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Example of a manga starring Wikipe-tan
PublishersList of manga publishers
PublicationsList of manga magazines
CreatorsList of manga artists
SeriesLists of manga
Related articles

Manga (漫画, IPA:

cartooning. Outside of Japan, the word is typically used to refer to comics originally published in the country.[3]

In Japan, people of all ages and walks of life read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure, business and commerce, comedy, detective, drama, historical, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction and fantasy, erotica (hentai and ecchi), sports and games, and suspense, among others.[4][5] Many manga are translated into other languages.[6][7]

Since the 1950s, manga has become an increasingly major part of the Japanese publishing industry.

manga magazines (also known as manga anthologies) in Japan (equivalent to 15 issues per person).[10] In 2020 Japan's manga market value hit a new record of ¥612.6 billion due to the fast growth of digital manga sales as well as increase of print sales.[11][12] In 2022 Japan's manga market hit yet another record value of ¥675.9 billion.[13][14] Manga have also gained a significant worldwide readership.[15][16][17][18] Beginning with the late 2010s manga started massively outselling American comics.[19]

As of 2021, the top four comics publishers in the world are manga publishers

NPD BookScan manga made up 76% of overall comics and graphic novel sales in the US in 2021.[22] The fast growth of the North American manga market is attributed to manga's wide availability on digital reading apps, book retailer chains such as Barnes & Noble and online retailers such as Amazon as well as the increased streaming of anime.[23][24][25] According to Jean-Marie Bouissou, manga represented 38% of the French comics market in 2005.[26] This is equivalent to approximately 3 times that of the United States and was valued at about €460 million ($640 million).[27] In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012.[28] In April 2023, the Japan Business Federation laid out a proposal aiming to spur the economic growth of Japan by further promoting the contents industry abroad, primarily anime, manga and video games, for measures to invite industry experts from abroad to come to Japan to work, and to link with the tourism sector to help foreign fans of manga and anime visit sites across the country associated with particular manga stories. The federation seeks on quadrupling the sales of Japanese content in overseas markets within the upcoming 10 years.[29][30]

Manga stories are typically printed in

live-action or animated films.[37]

Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in those places that speak Chinese ("

OEL manga"), and French ("manfra"), as well as in the nation of Algeria ("DZ-manga").[38][39]


The kanji for "manga" from the preface to Shiji no yukikai (1798)

The word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画[40] (katakana: マンガ; hiragana: まんが), composed of the two kanji (man) meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and (ga) meaning "pictures".[41][42] The same term is the root of the Korean word for comics, manhwa, and the Chinese word manhua.[43]

The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century

Rakuten Kitazawa (1876–1955) first used the word "manga" in the modern sense.[48]

In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "

ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.[49]

History and characteristics

A kami-shibai story teller from Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa. Sazae appears with her hair in a bun.

According to art resource Widewalls[

kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes.[53] Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing.[10] however Eastern comics are generally held separate from the evolution of Western comics and Western comic art probably originated in 17th Italy,[54]

Writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as

GIs) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[56]

Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period,[57] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san). Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere,[58] and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drew more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.[50] Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[59] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.[60] Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.[61]

In 1969, a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists).[62] The group included Moto Hagio, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Ōshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi.[34] Thereafter, primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women.[63] In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[64] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性).[65]

Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[66] With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch, Reiko Yoshida's Tokyo Mew Mew, and Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[67] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together have also been popular within this genre. Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together.[68]

Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18 to 30 years old (

seinen manga);[69] as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sex.[70] The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to pornographic manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult" 成人) manga.[71]
Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share a number of features in common.

Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure.[72] Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular.[73]

The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (

Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[75]

By the turn of the 21st century, manga "achieved worldwide popularity".[7]

With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, an assortment of explicit sexual material appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly continued into the English translations.[76] In 2010, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government considered a bill to restrict minors' access to such content.[77][needs update]


Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s, partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism,[80] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[81]

Publications and exhibition

Delegates of 3rd Asian Cartoon Exhibition, held at Tokyo (Annual Manga Exhibition) by The Japan Foundation[82]
A manga store in Japan

In Japan, manga constituted an annual 40.6 billion yen (approximately US$395 million) publication-industry by 2007.[83] In 2006 sales of manga books made up for about 27% of total book-sales, and sale of manga magazines, for 20% of total magazine-sales.[84] The manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages.

Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership.

, read manga and sometimes stay overnight.

The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.[86]


Eshinbun Nipponchi is credited as the first manga magazine ever made.

Manga magazines or anthologies (漫画雑誌, manga zasshi) usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals. Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists; these magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Popular shonen magazines include Weekly Shōnen Jump, Weekly Shōnen Magazine and Weekly Shōnen Sunday - Popular shoujo manga include Ciao, Nakayoshi and Ribon. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. Magazines often have a short life.[87]

Collected volumes

After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the chapters and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These can be hardcover, or more usually softcover books, and are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes often use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. "Deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market.


Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyōsai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist. Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people. Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879.[88] Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then. Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War.[89]

In 1905, the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the

speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent.[91]

Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the

mangaka and on other comics industries around the world. Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyū in August 1940.[93]


Dōjinshi, produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to dōjinshi. While they most often contain original stories, many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series. Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007, dōjinshi sales amounted to 27.73 billion yen (US$245 million).[83] In 2006 they represented about a tenth of manga books and magazines sales.[84]

Digital manga

Thanks to the advent of the internet, there have been new ways for aspiring mangaka to upload and sell their manga online. Before, there were two main ways in which a mangaka's work could be published: taking their manga drawn on paper to a publisher themselves, or submitting their work to competitions run by magazines.[94]

Web manga

In recent years, there has been a rise in manga released digitally. Web manga, as it is known in Japan, has seen an increase thanks in part to image hosting websites where anyone can upload pages from their works for free. Although released digitally, almost all web manga sticks to the conventional black-and-white format despite some never getting physical publication. Pixiv is the most popular site where amateur and professional work gets published on the site. It has grown to be the most visited site for artwork in Japan.[95] Twitter has also become a popular place for web manga with many artists releasing pages weekly on their accounts in the hope of their work getting picked up or published professionally. One of the best examples of an amateur work becoming professional is One-Punch Man which was released online and later received a professional remake released digitally and an anime adaptation soon thereafter.[96]

Many of the big print publishers have also released digital only magazines and websites where web manga get published alongside their serialized magazines.

Kodansha Comics thanks in part to the titles being released digitally first before being published physically.[99]

The rise web manga has also been credited to smartphones and computers as more and more readers read manga on their phones rather than from a print publication. While paper manga has seen a decrease over time, digital manga have been growing in sales each year. The Research Institute for Publications reports that sales of digital manga books excluding magazines jumped 27.1 percent to ¥146 billion in 2016 from the year before while sales of paper manga saw a record year-on-year decline of 7.4 percent to ¥194.7 billion. They have also said that if the digital and paper keep the same growth and drop rates, web manga would exceed their paper counterparts.[100] In 2020 manga sales topped the ¥600 billion mark for the first time in history, beating the 1995 peak due to a fast growth of the digital manga market which rose by ¥82.7 billion from a previous year, surpassing print manga sales which have also increased.[101][102]



Naver Webtoon (under the name XOY in Japan). Kakao has also had success by offering licensed manga and translated Korean webtoons with their service Piccoma. All three companies credit their success to the webtoon pay model where users can purchase each chapter individually instead of having to buy the whole book while also offering some chapters for free for a period of time allowing anyone to read a whole series for free if they wait long enough.[103] The added benefit of having all of their titles in color and some with special animations and effects have also helped them succeed. Some popular Japanese webtoons have also gotten anime adaptations and print releases, the most notable being ReLIFE and Recovery of an MMO Junkie.[104][105]

International markets

By 2007, the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades.

effects on comics artists internationally.

The reading direction in a traditional manga

Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left. Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers. This practice is known as "flipping".[107] For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"), who may be ignorant of how awkward it is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that's quite distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously. If the translation is not adapted to the flipped artwork carefully enough it is also possible for the text to go against the picture, such as a person referring to something on their left in the text while pointing to their right in the graphic. Characters shown writing with their right hands, the majority of them, would become left-handed when a series is flipped. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side, however these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping.[108]


Manga shelf in "Kim Đồng" bookstore, 55 Quang Trung, Hanoi, Vietnam

Manga has highly influenced the art styles of

Boy's Love manga became popular through the introduction of BL manga by printing company BLACKink. Among the first BL titles to be printed were Poster Boy, Tagila, and Sprinters, all were written in Filipino. BL manga have become bestsellers in the top three bookstore companies in the Philippines since their introduction in 2015. During the same year, Boy's Love manga have become a popular mainstream with Thai consumers, leading to television series adapted from BL manga stories since 2016.[citation needed


The comic book and manga store Sakura Eldorado in Hamburg, Germany

Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way that is somewhat different from in the U.S. Broadcast anime in France and Italy opened the European market to manga during the 1970s.

Japonism)[111] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.[112] Manga was introduced to France in the late 1990s, where Japanese pop culture became massively popular: in 2021, 55% of comics sold in the country were manga and France is the biggest manga importer.[113][114][115]

By mid-2021, 75 percent of the €300 value of

Pika Édition, among others.[citation needed] European publishers also translate manga into Dutch, German, Italian, and other languages. In 2007, about 70% of all comics sold in Germany were manga.[119] Since 2010 the country celebrates Manga Day on every August 27. In 2021 manga sales in Germany rose by 75% from its original record of 70 million in 2005. As of 2022 Germany is the third largest manga market in Europe after Italy and France.[120]

In 2021, the Spanish manga market hit a record of 1033 new title publications. In 2022 the 28th edition of the Barcelona Manga Festival opened its doors to more than 163,000 fans, compared to a pre-pandemic 120,000 in 2019.[121]

Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include

United States

Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.

Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics.[130] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics' Epic Comics imprint, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind from Viz Media, and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994) and Ippongi Bang
's F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995).

During the 1980s and 1990s, Japanese animation, such as

Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[132]
Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills.[107]

A young boy reading Black Cat

Japanese publishers began pursuing a U.S. market in the mid-1990s, due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga.

MixxZine. Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[137]

During this period,

The Will Eisner Award Hall of FameOsamu Tezuka, Kazuo Koike, and Goseki Kojima — were published in Dark Horse translations.[138]

In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.

Electric Tale of Pikachu issue #1 sold over 1 million copies in the United States, making it the best-selling single comic book in the United States since 1993.[140] By 2008, the U.S. and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales.[141] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine.[142] As of 2017, manga distributor Viz Media is the largest publisher of graphic novels and comic books in the United States, with a 23% share of the market.[143] BookScan sales show that manga is one of the fastest-growing areas of the comic book and narrative fiction markets. From January 2019 to May 2019, the manga market grew 16%, compared to the overall comic book market's 5% growth. The NPD Group noted that, compared to other comic book readers, manga readers are younger (76% under 30) and more diverse, including a higher female readership (16% higher than other comic books).[144]
As of January 2020, manga is the second largest category in the US comic book and graphic novel market, accounting for 27% of the entire market share.[145] During the COVID-19 pandemic some stores of the American bookseller Barnes & Noble saw up to a 500% increase in sales from graphic novel and manga sales due to the younger generations showing a high interest in the medium.[146] Sales of print manga titles in the U.S. increased by 3.6 million units in the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same period in 2020.[147] In 2021, 24.4 million units of manga were sold in the United States. This is an increase of about 15 million (160%) more sales than in 2020.[148][149] In 2022, most of the top-selling comic creators in the United States were mangaka.[150] The same year manga sales saw an increase of 9%.[151]

Localized manga

A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. As an early example,

Crusade Comics

By the beginning of the 21st century, several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing-label of manga.

Amerimanga.[155] In 2004, eigoMANGA launched the Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakk anthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[156] Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[157]

Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga (manfra), like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[158]


The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include:

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.[159]

University education

Kyoto Seika University in Japan has offered a highly competitive course in manga since 2000.[160][161] Then, several established universities and vocational schools (専門学校: Semmon gakkou) established a training curriculum.

Shuho Sato, who wrote Umizaru and Say Hello to Black Jack, has created some controversy on Twitter. Sato says, "Manga school is meaningless because those schools have very low success rates. Then, I could teach novices required skills on the job in three months. Meanwhile, those school students spend several million yen, and four years, yet they are good for nothing." and that, "For instance, Keiko Takemiya, the then professor of Seika Univ., remarked in the Government Council that 'A complete novice will be able to understand where is "Tachikiri" (i.e., margin section) during four years.' On the other hand, I would imagine that, It takes about thirty minutes to completely understand that at work."[162]

See also


  1. ^ English: /ˈmæŋɡə/; also US: /ˈmɑːŋɡə/


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Works cited

Further reading

External links

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