenue each year.[368] London has one of the largest wheelchair-accessible networks in the world[369] and from the third quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.[370]

London's coach hub is Victoria Coach Station, an Art Deco building opened in 1932. The coach station was initially run by a group of coach companies under the name of London Coastal Coaches; however, in 1970 the service and station were included in the nationalisation of the country's coach services, becoming part of the National Bus Company. In 1988, the coach station was purchased by London Transport which then became Transport for London. Victoria Coach Station has over 14 million passengers a year and provides services across the UK and continental Europe.[371]

London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink, centred on Croydon in South London. The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013.[372][373] Since June 2008, Transport for London has completely owned and operated Tramlink.[374]

Cable car

London's first and to date only cable car is the

London Cycle Hire Scheme bike hire scheme, the cable car was sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline Emirates.[376]

Cycling

Santander Cycle Hire near Victoria
in Central London

In the Greater London Area, around 670,000 people use a bike every day,[377] meaning around 7% of the total population of around 8.8 million use a bike on an average day.[378][379] This relatively low percentage of bicycle users may be due to the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year,[380] equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands.[381]

Cycling has become an increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a bicycle hire scheme in July 2010 was successful and generally well received.[382]

Port and river boats

The Port of London, once the largest in the world, is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year as of 2009.[309] Most of this cargo passes through the Port of Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London.[309]

London has river boat services on the Thames known as

North and South Circular Roads.[385]

Roads

Although the majority of journeys in central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The

South Circular roads (just within the suburbs), and the outer orbital motorway (the M25, just outside the built-up area in most places) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s.[386] The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at 117 miles (188 km) long.[387] The A1 and M1 connect London to Leeds, and Newcastle and Edinburgh
.

The

London Taxis International. The BBC states, "ubiquitous black cabs and red double-decker buses all have long and tangled stories that are deeply embedded in London’s traditions".[388]

London is notorious for its traffic congestion; in 2009, the average speed of a car in the rush hour was recorded at 10.6 mph (17.1 km/h).[389] In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London.[390] Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass.[391][392] The London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground and bus users, reduce road traffic, increase traffic speeds, and reduce queues;[393] however, the increase in private for hire vehicles has affected these expectations. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars – a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day.[394][395]

Education

Tertiary education

Imperial College London, a technical research university in South Kensington

London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.[19] According to the QS World University Rankings 2015/16, London has the greatest concentration of top class universities in the world[396][397] and its international student population of around 110,000 is larger than any other city in the world.[398] A 2014 PricewaterhouseCoopers report termed London the global capital of higher education.[399]

King's College London, established by Royal Charter in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London
.

A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2022 QS World University Rankings, Imperial College London is ranked No. 6 in the world, University College London (UCL) is ranked 8th, and King's College London (KCL) is ranked 37th.[400] All are regularly ranked highly, with Imperial College being the UK's leading university in the Research Excellence Framework ranking 2021.[401] The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.[402] The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2015 its MBA programme was ranked second-best in the world by the Financial Times.[403] The city is also home to three of the world's top ten performing arts schools (as ranked by the 2020 QS World University Rankings[404]): the Royal College of Music (ranking 2nd in the world), the Royal Academy of Music (ranking 4th) and the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (ranking 6th).[405]

With students in London

School of Oriental and African Studies.[409] Members of the University of London have their own admissions
procedures, and most award their own degrees.

A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including

.

London is home to

.

London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the

The BRIT School in the London borough of Croydon provides training for the performing arts and the technologies that make performance possible, with actor Tom Holland among their alumni.[416]

Primary and secondary education

The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the

The John Lyon School, Highgate School and Westminster School
.

Societies

Important scientific

learned societies based in London include the Royal Society—the UK's national academy of sciences and the oldest national scientific institution in the world—founded in 1660,[417] and the Royal Institution, founded in 1799; the basement of the latter is where Michael Faraday first demonstrated electric motion in 1821.[418] Since 1825, the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures have presented scientific subjects to a general audience, and speakers have included aerospace engineer Frank Whittle, naturalist David Attenborough and evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins.[419]

Culture

Leisure and entertainment

Leisure is a major part of the London economy. A 2003 report attributed a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London[420] at 25.6 events per 1000 people.[421] The city is one of the four fashion capitals of the world, and, according to official statistics, is the world's third-busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city,[422] and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world.[423]

Within the

Royal Opera, and English National Opera are based in London and perform at the Royal Opera House, the London Coliseum, Sadler's Wells Theatre, and the Royal Albert Hall, as well as touring the country.[427]

Scene of the annual Notting Hill Carnival
, 2014

flagship store.[429] Knightsbridge, home to the equally renowned Harrods department store, lies to the south-west. Opened in 1760 with its flagship store on Regent Street since 1881, Hamleys is the oldest toy store in the world.[430] Madame Tussauds wax museum opened in Baker Street in 1835.[431]

London is home to designers

chocolate digestives have been manufactured by McVitie's at their Harlesden factory in north-west London since 1925.[441]

There is a variety of

British Bangladeshi community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival, it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country.[443] First held in 1862, the RHS Chelsea Flower Show (run by the Royal Horticultural Society) takes place over five days in May every year.[444]

LGBT scene

The first gay bar in London in the modern sense was The Cave of the Golden Calf, established as a night club in an underground location at 9 Heddon Street, just off Regent Street, in 1912 and became a haunt for the wealthy, aristocratic and bohemian.[445] While London has been an LGBT tourism destination, after homosexuality was decriminalized in England in 1967 gay bar culture became more visible, and from the early 1970s Soho (and in particular Old Compton Street) became the centre of the London LGBT community.[446] G-A-Y, previously based at the Astoria, and now Heaven, is a long-running night club.[447]

Wider British cultural movements have also influenced LGBT culture: for example, the emergence of

London Lesbian and Gay Film Festival are held in the city.[446]

Literature, film and television

London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in Geoffrey Chaucer's late 14th-century Canterbury Tales set out for Canterbury from London—specifically, from the Tabard inn, Southwark. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play The Alchemist, was set in the city.[450] A Journal of the Plague Year (1722) by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague.[450]

The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly

London is the Place for Me".[453]

London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Pinewood, Elstree, Ealing, Shepperton, Twickenham, and Leavesden, with the James Bond and Harry Potter series among many notable films produced here.[454][455] Working Title Films has its headquarters in London.[456] A post-production community is centred in Soho, and London houses six of the world’s largest visual effects companies, such as Framestore.[457] The Imaginarium, a digital performance-capture studio, was founded by Andy Serkis.[458] London has been the setting for films including Oliver Twist (1948), Scrooge (1951), Peter Pan (1953), The 101 Dalmatians (1961), My Fair Lady (1964), Mary Poppins (1964), Blowup (1966), A Clockwork Orange (1971), The Long Good Friday (1980), The Great Mouse Detective (1986), Notting Hill (1999), Love Actually (2003), V for Vendetta (2005), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2008) and The King's Speech (2010). Notable actors and filmmakers from London include; Charlie Chaplin, Alfred Hitchcock, Michael Caine, Emma Thompson, Gary Oldman, Guy Ritchie, Christopher Nolan, Alan Rickman, Jude Law, Helena Bonham Carter, Idris Elba, Tom Hardy, Keira Knightley and Daniel Day-Lewis. Ealing comedies have featured Alec Guinness, Hammer Horrors have starred Christopher Lee, while Richard Curtis's rom-coms have featured Hugh Grant. The largest cinema chain in the country, Odeon Cinemas was founded in London in 1928 by Oscar Deutsch.[459] First held in 1949, since 2017 the British Academy Film Awards (BAFTAs) have taken place at the Royal Albert Hall. Founded in 1957, the BFI London Film Festival takes place over two weeks every October.[460]

London is a major centre for television production, with studios including Television Centre, ITV Studios, Sky Campus and Fountain Studios; the latter hosted the original talent shows, Pop Idol, The X Factor, and Britain's Got Talent, before each format was exported around the world.[461][462] Formerly a franchise of ITV, Thames Television featured comedians such as Benny Hill and Rowan Atkinson (Mr. Bean was first screened by Thames), while Talkback produced Da Ali G Show which featured Sacha Baron Cohen as Ali G, a faux-streetwise gangster from Staines, west of London.[463] Many television shows have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders, broadcast by the BBC since 1985.[464]

Museums, art galleries and libraries

London is home to many museums, galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the British Museum in Bloomsbury, in 1753.[465] Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the globe. In 1824, the National Gallery was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square.[466]

The

In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of

Science Museum. The National Portrait Gallery was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.[472] The national gallery of British art is at Tate Britain, originally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art. In 2000, this collection moved to Tate Modern, a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station which is accessed by pedestrians north of the Thames via the Millennium Bridge.[473]

Music

London is one of the major classical and

Trinity Laban
.

Abbey Road Studios was given grade II listed status for its "cultural and historical importance" in 2010.[475]

London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest indoor venue,

The city is home to the original Hard Rock Cafe and the Abbey Road Studios, where The Beatles recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like Elton John, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, Queen, The Kinks, Cliff Richard, The Rolling Stones, The Who, Eric Clapton, Led Zeppelin, Iron Maiden, T. Rex, Fleetwood Mac, Elvis Costello, Dire Straits, Cat Stevens, The Police, The Cure, Madness, Culture Club, Dusty Springfield, Phil Collins, Rod Stewart, Status Quo and Sade, derived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.[478][479]

London was instrumental in the development of

urban contemporary music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom. The British Phonographic Industry's annual popular music awards, the Brit Awards, are held in London, usually in February.[485]

Recreation

Parks and open spaces

A 2013 report by the

Royal Parks, namely Hyde Park and its neighbour Kensington Gardens in the west, and Regent's Park to the north.[487] Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park contains London Zoo, the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.[488][489] Primrose Hill, immediately to the north of Regent's Park, at 256 feet (78 m)[490]
is a popular spot from which to view the city skyline.

Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks,

Close to Richmond Park is

stately home and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks.[501] Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.[502]

Walking

The Horse Ride is a tree tunnel (route overhung by trees) on the western side of Wimbledon Common
.

Royal Parks, canals and disused railway tracks.[503] Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of the Thames Path, some 28 miles (45 km) of which is within Greater London, and The Wandle Trail; this runs 12 miles (19 km) through South London along the River Wandle, a tributary of the River Thames.[504]

Other

Sport

Wimbledon. Held every June and July, Wimbledon is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and the only major played on grass.

London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, and 2012,[506][507] making it the first city to host the modern Games three times.[34] The city was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934.[508] In 2017, London hosted the World Championships in Athletics for the first time.[509]

London's most popular sport is football, and it has seven clubs in the Premier League in the 2022–23 season: Arsenal, Brentford, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United.[510] Other professional men's teams in London are AFC Wimbledon, Barnet, Bromley, Charlton Athletic, Dagenham & Redbridge, Leyton Orient, Millwall, Queens Park Rangers and Sutton United. Four London-based teams are in the Women's Super League: Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham and West Ham United.

From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team. It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final.[511] The new Wembley Stadium serves the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.[512] The women's team defeated Germany at Wembley to win Euro 2022.[513]

Three

Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C. Twickenham Stadium in south-west London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed.[515]

While

.

One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon since 1877.[516] Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and widely considered the most prestigious.[517][518][519] Founded in London in 1881, Slazenger has provided tennis balls for Wimbledon since 1902, the oldest sponsorship in sport.[520]

London has two

University Boat Race on the Thames from Putney to Mortlake.[525]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See also: Independent city § National capitals
  2. ^ The Greater London Authority consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The London Mayor is distinguished from the Lord Mayor of London, who heads the City of London Corporation running the City of London.
  3. Larger Urban Zone
    in the EU. Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition.
  4. ^ London is not a city in the usual UK sense of having city status granted by the Crown.
  5. ^ According to the Collins English Dictionary definition of 'the seat of government',[164] London is not the capital of England, as England does not have its own government. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary[165] definition of 'the most important town' and many other authorities.[166]
  6. ^ Imperial College London was a constituent college of the University of London between 1908 and 2007. Degrees during this time were awarded by the federal university; however, the college now issues its own degrees.

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Bibliography

External links