Los Angeles Times

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Los Angeles Times
Media of the United States
  • List of newspapers
  • The Los Angeles Times is a regional American

    Pulitzer Prizes.[5][6][7][8]

    In the 19th century, the paper developed a reputation for

    civic boosterism and opposition to labor unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910. The paper's profile grew substantially in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler
    , who adopted a more national focus. As with other regional newspapers in California and the United States, the paper's readership has declined since 2010. It has also been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, and other controversies.

    In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to

    , in July 2018. The L.A. Times' news coverage has evolved away from U.S. and international headlines and toward emphasizing California and especially Southern California stories since 2020.

    In January 2024, the paper underwent its largest percentage reduction in headcount amounting to a layoff of over 20%, including senior staff editorial positions, in an effort to stem the tide of financial losses and maintain enough cash to be viably operational through the end of the year in a struggle for survival and relevance as a regional newspaper of diminished status.[10][11][12]

    History

    Otis era

    Rubble of the Los Angeles Times building following the 1910 bombing
    Otis Chandler and Harrison Gray Otis in August 1917

    The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times, under the direction of

    T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill, Cole and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara, California to become the paper's editor.[13]

    Historian

    The efforts of the Times to fight

    James and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow
    to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty.

    Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True".[16][17]

    Chandler era

    After Otis' death in 1917, his son-in-law,

    Paramount Studios
    . The site also includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims.

    In 1935, the newspaper moved to a new, landmark Art Deco building, the

    Times-Mirror Co., declared the Los Angeles Times Building a "monument to the progress of our city and Southern California".[18]

    The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980. Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, such as The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business",[19] Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations. He also toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance.

    During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined.

    In 2013, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik wrote that:

    The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and also social and political influence (which often brought more profits). Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the later generations found that only one or two branches got the power, and everyone else got a share of the money. Eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family.[20]

    The paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history, Thinking Big (1977,

    ISBN 0-252-06941-2). It has also been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.[21]

    Former Times buildings

    The Los Angeles Times has occupied five physical sites beginning in 1881.

    Modern era

    A Times newspaper vending machine featuring news of the 1984 Summer Olympics
    The newspaper's current headquarters in El Segundo, California

    The Los Angeles Times was beset in the first decade of the 21st century by a change in ownership, a bankruptcy, a rapid succession of editors, reductions in staff, decreases in paid circulation, the need to increase its Web presence, and a series of controversies.

    The newspaper moved to a new headquarters building in El Segundo, near Los Angeles International Airport, in July 2018.[22][23][24][25]

    Ownership

    In 2000,

    CW-affiliated) KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985.[26]

    On April 2, 2007, the Tribune Company announced its acceptance of real estate entrepreneur

    Ron Burkle and Eli Broad had the right to submit a higher bid, in which case Zell would have received a $25 million buyout fee.[27]

    In December 2008, the Tribune Company filed for

    bankruptcy protection. The bankruptcy was a result of declining advertising revenue and a debt load of $12.9 billion, much of it incurred when the paper was taken private by Zell.[28]

    On February 7, 2018, Tribune Publishing, formerly Tronc Inc., agreed to sell the Los Angeles Times and its two other southern California newspapers, The San Diego Union-Tribune and Hoy, to billionaire biotech investor Patrick Soon-Shiong.[29][30] This purchase by Soon-Shiong through his Nant Capital investment fund was for $500 million, as well as the assumption of $90 million in pension liabilities.[31][32] The sale to Soon-Shiong closed on June 16, 2018.[33]

    Editorial changes and staff reductions

    In 2000,

    Baltimore Sun, was brought in to restore the luster of the newspaper.[34] During his reign at the Times, he eliminated more than 200 jobs, but despite an operating profit margin of 20 percent, the Tribune executives were unsatisfied with returns, and by 2005 Carroll had left the newspaper. His successor, Dean Baquet
    , refused to impose the additional cutbacks mandated by the Tribune Company.

    Baquet was the first African-American to hold this type of editorial position at a top-tier daily. During Baquet and Carroll's time at the paper, it won 13 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other paper except The New York Times.[35] However, Baquet was removed from the editorship for not meeting the demands of the Tribune Group—as was publisher Jeffrey Johnson—and was replaced by James O'Shea of the Chicago Tribune. O'Shea himself left in January 2008 after a budget dispute with publisher David Hiller.

    The paper's content and design style were overhauled several times in attempts to increase circulation. In 2000, a major change reorganized the news sections (related news was put closer together) and changed the "Local" section to the "California" section with more extensive coverage. Another major change in 2005 saw the Sunday "Opinion" section retitled the Sunday "Current" section, with a radical change in its presentation and featured columnists. There were regular cross-promotions with Tribune-owned television station KTLA to bring evening-news viewers into the Times fold.

    The paper reported on July 3, 2008, that it planned to cut 250 jobs by Labor Day and reduce the number of published pages by 15 percent.[36][37] That included about 17 percent of the news staff, as part of the newly private media company's mandate to reduce costs. "We've tried to get ahead of all the change that's occurring in the business and get to an organization and size that will be sustainable", Hiller said.[38] In January 2009, the Times eliminated the separate California/Metro section, folding it into the front section of the newspaper. The Times also announced seventy job cuts in news and editorial or a 10 percent cut in payroll.[39]

    In September 2015, Austin Beutner, the publisher and chief executive, was replaced by Timothy E. Ryan.[40] On October 5, 2015, the Poynter Institute reported that "'At least 50' editorial positions will be culled from the Los Angeles Times" through a buyout.[41] In June 2009, with foresight, the Los Angeles Times reported, "For the 'funemployed,' unemployment is welcome."[42] Nancy Cleeland,[43] who took O'Shea's buyout offer, did so because of "frustration with the paper's coverage of working people and organized labor"[44] (the beat that earned her Pulitzer).[43] She speculated that the paper's revenue shortfall could be reversed by expanding coverage of economic justice topics, which she believed were increasingly relevant to Southern California; she cited the paper's attempted hiring of a "celebrity justice reporter" as an example of the wrong approach.[44]

    On August 21, 2017, Ross Levinsohn, then aged 54, was named publisher and CEO, replacing Davan Maharaj, who had been both publisher and editor.[45] On June 16, 2018, the same day the sale to Patrick Soon-Shiong closed, Norman Pearlstine was named executive editor.[33]

    On May 3, 2021, the newspaper announced that it had selected

    The Undefeated, a site focused on sports, race, and culture. Previously, he was the first Black managing editor at The Washington Post.[46]

    The Los Angeles Times Olympic Boulevard printing press was not purchased by Soon-Shiong and was kept by the original Tribune before being sold to developers in 2016, who plan to build sound stages on the property.[47] It was opened in 1990 and could print 70,000 96-page newspapers an hour.[48][49] In preparation for the closure and editorial reasons for refocusing sports coverage, daily game and box score coverage was eliminated on July 9, 2023. The sports section features less time sensitive articles, billed as similar to a magazine.[50] The change caused consternation from the Los Angeles Jewish community, who often found reading box scores in the morning a Shabbat ritual.[51] The last issue of the Times printed at Olympic Boulevard was the March 11, 2024, edition.[52] The Times will be printed in Riverside, at the Southern California News Group's Press-Enterprise printer, which also prints Southern California editions of the New York Times and Wall Street Journal.[53]

    On January 23, 2024, the newspaper announced a layoff that would affect at least 115 employees.[54] It named Terry Tang its next executive meditor on April 8, 2024.[55]

    Circulation

    An abandoned Los Angeles Times vending machine in Covina, California, in 2011

    The Times has suffered continued decline in distribution. Reasons offered for the circulation drop included a price increase

    reduction in force, characterized the decrease in circulation as an "industry-wide problem" which the paper had to counter by "growing rapidly on-line", "break[ing] news on the Web and explain[ing] and analyz[ing] it in our newspaper."[58]

    The Times closed its San Fernando Valley printing plant in early 2006, leaving press operations to the Olympic plant and to Orange County. Also that year the paper announced its circulation had fallen to 851,532, down 5.4 percent from 2005. The Times's loss of circulation was the largest of the top ten newspapers in the U.S.[59] Some observers believed that the drop was due to the retirement of circulation director Bert Tiffany. Others thought the decline was a side effect of a succession of short-lived editors who were appointed by publisher Mark Willes after publisher Otis Chandler relinquished day-to-day control in 1995.[19] Willes, the former president of General Mills, was criticized for his lack of understanding of the newspaper business, and was derisively referred to by reporters and editors as The Cereal Killer.[60] Subsequently, the Orange County plant closed in 2010.[61]

    The Times's reported daily circulation in October 2010 was 600,449,[62] down from a peak of 1,225,189 daily and 1,514,096 Sunday in April 1990.[63][64]

    Internet presence and free weeklies

    In December 2006, a team of Times reporters delivered management with a critique of the paper's online news efforts known as the Spring Street Project.[65] The report, which condemned the Times as a "web-stupid" organization,[65] was followed by a shakeup in management of the paper's website,[66]and a rebuke of print staffers who were described as treating "change as a threat."[67]

    On July 10, 2007, Times launched a local

    social networking readers.[70] Brand X launched in March 2009; the Brand X tabloid ceased publication in June 2011 and the website was shut down the following month.[71]

    In May 2018, the Times blocked access to its online edition from most of Europe because of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation.[72][73]

    Other controversies

    In 1999, it was revealed that a revenue-sharing arrangement was in place between the Times and

    Staples Center in the preparation of a 168-page magazine about the opening of the sports arena. The magazine's editors and writers were not informed of the agreement, which breached the Chinese wall that traditionally has separated advertising from journalistic functions at American newspapers. Publisher Mark Willes also had not prevented advertisers from pressuring reporters in other sections of the newspaper to write stories favorable to their point of view.[74]
    Michael Kinsley was hired as the Opinion and Editorial (op-ed) Editor in April 2004 to help improve the quality of the opinion pieces. His role was controversial, for he forced writers to take a more decisive stance on issues. In 2005, he created a Wikitorial, the first Wiki by a major news organization. Although it failed, readers could combine forces to produce their own editorial pieces. It was shut down after being besieged with inappropriate material. He resigned later that year.[75]

    In 2003, the Times drew fire for a last-minute story before the

    American Society of Newspaper Editors said that the Times lost more than 10,000 subscribers because of the negative publicity surrounding the Schwarzenegger article.[78]

    On November 12, 2005, new op-ed editor Andrés Martinez announced the dismissal of liberal op-ed columnist Robert Scheer and conservative editorial cartoonist Michael Ramirez.[79]

    The Times also came under controversy for its decision to drop the weekday edition of the Garfield comic strip in 2005, in favor of a hipper comic strip Brevity, while retaining it in the Sunday edition. Garfield was dropped altogether shortly thereafter.[80]

    Following the

    2006 mid-term elections, an Opinion piece by Joshua Muravchik, a leading neoconservative and a resident scholar at the conservative American Enterprise Institute, published on November 19, 2006, was titled 'Bomb Iran'. The article shocked some readers, with its hawkish comments in support of more unilateral action by the United States, this time against Iran.[81]

    On March 22, 2007, editorial page editor Andrés Martinez resigned following an alleged scandal centering on his girlfriend's professional relationship with a Hollywood producer who had been asked to guest-edit a section in the newspaper.[82] In an open letter written upon leaving the paper, Martinez criticized the publication for allowing the Chinese wall between the news and editorial departments to be weakened, accusing news staffers of lobbying the opinion desk.[83]

    In November 2017,

    Washington Post blogger Alyssa Rosenberg, and the websites The A.V. Club and Flavorwire, announced that they would boycott press screenings of future Disney films. The National Society of Film Critics, Los Angeles Film Critics Association, New York Film Critics Circle, and Boston Society of Film Critics jointly announced that Disney's films would be ineligible for their respective year-end awards unless the decision was reversed, condemning the decision as being "antithetical to the principles of a free press and [setting] a dangerous precedent in a time of already heightened hostility towards journalists". On November 7, 2017, Disney reversed its decision, stating that the company "had productive discussions with the newly installed leadership at the Los Angeles Times regarding our specific concerns".[84][85][86]

    Pulitzer Prizes

    Tragedy by the Sea, an April 1954 photo taken by Los Angeles Times photographer John L. Gaunt of a young couple standing together beside the Pacific Ocean in Hermosa Beach, California. A few minutes before the image was taken, the couple's 19-month-old son Michael disappeared. The photo won the 1955 Pulitzer Prize for Photography.

    As of 2014, the Times has won 41

    Watts Riots and the 1992 Los Angeles riots.[87]

    Competition and rivalries

    In the 19th century, the chief competition to the Times was the

    Los Angeles Express, Manchester Boddy's Los Angeles Daily News, a Democratic newspaper, were both afternoon competitors.[98]

    By the mid-1940s, the Times was the leading newspaper in terms of circulation in the

    The Herald-Examiner published its last number in 1989.

    In 2014, the Los Angeles Register, published by Freedom Communications, then-parent company of the

    Orange County Register, was launched as a daily newspaper to compete with the Times. By late September of that year, however, the Los Angeles Register closed.[100][101]

    Special editions

    Midwinter and midsummer

    Midwinter

    For 69 years, from 1885[102] until 1954, the Times issued on New Year's Day a special annual Midwinter Number or Midwinter Edition that extolled the virtues of Southern California. At first, it was called the "Trade Number", and in 1886 it featured a special press run of "extra scope and proportions"; that is, "a twenty-four-page paper, and we hope to make it the finest exponent of this [Southern California] country that ever existed."[103] Two years later, the edition had grown to "forty-eight handsome pages (9×15 inches), [which] stitched for convenience and better preservation", was "equivalent to a 150-page book."[104] The last use of the phrase Trade Number was in 1895, when the edition had grown to thirty-six pages split among three separate sections.[105]

    The Midwinter Number drew acclamations from other newspapers, including this one from The Kansas City Star in 1923:

    It is made up of five magazines with a total of 240 pages – the maximum size possible under the postal regulations. It goes into every detail of information about Los Angeles and Southern California that the heart could desire. It is virtually a cyclopedia on the subject. It drips official statistics. In addition, it verifies the statistics with a profusion of illustration. . . . it is a remarkable combination of guidebook and travel magazine.[106]

    In 1948, the Midwinter Edition, as it was then called, had grown to "7 big picture magazines in beautiful rotogravure reproduction."[107] The last mention of the Midwinter Edition was in a Times advertisement on January 10, 1954.[108]

    Midsummer

    Between 1891 and 1895, the Times also issued a similar Midsummer Number, the first one featuring the theme, "The Land and Its Fruits".[109] Because of its issue date in September, the edition was in 1891 called the Midsummer Harvest Number.[110]

    Zoned editions and subsidiaries

    Front page of the March 25, 1903, debut issue of the short-lived The Wireless, published in Avalon[111]

    In 1903, Pacific Wireless Telegraph Company established a radiotelegraph link between the California mainland and

    Santa Catalina Island. In the summer of that year, the Times made use of this link to establish a local daily paper, based in Avalon, The Wireless, which featured local news plus excerpts which had been transmitted via Morse code from the parent paper.[112] However, this effort apparently survived for only a little more than one year.[113]

    In the 1990s, the Times published various editions catering to far-flung areas. Editions included those from the San Fernando Valley,

    Inland Empire, Orange County, San Diego County & a "National Edition" that was distributed to Washington, D.C., and the San Francisco Bay Area
    . The National Edition was closed in December 2004.

    Some of these editions[quantify] were succeeded by Our Times, a group of community supplements included in editions of the regular Los Angeles Metro newspaper.[citation needed]

    A subsidiary, Times Community Newspapers, publishes the Daily Pilot of Newport Beach and Costa Mesa.[114][115] From 2011 to 2013, the Times had published the Pasadena Sun.[116] It also had published the Glendale News-Press and Burbank Leader from 1993 to 2020, and the La Cañada Valley Sun from 2005 to 2020.[117]

    On April 30, 2020, Charlie Plowman, publisher of Outlook Newspapers, announced he would acquire the Glendale News-Press, Burbank Leader and La Cañada Valley Sun from Times Community Newspapers. Plowman acquired the South Pasadena Review and San Marino Tribune in late January 2020 from the Salter family, who owned and operated these two community weeklies.[118]

    Features

    One of the Times' features was "Column One", a feature that appeared daily on the front page to the left-hand side. Established in September 1968, it was a place for the weird and the interesting; in the How Far Can a Piano Fly? (a compilation of Column One stories) introduction, Patt Morrison wrote that the column's purpose was to elicit a "Gee, that's interesting, I didn't know that" type of reaction.

    The Times also embarked on a number of investigative journalism pieces. A series in December 2004 on the King/Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles led to a Pulitzer Prize and a more thorough coverage of the hospital's troubled history. Lopez wrote a five-part series on the civic and humanitarian disgrace of Los Angeles' Skid Row, which became the focus of a 2009 motion picture, The Soloist. It also won 62 awards at the SND[clarification needed] awards.

    From 1967 to 1972, the Times produced a Sunday supplement called West magazine. West was recognized for its art design, which was directed by Mike Salisbury (who later became art director of Rolling Stone magazine).[119] From 2000 to 2012, the Times published the Los Angeles Times Magazine, which started as a weekly and then became a monthly supplement. The magazine focused on stories and photos of people, places, style, and other cultural affairs occurring in Los Angeles and its surrounding cities and communities. Since 2014, The California Sunday Magazine has been included in the Sunday L.A. Times edition.

    Promotion

    Festival of Books

    The Los Angeles Times Festival of Books in 2009, held on the campus of the UCLA

    In 1996, the Times started the annual Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, in association with the University of California, Los Angeles. It has panel discussions, exhibits, and stages during two days at the end of April each year.[120] In 2011, the Festival of Books was moved to the University of Southern California.[121]

    Book prizes

    Since 1980, the Times has awarded annual book prizes. The categories are now biography, current interest, fiction, first fiction, history, mystery/thriller, poetry, science and technology, and young adult fiction. In addition, the

    Robert Kirsch Award is presented annually to a living author with a substantial connection to the American West whose contribution to American letters deserves special recognition".[122]

    Los Angeles Times Grand Prix

    From 1957 to 1987, the Times sponsored the Los Angeles Times Grand Prix that was held over at the Riverside International Raceway in Moreno Valley, California.

    Other media

    Book publishing

    The Times Mirror Corporation has also owned a number of book publishers over the years, including

    Matthew Bender, and Jeppesen.[123]

    In 1960, Times Mirror of Los Angeles bought the book publisher New American Library, known for publishing affordable paperback reprints of classics and other scholarly works.[124] The NAL continued to operate autonomously from New York and within the Mirror Company. In 1983, Odyssey Partners and Ira J. Hechler bought NAL from the Times Mirror Company for over $50 million.[123]

    In 1967, Times Mirror acquired

    C.V. Mosby Company, a professional publisher and merged it over the years with several other professional publishers including Resource Application, Inc., Year Book Medical Publishers, Wolfe Publishing Ltd., PSG Publishing Company, B.C. Decker, Inc., among others. Eventually in 1998 Mosby was sold to Harcourt Brace & Company to form the Elsevier Health Sciences group.[125]

    Broadcasting activities

    Times-Mirror Broadcasting Company
    The Times-Mirror Company (1947–1963, 1970–1993)
    Silent (1963–1970)

    The Times-Mirror Company was a founding owner of television station

    Hollywood in 1950, which was then used to consolidate KTTV's operations. Later to be known as Metromedia Square, the studio was sold along with KTTV to Metromedia
    in 1963.

    After a seven-year hiatus from the medium, the firm reactivated Times-Mirror Broadcasting Company with its 1970 purchase of the

    KDFW-TV
    .

    Times-Mirror Broadcasting later acquired

    San Diego areas, amongst others. They were originally titled Times-Mirror Cable, and were later renamed to Dimension Cable Television. Similarly, they also attempted to enter the pay-TV market, with the Spotlight movie network; it was not successful and was quickly shut down. The cable systems were sold in the mid-1990s to Cox Communications
    .

    Times-Mirror also pared its station group down, selling off the Syracuse, Elmira and Harrisburg properties in 1986.

    a sweeping shift of network-station affiliations which occurred between 1994 and 1995
    .

    Stations

    City of license / market Station Channel
    TV / (RF)
    Years owned Current ownership status
    Birmingham WVTM-TV 13 (13) 1980–1993 NBC affiliate owned by Hearst Television
    Los Angeles KTTV 1 11 (11) 1949–1963
    O&O
    )
    St. Louis
    KTVI 2 (43) 1980–1993 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
    Elmira, New York WETM-TV 18 (18) 1980–1986 NBC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
    Syracuse, New York WSTM-TV 3 (24) 1980–1986 NBC affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
    Harrisburg - Lancaster -
    Lebanon - York
    WHTM-TV 27 (10) 1980–1986 ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
    Austin, Texas
    KTBC-TV
    7 (7) 1973–1993 Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)
    Dallas - Fort Worth
    KDFW-TV
    2
    4 (35) 1970–1993 Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)

    Notes:

    Employees

    Unionization

    On January 19, 2018, employees of the news department voted 248–44 in a National Labor Relations Board election to be represented by the NewsGuild-CWA.[131] The vote came despite aggressive opposition from the paper's management team,[citation needed] reversing more than a century of anti-union sentiment at one of the biggest newspapers in the country.[citation needed]

    Writers and editors

    Cartoonists

    • Pulitzer Prize
      in 1964, 1971, and 1984
    • Ted Rall
    • Pulitzer Prize
      in 1999 and 2003
    • Frank Interlandi (1924–2010)
    • Pulitzer Prize
      in 1994 and 2008
    • Pulitzer Prize
      in 1946

    Photographers

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