Mining

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Person stabbing a yellow mineral block
Mining of sulfur from a deposit at the edge of Ijen's crater lake, Indonesia

Mining is the

rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. The ore must be a rock or mineral that contains valuable constituent, can be extracted or mined and sold for profit.[1] Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water
.

Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation or restoration of the land after the mine is closed.[2] Mining materials are often obtained from ore bodies, lodes, veins, seams, reefs, or placer deposits. The exploitation of these deposits for raw materials is dependent on investment, labor, energy, refining, and transportation cost.

Mining operations can create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact; however, the outsized role of mining in generating business for often rural, remote or economically depressed communities means that governments often fail to fully enforce such regulations.

resource conflicts
.

History

Prehistory

Since the beginning of civilization, people have used

English Lake District.[4]
The oldest-known mine on archaeological record is the
Eswatini (Swaziland), which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old. At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre.[5][6] Mines of a similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have mined flint for weapons and tools.[7]

Ancient Egypt

Malachite

Ancient Egyptians mined malachite at Maadi.[8] At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Later, between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself.[9] Quarries for turquoise and copper were also found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna.[9] Quarries for gypsum were found at the Umm el-Sawwan site; gypsum was used to make funerary items for private tombs. Other minerals mined in Egypt from the Old Kingdom (2649-2134 BC) until the Roman Period (30 BC-AD 395) including granite, sandstone, limestone, basalt, travertine, gneiss, galena, and amethyst.[10]

Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties. The gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. One of the complexes is shown in one of the earliest known mining maps.[11] The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust known as the dry and wet attachment processes.[12]

Ancient Greece and Rome

Ancient Roman development of the Dolaucothi Gold Mines, Wales

Mining in Europe has a very long history. Examples include the silver mines of

archaeologists to have been used in buildings including the tomb of Amphipolis. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns.[15] He also captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage, eventually producing 26 tons
per year.

However, it was the

aqueducts. The water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted
, or crushed, ores and driving simple machinery.

The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the

reservoirs and tanks. When a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold-bearing veins. The rock was then worked by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water. The resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines
.

Sluicing methods were developed by the Romans in

millennia,[17] but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased dramatically, as the Romans needed Britannia's resources, especially gold, silver, tin, and lead
.

Roman techniques were not limited to surface mining. They followed the ore veins underground once opencast mining was no longer feasible. At

Medieval Europe

De Re Metallica
Gallery, 12th to 13th century, Germany

Mining as an industry underwent dramatic changes in

lances and other weapons.[19]
The overwhelming dependency on iron for military purposes spurred iron production and extraction processes.

The silver crisis of 1465 occurred when all mines had reached depths at which the shafts could no longer be pumped dry with the available technology.

still remained vital to the story of medieval mining.

Due to differences in the social structure of society, the increasing extraction of mineral deposits spread from

technicians and skilled workers were brought over; in 1642 a colony of 4,000 foreigners was mining and smelting copper at Keswick in the northwestern mountains.[21]

Use of water power in the form of

Black powder was first used in mining in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia) in 1627.[22] Black powder allowed blasting of rock and earth to loosen and reveal ore veins. Blasting was much faster than fire-setting and allowed the mining of previously impenetrable metals and ores.[23]
In 1762, one of the world's first mining academies was established in the same town there.

The widespread adoption of agricultural innovations such as the iron plowshare, as well as the growing use of metal as a building material, was also a driving force in the tremendous growth of the iron industry during this period. Inventions like the arrastra were often used by the Spanish to pulverize ore after being mined. This device was powered by animals and used the same principles used for grain threshing.[24]

Much of the knowledge of medieval mining techniques comes from books such as

Georg Agricola's De re metallica (1556). These books detail many different mining methods used in German and Saxon mines. A prime issue in medieval mines, which Agricola
explains in detail, was the removal of water from mining shafts. As miners dug deeper to access new veins, flooding became a very real obstacle. The mining industry became dramatically more efficient and prosperous with the invention of mechanically- and animal-driven pumps.

Africa

Democratic Republic of Congo is the largest producer of diamonds in Africa, with an estimated 12 million carats in 2019. Other types of mining reserves in Africa include cobalt, bauxite, iron ore, coal, and copper.[26]

Oceania

Gold and coal mining started in Australia and New Zealand in the 19th century. Nickel has become important in the economy of New Caledonia.[citation needed]

In Fiji, in 1934, the Emperor Gold Mining Company Ltd. established operations at Vatukoula, followed in 1935 by the Loloma Gold Mines, N.L., and then by Fiji Mines Development Ltd. (aka Dolphin Mines Ltd.). These developments ushered in a “mining boom”, with gold production rising more than a hundred-fold, from 931.4 oz in 1934 to 107,788.5 oz in 1939, an order of magnitude then comparable to the combined output of New Zealand and Australia's eastern states.[27]

Americas

Lead mining in the upper Mississippi River region of the U.S., 1865

During prehistoric times, early Americans mined large amounts of

Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country
, Michigan, U.S., in 1905
Mining factory, c. 1880–1885. Photographs of the American West, Boston Public Library

In the early colonial history of the Americas, "native gold and silver was quickly expropriated and sent back to Spain in fleets of gold- and silver-laden galleons",

pre-Columbian America; in the Cerillos Mining District in New Mexico, an estimate of "about 15,000 tons of rock had been removed from Mt. Chalchihuitl using stone tools before 1700."[32][33]

In 1727 Louis Denys (Denis) (1675–1741), sieur de La Ronde – brother of

Chippewa tribes.[34]

Denver and Sacramento originated as mining towns.[37]

When new areas were explored, it was usually the gold (

lode) and then silver that were taken into possession and extracted first. Other metals would often wait for railroads or canals, as coarse gold dust and nuggets do not require smelting and are easy to identify and transport.[30]

Modernity

View showing miners' clothes suspended by pulleys, also wash basins and ventilation system, Kirkland Lake, Ontario, 1936

In the early 20th century, the gold and silver rush to the western United States also stimulated mining for coal as well as base metals such as copper, lead, and iron. Areas in modern Montana, Utah, Arizona, and later Alaska became predominate suppliers of copper to the world, which was increasingly demanding copper for electrical and households goods.[38] Canada's mining industry grew more slowly than did the United States' due to limitations in transportation, capital, and U.S. competition; Ontario was the major producer of the early 20th century with nickel, copper, and gold.[38]

Meanwhile, Australia experienced the Australian gold rushes and by the 1850s was producing 40% of the world's gold, followed by the establishment of large mines such as the Mount Morgan Mine, which ran for nearly a hundred years, Broken Hill ore deposit (one of the largest zinc-lead ore deposits), and the iron ore mines at Iron Knob. After declines in production, another boom in mining occurred in the 1960s. Now, in the early 21st century, Australia remains a major world mineral producer.[39]

As the 21st century begins, a globalized mining industry of large multinational corporations has arisen. Peak minerals and environmental impacts have also become a concern. Different elements, particularly rare-earth minerals, have begun to increase in demand as a result of new technologies.[40]

Mine development and life cycle

cut and fill mining operation in hard rock

The process of mining from discovery of an ore body through extraction of minerals and finally to returning the land to its natural state consists of several distinct steps. The first is discovery of the ore body, which is carried out through

grade
of the deposit.

This estimation is used to conduct a pre-feasibility study to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit. This identifies, early on, whether further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted and identifies key risks and areas for further work. The next step is to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate the financial viability, the technical and financial risks, and the robustness of the project.

This is when the mining company makes the decision whether to develop the mine or to walk away from the project. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering concerns, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements, and an analysis of the proposed mine from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. The proportion of a deposit that is economically recoverable is dependent on the enrichment factor of the ore in the area.

To gain access to the mineral deposit within an area it is often necessary to mine through or remove waste material which is not of immediate interest to the miner. The total movement of ore and waste constitutes the mining process. Often more waste than ore is mined during the life of a mine, depending on the nature and location of the ore body. Waste removal and placement is a major cost to the mining operator, so a detailed characterization of the waste material forms an essential part of the geological exploration program for a mining operation.

Once the analysis determines a given ore body is worth recovering, development begins to create access to the ore body. The mine buildings and processing plants are built, and any necessary equipment is obtained. The operation of the mine to recover the ore begins and continues as long as the company operating the mine finds it economical to do so. Once all the ore that the mine can produce profitably is recovered, reclamation can begin, to make the land used by the mine suitable for future use.

Technical and economic challenges notwithstanding, successful mine development must also address human factors. Working conditions are paramount to success, especially with regard to exposures to dusts, radiation, noise, explosives hazards, and vibration, as well as illumination standards. Mining today increasingly must address environmental and community impacts, including psychological and sociological dimensions. Thus, mining educator Frank T. M. White (1909–1971), broadened the focus to the “total environment of mining”, including reference to community development around mining, and how mining is portrayed to an urban society, which depends on the industry, although seemingly unaware of this dependency. He stated, “[I]n the past, mining engineers have not been called upon to study the psychological, sociological and personal problems of their own industry – aspects that nowadays are assuming tremendous importance. The mining engineer must rapidly expand his knowledge and his influence into these newer fields.”[41]

Techniques

Underground longwall mining

Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.[42]

Targets are divided into two general categories of materials: placer deposits, consisting of valuable minerals contained within river gravels, beach sands, and other unconsolidated materials; and lode deposits, where valuable minerals are found in veins, in layers, or in mineral grains generally distributed throughout a mass of actual rock. Both types of ore deposit, placer or lode, are mined by both surface and underground methods.[citation needed]

Some mining, including much of the rare earth elements and

in-situ leaching: this technique involves digging neither at the surface nor underground. The extraction of target minerals by this technique requires that they be soluble, e.g., potash, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, which dissolve in water. Some minerals, such as copper minerals and uranium oxide, require acid or carbonate solutions to dissolve.[43]

Explosives in Mining

Explosives have been used in surface mining and sub-surface mining to blast out rock and ore intended for processing. The most common explosive used in mining is ammonium nitrate.[44] Between 1870 and 1920, in Queensland Australia, an increase in mining accidents lead to more safety measures surrounding the use of explosives for mining.[45] In the United States of America, between 1990 and 1999, about 22.3 billion kilograms of explosives were used in mining quarrying and other industries; Moreover "coal mining used 66.4%, nonmetal mining and quarrying 13.5%, metal mining 10.4%, construction 7.1%, and all other users 2.6%".[44]

Artisanal

Artisanal gold mines near Dodoma, Tanzania. Makeshift sails lead fresh air underground.

Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is a blanket term for a type of subsistence mining involving a miner who may or may not be officially employed by a mining company but works independently, mining minerals using their own resources, usually by hand.[46]

While there is no completely coherent definition for ASM, artisanal mining generally includes miners who are not officially employed by a mining company and use their own resources to mine. As such, they are part of an informal economy. ASM also includes, in small-scale mining, enterprises or individuals that employ workers for mining, but who generally still use similar manually-intensive methods as artisanal miners (such as working with hand tools). In addition, ASM can be characterized as distinct from large-scale mining (LSM) by less efficient extraction of pure minerals from the ore, lower wages, decreased occupational safety, benefits, and health standards for miners, and a lack of environmental protection measures.[47]

Artisanal miners often undertake the activity of mining seasonally. For example,

rainy season, and mining is pursued in the dry season. However, they also frequently travel to mining areas and work year-round. There are four broad types of ASM:[48]

  1. Permanent artisanal mining
  2. Seasonal (annually migrating during idle agriculture periods)
  3. Rush-type (massive migration, pulled often by commodity price jumps)
  4. Shock-push (poverty-driven, following conflict or natural disasters).
Interior of an artisanal mine near Low's Creek, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. The human figures, exploring this mine, show the scale of tunnels driven entirely with hand tools (two-kilogram (4.4 lb) hammer and hand-forged scrap-steel chisel).
ASM is an important socio-economic sector for the rural poor in many developing nations, many of whom have few other options for supporting their families. Over 90% of the world's mining workforce are engaged in ASM, with an estimated 40.5 million people directly engaged in ASM, from over 80 countries in the
global south. More than 150 million people indirectly depend on ASM for their livelihood. 70–80% of small-scale miners are informal, and approximately 30% are women, although this ranges in certain countries and commodities from 5% to 80%.[49]

Surface

strip mining, which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal ore underneath; and mountaintop removal, commonly associated with coal mining, which involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach ore deposits at depth. Most placer deposits, because they are shallowly buried, are mined by surface methods. Finally, landfill mining involves sites where landfills are excavated and processed.[50] Landfill mining has been thought of as a long-term solution to methane emissions and local pollution.[51]

High wall

Coalburg Seam highwall mining at ADDCAR 16 Logan County WV

High wall mining, which evolved from auger mining, is another form of surface mining. In high wall mining, the remaining part of a coal seam previously exploited by other surface-mining techniques has too much overburden to be removed but can still be profitably exploited from the side of the artificial cliff made by previous mining.[52] A typical cycle alternates sumping, which undercuts the seam, and shearing, which raises and lowers the cutter-head boom to cut the entire height of the coal seam. As the coal recovery cycle continues, the cutter-head is progressively launched further into the coal seam. High wall mining can produce thousands of tons of coal in contour-strip operations with narrow benches, previously mined areas, trench mine applications and steep-dip seams.[citation needed]

Mysłowice coal mine shaft tower, Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Underground mining

Mantrip
used for transporting miners within an underground mine
Caterpillar Highwall Miner HW300 – Technology Bridging Underground and Open Pit Mining

Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. Sub-surface mining can be classified by the type of access shafts used, and the extraction method or the technique used to reach the mineral deposit.

soft rock formations requires different techniques.[53]

Other methods include

]

Machines

strip mining
. It is also one of the largest land vehicles of all time.
A Bucyrus Erie 2570 dragline and CAT 797 haul truck at the North Antelope Rochelle opencut coal mine

sluices or jigs.[citation needed
]

Large

drills are used to sink shafts, excavate stopes, and obtain samples for analysis. Trams are used to transport miners, minerals and waste. Lifts carry miners into and out of mines, and move rock and ore out, and machinery in and out, of underground mines. Huge trucks, shovels and cranes are employed in surface mining to move large quantities of overburden and ore. Processing plants use large crushers, mills, reactors, roasters and other equipment to consolidate the mineral-rich material and extract the desired compounds and metals from the ore.[citation needed
]

Processing

Once the mineral is extracted, it is often then processed. The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the extraction of valuable metals from their ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means.[54][55]

Mineral processing (or mineral dressing) is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the mechanical means of crushing, grinding, and washing that enable the separation (extractive metallurgy) of valuable metals or minerals from their gangue (waste material). Processing of placer ore material consists of gravity-dependent methods of separation, such as sluice boxes. Only minor shaking or washing may be necessary to disaggregate (unclump) the sands or gravels before processing. Processing of ore from a lode mine, whether it is a surface or subsurface mine, requires that the rock ore be crushed and pulverized before extraction of the valuable minerals begins. After lode ore is crushed, recovery of the valuable minerals is done by one, or a combination of several, mechanical and chemical techniques.[56]

Since most metals are present in ores as oxides or sulfides, the metal needs to be reduced to its metallic form. This can be accomplished through chemical means such as smelting or through electrolytic reduction, as in the case of aluminium. Geometallurgy combines the geologic sciences with extractive metallurgy and mining.[40]

In 2018, led by Chemistry and Biochemistry professor Bradley D. Smith, University of Notre Dame researchers "invented a new class of molecules whose shape and size enable them to capture and contain precious metal ions," reported in a study published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The new method "converts gold-containing ore into chloroauric acid and extracts it using an industrial solvent. The container molecules are able to selectively separate the gold from the solvent without the use of water stripping." The newly developed molecules can eliminate water stripping, whereas mining traditionally "relies on a 125-year-old method that treats gold-containing ore with large quantities of poisonous sodium cyanide... this new process has a milder environmental impact and that, besides gold, it can be used for capturing other metals such as platinum and palladium," and could also be used in urban mining processes that remove precious metals from wastewater streams.[57]

Environmental effects

Environmental effects of mining can occur at local, regional, and global scales through direct and indirect mining practices. Mining can cause erosion, sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, or the contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water by chemicals emitted from mining processes. These processes also affect the atmosphere through carbon emissions which contributes to climate change.[58]

Some mining methods (lithium mining, phosphate mining, coal mining, mountaintop removal mining, and sand mining) may have such significant environmental and public health effects that mining companies in some countries are required to follow strict environmental and rehabilitation codes to ensure that the mined area returns to its original state. Mining can provide various advantages to societies, yet it can also spark conflicts, particularly regarding land use both above and below the surface.[59]

Mining operations remain rigorous and intrusive, often resulting in significant environmental impacts on local ecosystems and broader implications for planetary environmental health.[60] To accommodate mines and associated infrastructure, land is cleared extensively, consuming significant energy and water resources, emitting air pollutants, and producing hazardous waste.[61]

According to The World Counts page "The amount of resources mined from Earth is up from 39.3 billion tons in 2002. A 55 percent increase in less than 20 years. This puts Earth’s natural resources under heavy pressure. We are already extracting 75 percent more than Earth can sustain in the long run."[62]

Environmental regulation

Iron hydroxide precipitate stains a stream receiving acid drainage from surface coal mining.

Countries with strongly enforced mining regulations commonly require

environmental management plans, and mine closure planning prior beginning mine operations. Environmental monitoring during operation and after closure may also be required. Government regulations may not be well enforced, especially in the developing world.[40]

For major mining companies and any company seeking international financing, there are a number of other mechanisms to enforce environmental standards. These generally relate to financing standards such as the

Rio Earth Summit by the UN Centre for Transnational Corporations (UNCTC), but the Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD) together with the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) argued successfully for self-regulation instead.[64]

This was followed by the Global Mining Initiative which was begun by nine of the largest metals and mining companies and which led to the formation of the International Council on Mining and Metals, whose purpose was to "act as a catalyst" in an effort to improve social and environmental performance in the mining and metals industry internationally.[63] The mining industry has provided funding to various conservation groups, some of which have been working with conservation agendas that are at odds with an emerging acceptance of the rights of indigenous people – particularly the right to make land-use decisions.[65]

Certification of

ISO 14001, which certify an "auditable environmental management system", involve short inspections, although they have been accused of lacking rigor.[clarification needed][63]: 183–84  Certification is also available through Ceres' Global Reporting Initiative, but these reports are voluntary and unverified. Miscellaneous other certification programs exist for various projects, typically through nonprofit groups.[63]
: 185–86 

The purpose of a 2012 EPS PEAKS paper[66] was to provide evidence on policies managing ecological costs and maximize socio-economic benefits of mining using host country regulatory initiatives. It found existing literature suggesting donors encourage developing countries to:

  • Make the environment-poverty link and introduce cutting-edge wealth measures and natural capital accounts.
  • Reform old taxes in line with more recent financial innovation, engage directly with the companies, enact land use and impact assessments, and incorporate specialized support and standards agencies.
  • Set in play transparency and community participation initiatives using the wealth accrued.

Waste

Location of waste rock storage (center) at Teghut (village) Copper-Molybdenum Mine in Armenia's northern Lori province

Ore mills generate large amounts of waste, called tailings.[67] For example, 99 tons of waste is generated per ton of copper, with even higher ratios in gold mining – because only 5.3 g of gold is extracted per ton of ore, a ton of gold produces 200,000 tons of tailings.[68] (As time goes on and richer deposits are exhausted – and technology improves – this number is going down to .5 g and less.) These tailings can be toxic. Tailings, which are usually produced as a slurry, are most commonly dumped into ponds made from naturally existing valleys.[69] These ponds are secured by impoundments (dams or embankment dams).[69] In 2000 it was estimated that 3,500 tailings impoundments existed, and that every year, 2 to 5 major failures and 35 minor failures occurred.[70] For example, in the Marcopper mining disaster at least 2 million tons of tailings were released into a local river.[70] In 2015, Barrick Gold Corporation spilled over 1 million liters of cyanide into a total of five rivers in Argentina near their Veladero mine.[71] Since 2007 in central Finland, the Talvivaara Terrafame polymetal mine's waste effluent and leaks of saline mine water have resulted in ecological collapse of a nearby lake.[72] Subaqueous tailings disposal is another option.[69] The mining industry has argued that submarine tailings disposal (STD), which disposes of tailings in the sea, is ideal because it avoids the risks of tailings ponds. The practice is illegal in the United States and Canada, but it is used in the developing world.[73]

The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralized, with acid generating potential, and the movement and storage of this material form a major part of the mine planning process. When the mineralised package is determined by an economic cut-off, the near-grade mineralised waste is usually dumped separately with view to later treatment should market conditions change and it becomes economically viable. Civil engineering design parameters are used in the design of the waste dumps, and special conditions apply to high-rainfall areas and to seismically active areas. Waste dump designs must meet all regulatory requirements of the country in whose jurisdiction the mine is located. It is also common practice to rehabilitate dumps to an internationally acceptable standard, which in some cases means that higher standards than the local regulatory standard are applied.[70]

Industry

The Särkijärvi pit of the apatite mine in Siilinjärvi, Finland

Mining exists in many countries.

rare earth minerals mining, China reportedly controlled 95% of production in 2013.[78]

The Bingham Canyon Mine of Rio Tinto's subsidiary, Kennecott Utah Copper

While exploration and mining can be conducted by individual entrepreneurs or small businesses, most modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large amounts of capital to establish. Consequently, the mining sector of the industry is dominated by large, often multinational, companies, most of them

publicly listed. It can be argued that what is referred to as the 'mining industry' is actually two sectors, one specializing in exploration for new resources and the other in mining those resources. The exploration sector is typically made up of individuals and small mineral resource companies, called "juniors", which are dependent on venture capital. The mining sector is made up of large multinational companies that are sustained by production from their mining operations. Various other industries such as equipment manufacture, environmental testing, and metallurgy analysis rely on, and support, the mining industry throughout the world. Canadian stock exchanges have a particular focus on mining companies, particularly junior exploration companies through Toronto's TSX Venture Exchange; Canadian companies raise capital on these exchanges and then invest the money in exploration globally.[74] Some have argued that below juniors there exists a substantial sector of illegitimate companies primarily focused on manipulating stock prices.[74]

Mining operations can be grouped into five major categories in terms of their respective resources. These are

oil and gas extraction remains one of the largest in terms of its global economic importance. Prospecting potential mining sites, a vital area of concern for the mining industry, is now done using sophisticated new technologies such as seismic prospecting and remote-sensing satellites. Mining is heavily affected by the prices of the commodity minerals, which are often volatile. The 2000s commodities boom ("commodities supercycle") increased the prices of commodities, driving aggressive mining. In addition, the price of gold increased dramatically in the 2000s, which increased gold mining; for example, one study found that conversion of forest in the Amazon increased six-fold from the period 2003–2006 (292 ha/yr) to the period 2006–2009 (1,915 ha/yr), largely due to artisanal mining.[80]

Corporate classifications

Mining companies can be classified based on their size and financial capabilities:

Re their valuation, and stock market characteristics, see Valuation (finance) § Valuation of mining projects.

Regulation and governance

EITI
Global Conference 2016

New regulations and a process of legislative reforms aim to improve the harmonization and stability of the mining sector in mineral-rich countries.

NGOs and local communities called for new approaches which would also include disadvantaged communities, and work towards sustainable development even after mine closure (including transparency and revenue management). By the early 2000s, community development issues and resettlements became mainstream concerns in World Bank mining projects.[83] Mining-industry expansion after mineral prices increased in 2003 and also potential fiscal revenues in those countries created an omission in the other economic sectors in terms of finances and development. Furthermore, this highlighted regional and local demand for mining revenues and an inability of sub-national governments to effectively use the revenues. The Fraser Institute (a Canadian think tank) has highlighted[clarification needed] the environmental protection laws in developing countries, as well as voluntary efforts by mining companies to improve their environmental impact.[84]

In 2007, the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) was mainstreamed[clarification needed] in all countries cooperating with the World Bank in mining industry reform.[83] The EITI operates and was implemented with the support of the EITI multi-donor trust fund, managed by the World Bank.[85] The EITI aims to increase transparency in transactions between governments and companies in extractive industries[86] by monitoring the revenues and benefits between industries and recipient governments. The entrance process is voluntary for each country and is monitored by multiple stakeholders including governments, private companies and civil society representatives, responsible for disclosure and dissemination of the reconciliation report;[83] however, the competitive disadvantage of company-by-company public report is for some of the businesses in Ghana at least, the main constraint.[87] Therefore, the outcome assessment in terms of failure or success of the new EITI regulation does not only "rest on the government's shoulders" but also on civil society and companies.[88]

However, implementation has issues; inclusion or exclusion of artisanal mining and small-scale mining (ASM) from the EITI and how to deal with "non-cash" payments made by companies to subnational governments. Furthermore, the disproportionate revenues the mining industry can bring to the comparatively small number of people that it employs,[89] causes other problems, like a lack of investment in other less lucrative sectors, leading to swings in government revenue because of volatility in the oil markets. Artisanal mining is clearly an issue in EITI Countries such as the Central African Republic, D.R. Congo, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone – i.e. almost half of the mining countries implementing the EITI.[89] Among other things, limited scope of the EITI involving disparity in terms of knowledge of the industry and negotiation skills, thus far flexibility of the policy (e.g. liberty of the countries to expand beyond the minimum requirements and adapt it to their needs), creates another risk of unsuccessful implementation. Public awareness increase, where government should act as a bridge between public and initiative for a successful outcome of the policy is an important element to be considered.[90]

World Bank

World Bank logo

The

Ferro Carajas project of Brazil, begun in 1981.[92] The World Bank established mining codes intended to increase foreign investment; in 1988, it solicited feedback from 45 mining companies on how to increase their involvement.[63]
: 20 

In 1992, the World Bank began to push for privatization of

Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) was privatized. These and other developments, such as the Philippines 1995 Mining Act, led the bank to publish a third report (Assistance for Minerals Sector Development and Reform in Member Countries) which endorsed mandatory environment impact assessments and attention to the concerns of the local population. The codes based on this report are influential in the legislation of developing nations. The new codes are intended to encourage development through tax holidays, zero custom duties, reduced income taxes, and related measures.[63]: 22  The results of these codes were analyzed by a group from the University of Quebec, which concluded that the codes promote foreign investment but "fall very short of permitting sustainable development".[93] The observed negative correlation between natural resources and economic development is known as the resource curse.[citation needed
]

Safety

Mining transport in Devnya, Bulgaria
A coal miner in West Virginia spraying rockdust to reduce the combustible fraction of coal dust in the air

Safety has long been a concern in the mining business, especially in sub-surface mining. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, involved the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France on March 10, 1906. This disaster was surpassed only by the Benxihu Colliery accident in China on April 26, 1942, which killed 1,549 miners.[94] While mining today is substantially safer than it was in previous decades, mining accidents still occur. Government figures indicate that 5,000 Chinese miners die in accidents each year, while other reports have suggested a figure as high as 20,000.[95] Between 1870 and 1920, in Queensland Australia, an increase in mining accidents lead to more safety measures surrounding the use of explosives for mining.[96] Mining accidents continue worldwide, including accidents causing dozens of fatalities at a time such as the 2007 Ulyanovskaya Mine disaster in Russia, the 2009 Heilongjiang mine explosion in China, and the 2010 Upper Big Branch Mine disaster in the United States. Mining has been identified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues.[97] The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) was established in 1978 to "work to prevent death, illness, and injury from mining and promote safe and healthful workplaces for US miners."[98] Since its implementation in 1978, the number of miner fatalities has decreased from 242 miners in 1978 to 24 miners in 2019.[citation needed]

There are numerous occupational hazards associated with mining, including exposure to rockdust which can lead to diseases such as silicosis, asbestosis, and pneumoconiosis. Gases in the mine can lead to asphyxiation and could also be ignited. Mining equipment can generate considerable noise, putting workers at risk for hearing loss. Cave-ins, rock falls, and exposure to excess heat are also known hazards. The current NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of noise is 85 dBA with a 3 dBA exchange rate and the MSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is 90 dBA with a 5 dBA exchange rate as an 8-hour time-weighted average. NIOSH has found that 25% of noise-exposed workers in Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction have hearing impairment.[99] The prevalence of hearing loss increased by 1% from 1991 to 2001 within these workers.[citation needed]

Noise studies have been conducted in several mining environments. Stageloaders (84-102 dBA), shearers (85-99 dBA), auxiliary fans (84–120 dBA), continuous mining machines (78–109 dBA), and roof bolters (92–103 dBA) represent some of the noisiest equipment in underground coal mines.[100] Dragline oilers, dozer operators, and welders using air arcing were occupations with the highest noise exposures among surface coal miners.[101] Coal mines had the highest hearing loss injury likelihood.[102]

Human rights

In addition to the

chemicals expelled during the mining process, work in inhumane conditions spending numerous hours working in extreme heat, darkness and 14 hour workdays with no allocated time for breaks.[104]

Child labor

, United States in the early 20th century

Included within the human rights abuses that occur during mining processes are instances of

Democratic Republic of Congo. Reports have risen of children carrying sacks of cobalt weighing 25 kg from small mines to local traders[105] being paid for their work only in food and accommodation. A number of companies such as Apple, Google, Microsoft and Tesla have been implicated in lawsuits brought by families whose children were severely injured or killed during mining activities in Congo.[106] In December 2019, 14 Congolese families filed a lawsuit against Glencore, a mining company which supplies the essential cobalt to these multinational corporations with allegations of negligence that led to the deaths of children or injuries such as broken spines, emotional distress and forced labor.[citation needed
]

Indigenous peoples

There have also been instances of killings and evictions attributed to conflicts with mining companies. Almost a third of 227 murders in 2020 were of Indigenous peoples rights activists on the frontlines of climate change activism linked to logging, mining, large-scale agribusiness, hydroelectric dams, and other infrastructure, according to Global Witness.[107]

The relationship between indigenous peoples and mining is defined by struggles over access to land. In Australia, the Aboriginal Bininj said mining posed a threat to their living culture and could damage sacred heritage sites.[108][109]

In the Philippines, an anti-mining movement has raised concerns regarding "the total disregard for [Indigenous communities'] ancestral land rights".[110] Ifugao peoples' opposition to mining led a governor to proclaim a ban on mining operations in Mountain Province, Philippines.[110]

In Brazil, more than 170 tribes organized a march to oppose controversial attempts to strip back indigenous land rights and open their territories to mining operations.[111] The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has called on Brazil's Supreme Court to uphold Indigenous land rights to prevent exploitation by mining groups and industrial agriculture.[112]

Records

Chuquicamata, Chile, site of the largest circumference and second deepest open pit copper mine in the world

As of 2019,

Western Deep Levels
#1 Shaft, the underground and surface works were commissioned in 1987. The mine is considered to be one of the most substantial gold mines in the world.

The Moab Khutsong gold mine in

North West Province (South Africa) has the world's longest winding steel wire rope, which is able to lower workers to 3,054 metres (10,020 ft) in one uninterrupted four-minute journey.[113]

The deepest mine in Europe is the 16th shaft of the uranium mines in Příbram, Czech Republic, at 1,838 metres (6,030 ft).[114] Second is Bergwerk Saar in Saarland, Germany, at 1,750 metres (5,740 ft). [citation needed]

The deepest open-pit mine in the world is

Bingham Canyon, Utah, United States, at over 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). The largest and second deepest open-pit copper mine in the world is Chuquicamata in northern Chile at 900 metres (3,000 ft), which annually produces 443,000 tons of copper and 20,000 tons of molybdenum.[115][116][117]

The deepest open-pit mine with respect to

Tagebau Hambach in Germany, where the base of the pit is 299 metres (981 ft) below sea level.[118]

The largest underground mine is

Kiirunavaara Mine in Kiruna, Sweden. With 450 kilometres (280 mi) of roads, 40 million tonnes of annually produced ore, and a depth of 1,270 metres (4,170 ft), it is also one of the most modern underground mines. The deepest borehole in the world is Kola Superdeep Borehole at 12,262 metres (40,230 ft), but this is connected to scientific drilling, not mining.[119]

Metal reserves and recycling

Macro of native copper about 1+12 inches (4 cm) in size
The Pyhäsalmi Mine, a metal mine in Pyhäjärvi, Finland
A metal recycling plant in South Carolina that has been abandoned for years

During the 20th century, the variety of

metals used in society grew rapidly. Today, the development of major nations such as China and India and advances in technologies are fueling an ever-greater demand. The result is that metal mining activities are expanding and more and more of the world's metal stocks are above ground in use rather than below ground as unused reserves. An example is the in-use stock of copper. Between 1932 and 1999, copper in use in the US rose from 73 kilograms (161 lb) to 238 kilograms (525 lb) per person.[120]

95% of the energy used to make aluminium from bauxite ore is saved by using recycled material.[121] However, levels of metals recycling are generally low. In 2010, the International Resource Panel, hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), published reports on metal stocks that exist within society[122] and their recycling rates.[120]

The report's authors observed that the metal stocks in society can serve as huge anthropogenic mines above ground.[122] However, they warned that the recycling rates of some rare metals used in applications such as mobile phones, battery packs for hybrid cars, and fuel cells are so low that unless future end-of-life recycling rates are dramatically stepped up these critical metals will become unavailable for use in modern technology.[citation needed]

As recycling rates are low and so much metal has already been extracted, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves.[123] This is especially true of aluminum, used in cans, and precious metals, found in discarded electronics.[124] Furthermore, waste after 15 years has still not broken down, so less processing would be required when compared to mining ores. A study undertaken by Cranfield University has found £360 million of metals could be mined from just four landfill sites.[125] There is also up to 20 MJ/kg of energy in waste, potentially making the re-extraction more profitable.[126] However, although the first landfill mine opened in Tel Aviv, Israel in 1953, little work has followed due to the abundance of accessible ores.[127]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Definition of ORE". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2023-02-10. Retrieved 2023-02-10.
  2. ^ Agricola, Georg; Hoover, Herbert (1950). De re metallica. MBLWHOI Library. New York, Dover Publications.
  3. ^ Hartman, Howard L. SME Mining Engineering Handbook, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration Inc, 1992, p. 3.
  4. .
  5. ^ Swaziland Natural Trust Commission, "Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern," Retrieved August 27, 2007, "Swaziland National Trust Commission – Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-02-05.
  6. ^ Peace Parks Foundation, "Major Features: Cultural Importance." Republic of South Africa: Author. Retrieved August 27, 2007, [1] Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "ASA – October 1996: Mining and Religion in Ancient Man". www2.asa3.org. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  8. ^ Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 57–59.
  9. ^ a b Shaw, I. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 108.
  10. S2CID 127791320
    .
  11. .
  12. .
  13. ^ "Mining greece ancient mines". www.miningreece.com. 2014-12-10. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  14. ^ "Mining Greece Ancient Quarries in Thassos". www.miningreece.com. 2014-12-10. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  15. ^ "Mining Greece the Goldmines of Alexander the Great". www.miningreece.com. 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  16. .
  17. ^ "The Independent, 20 Jan. 2007: The end of a Celtic tradition: the last gold miner in Wales". News.independent.co.uk. 2007-01-20. Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  18. ^ "Web Hosting, Reseller Hosting & Domain Names from Heart Internet". romans-in-britain.org.uk. Archived from the original on July 20, 2010.
  19. ^ A culture of Improvement. Robert Friedel. MIT Press. 2007. p. 81
  20. ^ "Chapter 7: Medieval Silver and Gold". Mygeologypage.ucdavis.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-07-14. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  21. ^ Heaton Herbert (1948) Economic History of Europe. A Harper International Edition. Fifth printing. February 1968. p. 316
  22. S2CID 15636432
    .
  23. ^ The use of Firesetting in the Granite Quarries of South India Paul T. Craddock The Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol. 13 Number 1. 1996
  24. JSTOR 40167137
    .
  25. ^ "The Trans-Saharan Gold Trade (7th–14th Century)". The Metropolitan Museum. October 2000. Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  26. ^ Published by M. Garside (2021-10-20). "Mining industry in Africa - statistics & facts". Statista. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  27. ^ Fiji through the Prism of Geology and Mines Inspection. Chapter 5 in: White F. (2020). Miner with a Heart of Gold: biography of a mineral science and engineering educator. Friesen Press, Victoria. ISBN 978-1-5255-7765-9 (Hardcover) 978-1-5255-7766-6 (Paperback) 978-1-5255-7767-3 (eBook)
  28. ^ a b Lankton, L. (1991). Cradle to Grave: Life, Work, and Death at the Lake Superior Copper Mines. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 5–6.
  29. ^ a b c West, G.A. (1970). Copper: its mining and use by the aborigines of the Lake Superior Region. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
  30. ^ a b Ricard, T. A. (1932), A History of American Mining, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  31. ^ Vaden, H.E. & Prevost. G. (2002). Politics of Latin America: The Power Game. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 34.
  32. ^ Maynard, S.R., Lisenbee, A.L. & Rogers, J. (2002). Preliminary Geologic Map of the Picture Rock 7.5 – Minute Quadrangle Santa Fe County, Central New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Open-File Report DM-49.
  33. ^ The Cerrillos Hills Park Coalition, (2000). Cerrillos Hills Historic Park Vision Statement. Public documents: Author. Retrieved August 27, 2007, [2]. Archived August 1, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ The WPA Guide to Wisconsin: The Badger State, Federal Writers' Project, Trinity University Press, Wisconsin, USA, 2013, p. 451. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  35. ^ McClure R, Schneider A. The General Mining Act of 1872 has left a legacy of riches and ruin Archived 2010-12-05 at the Wayback Machine. Seattle PI.
  36. ^ Boorstin, D.J. (1965). The Americans: The National Experience. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 78–81.
  37. ^ "Mining in the West Development Articles and Essays Meeting of Frontiers Digital Collections Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  38. ^ a b Miller C. (2013). Atlas of US and Canadian Environmental History, p. 64 Archived 2023-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Taylor & Francis.
  39. ^ History of Australia's Minerals Industry Archived 2017-07-11 at the Wayback Machine. Australian Atlas of Minerals Processing, Mines, and & Processing Centres.
  40. ^ a b c "12.9: Mining". Geosciences LibreTexts. 2017-01-28. Archived from the original on 2023-04-02. Retrieved 2023-04-03.
  41. ^ McGill University. Sunset of a Transformational Career. Chapter 16 in: White F. Miner with a Heart of Gold: biography of a mineral science and engineering educator. Friesen Press, Victoria. 2020. ISBN 978-1-5255-7765-9 (Hardcover) 978-1-5255-7766-6 (Paperback) 978-1-5255-7767-3 (eBook)
  42. ^ Hartmann HL. Introductory Mining Engineering, p. 11. First chapter Archived 2016-04-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "In Situ Leach Mining (ISL) of Uranium". World-nuclear.org. Archived from the original on 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
  44. ^
    PMID 14992846
    .
  45. from the original on 2023-02-21. Retrieved 2023-04-03.
  46. ^ "Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining". Intergovernmental Forum. Retrieved 2023-03-30.
  47. .
  48. ^ "Addressing Forced Labor in Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM)" (PDF). responsiblemines.org. 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  49. ^ "Women and Artisanal Mining: Gender Roles and the Road Ahead" (PDF). siteresources.worldbank.org. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  50. ^ Landfill Mining Archived 2017-05-23 at the Wayback Machine Landfill Mining, Preserving Resources through Integrated Sustainable Management of Waste, Technical Brief from the World Resource Foundation
  51. PMID 22083108
    .
  52. ^ Drum, The Oil (November 26, 2010), Coal Mining and the Highwall Method, A Media Solutions, archived from the original on September 6, 2021, retrieved September 6, 2021
  53. .
  54. ^ "Metallurgy - Extractive metallurgy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2021-06-02. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  55. ^ "Mining Concentrate Thickener". Red Meters. Archived from the original on 2021-06-25. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  56. ^ "Minerals Mining Conveyors | Mineral Mining Conveyor Products". ASGCO. Archived from the original on 2023-01-26. Retrieved 2023-04-03.
  57. ^ Leotaud, V. R. Archived 2018-06-12 at the Wayback Machine "Scientists develop technique to reduce cost, environmental impact of mining precious metal", by Valentina Ruiz LeotaudMining.com, June 10, 2018.
  58. PMID 30518573
    .
  59. .
  60. ^ Witchalls, Sammy (2022-04-03). "The Environmental Problems Caused by Mining". Earth.Org. Retrieved 2024-03-06.
  61. ^ "Mining is a polluting business. Can new tech make it cleaner?". Environment. 2024-03-06. Retrieved 2024-03-06.
  62. ^ "The World Counts". www.theworldcounts.com. Retrieved 2024-03-06.
  63. ^ a b c d e f Moody R. (2007). Rocks and Hard Places. Zed Books.
  64. ^ Abrahams D. (2005). Regulations for Corporations: A historical account of TNC regulation Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine, p. 6. UNRISD.
  65. ^ Chapin, Mac (2004-10-15). "A Challenge to Conservationists: Can we protect natural habitats without abusing the people who live in them?". World Watch Magazine. 6. 17. Archived from the original on 2010-08-02. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  66. ^ Bloom, M.J. & Denison, M. (2012) Environmental management for extractives, Professional Evidence and Applied Knowledge Services http://partnerplatform.org/?zl177g4a Archived 2020-09-23 at the Wayback Machine
  67. from the original on 2022-07-08. Retrieved 2022-11-03.
  68. ^ "What is the Cost of Mining Gold?". Visual Capitalist. 2013-05-21. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  69. ^ a b c US EPA. (1994). Technical Report: Design and Evaluation of Tailings Dams[dead link].
  70. ^ a b c TE Martin, MP Davies. (2000). Trends in the stewardship of tailings dams Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  71. ^ "Exclusive: Barrick faces sanctions for Argentina cyanide spills". Reuters. 2017-05-08. Archived from the original on 2021-10-09. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  72. PMID 28874843
    .
  73. ^ Coumans C. (2002). Mining's Problem with Waste Archived 2017-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. MiningWatch Canada.
  74. ^ a b c d MacDonald A. (2002). Industry in Transition: A Profile of the North American Mining Sector Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. Free full-text Archived 2013-09-15 at the Wayback Machine
  75. ^ Reuters. Global stock values top $50 trln: industry data.
  76. ^ Environmental Effects of Foreign Investment Versus Domestic Investment in the Mining Sector In Latin-America Archived 2016-12-31 at the Wayback Machine. OECD.
  77. ^ Mining in Africa – Overview. Mbendi.
  78. ^ Nesbit, Jeff (April 2, 2013). "China's Continuing Monopoly Over Rare Earth Minerals". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on Apr 3, 2023.
  79. ^ "2017 North American Industry Classification System Definition 21". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  80. ^ "Metals Economics Group World Exploration Trends Report". Metals Economics Group Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  81. (PDF) from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  82. ^ a b c d "The World Bank's Evolutionary Approach to Mining Sector Reform" (PDF). The World Bank. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-17. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  83. ^ Do Canadian mining companies operating abroad face weaker environmental regulations? Archived 2018-07-06 at the Wayback Machine. MiningFacts.org. Fraser Institute.
  84. ^ Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. "Governance Structure". Archived from the original on 13 April 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  85. ^ "Principles: Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)". Business and Human Right Resource Centre (2009). Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  86. ^ The Ghanaian Journal. "At the Fifth EITI Global Conference". Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  87. ^ Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. "Report of 5th EITI Global Conference in Paris, 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  88. ^ a b "Advancing the EITI in the Mining Sector: Implementation Issues" (PDF). World Bank's Oil, Gas and Mining Policy and Operations Unit (COCPO). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  89. ^ Revenue Watch Institute (20 April 2010). "Promoting Transparency in the Extractive Sectors: An EITI Training for Tanzania Legislators". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  90. ^ For an overview of the Bank and mining, see Mining, Sustainability and Risk:World Bank Group Experiences Archived 2011-09-29 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ See the 1995 World Development 23(3) pp. 385–400.
  92. ^ GRAMA. (2003). The Challenges of Development, Mining Codes in Africa And Corporate Responsibility Archived 2016-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. In: International and Comparative Mineral Law and Policy: Trends and Prospects. Summarized in the African Mining Codes Questioned. Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  93. ^ "Marcel Barrois". Le Monde (in French). March 10, 2006.[permanent dead link]
  94. ^ "Where The Coal Is Stained With Blood". Time. March 2, 2007
  95. .
  96. ^ "NORA Mining Sector Council | NIOSH | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-10-24. Archived from the original on 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  97. ^ "Mission | Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)". www.msha.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-06-14. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  98. PMID 25690583
    .
  99. ^ "Summary of Longwall and Continuous Miner Section Noise Studies in Underground Coal Mines". www.cdc.gov. 25 October 2016. Archived from the original on 2018-06-27. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  100. ^ "Worker exposure and equipment noise in large surface coal mines". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-07-19. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  101. PMID 29200378
    .
  102. ^ Spohr, Maximilian (January 2016). Human Rights Risks in Mining - A Baseline Study (PDF). BGR. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  103. ^ Tamufor, Lindlyn. Human Rights Violations in Africa's Mining Sector (PDF). Ghana: Third World Network - Africa. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  104. ^ Financial Times (7 July 2019). "Congo, Child Labor and Your Electric Car". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 2022-12-10.
  105. ^ Kelly, Annie (16 December 2019). "Apple and Google named in US lawsuit over Congolese child cobalt mining deaths". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  106. ^ Marshall, Claire (2021-09-13). "Record number of environmental activists murdered". BBC via Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 2021-09-13. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  107. ^ Behrendt, Larissa; Strelein, Lisa (March 2001). "Old Habits Die Hard: Indigenous Land Rights and Mining in Australia". Cultural Survival. Archived from the original on 2021-09-13. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  108. ^ "Uranium Mining – The Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation". Mirarr. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  109. ^ a b Tartlet, R.K. (March 2001). "The Cordillera People's Alliance: Mining and Indigenous Rights in the Luzon Highlands". Cultural Surival. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  110. ^ Phillips, Tom; Milhorance, Flávia (2021-09-10). "Indigenous warrior women take fight to save ancestral lands to Brazilian capital". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  111. ^ "Brazil: Supreme Court must uphold indigenous land rights – UN expert". UN OHCHR. 2021-08-23. Archived from the original on 2021-09-13. Retrieved 2021-09-13.
  112. ^ "Mining and minerals in South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  113. .
  114. ^ "Chuquicamata | MINING.com". 2012-07-17. Archived from the original on 2019-03-28. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  115. ^ "Chuquicamata's Life Underground Will Cost a Fortune, but is Likely to Pay Off for Codelco | Copper Investing News". 2015-04-06. Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  116. ^ "The TEX Report Ltd". www.texreport.co.jp. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  117. ^ "Nordrhein-Westfalen in Zahlen und Geodaten" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-04-28. Retrieved 2021-05-04.
  118. ^ Piesing, Mark. "The deepest hole we have ever dug". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 2021-05-04.
  119. ^ a b The Recycling Rates of Metals: A Status Report 2010, International Resource Panel, United Nations Environment Programme
  120. ^ Tread lightly: Aluminium attack Archived 2017-05-10 at the Wayback Machine Carolyn Fry, Guardian.co.uk, 22 February 2008.
  121. ^ a b Metal Stocks in Society: Scientific Synthesis 2010, International Resource Panel, United Nations Environment Programme
  122. ^ "Landfill mining: new opportunities ahead?" (PDF). MacFarlanes. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  123. ^ "Landfill Mining". www.enviroalternatives.com. Archived from the original on 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  124. ^ "Study shows around £360 million of metals could be mined from just four landfill sites". www.rebnews.com. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  125. ^ "Enhanced Landfill Mining: Material recovery, energy utilisation and economics in the EU (Directive) perspective" (PDF). Enhanced Landfill Mining. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  126. ^ "Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining". www.rug.nl. Research database – University of Groningen. Archived from the original on 2019-01-27. Retrieved 2015-06-11.

Further reading

External links


This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article: Mining. Articles is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.Privacy Policy