A national park is a
The United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people",
Parks Canada, established on May 19, 1911, became the world's first national park service.
An international organization, the
National parks are almost always open to visitors.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a relatively large area with the following defining characteristics:
- One or several ecosystemsnot materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educational, and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty;
- Highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate exploitation or occupation as soon as possible in the whole area and to effectively enforce the respect of ecological, geomorphological, or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment; and
- Visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educative, cultural, and recreative purposes.
In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. These include:
- Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence
- Statutory legal protection
- Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection
- Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources (including the development of dams) qualified by such activities as sport, hunting, fishing, the need for management, facilities, etc.
While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park even when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example:
- Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia – Strict Nature Reserve
- Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib – Wilderness Area
- Koli National Park, Finland: IUCN II – Surface Area
- Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III – National Monument
- Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV – Habitat Management Area
- New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V – Protected Landscape
- Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI – Managed Resource Protected Area
While national parks are generally understood to be administered by national governments (hence the name), in Australia, with the exception of six national parks, national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia; similarly, national parks in the Netherlands are administered by the provinces. In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition.
In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks.
As many countries do not adhere to the IUCN definition, the term "national park" may be used loosely. In the United Kingdom, and in some other countries such as Taiwan, a "national park" simply describes a general area that is relatively undeveloped, scenic, and attracts tourists. There may be substantial human settlements within the bounds of a national park.
Conversely, parks that meet the criteria may be not be referred to as "national parks". Terms like "preserve" or "reserve" may be used instead.
Starting in 1735 the Naples government undertook laws in order to protect Natural areas, which could be used as a game reserve by the royal family; Procida was the first protected site; the difference between the many previous royal hunting preserves and this one, which is considered to be closer to a Park rather than a hunting preserve, is that Neapolitan government already considered the division into the present-day wilderness areas and non-strict nature reserves.
In 1810, the English poet
First efforts: Hot Springs, Arkansas and Yosemite Valley
The first effort by the U.S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President
John Muir is today referred to as the "Father of the National Parks" due to his work in Yosemite. He published two influential articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation.
First national park: Yellowstone
In 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States' first national park, being also the world's first national park. In some European and Asian countries, however, national protection and nature reserves already existed - though typically as game reserves and recreational grounds set aside for royalty, such as a part of the Forest of Fontainebleau (France, 1861).
Yellowstone was part of a
American Pulitzer Prize-winning author Wallace Stegner wrote: "National parks are the best idea we ever had. Absolutely American, absolutely democratic, they reflect us at our best rather than our worst."
International growth of national parks
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U.S.'s Mackinac National Park, in 1875. (The area was later transferred to the state's authority in 1895, thus losing its official "national park" status.)
Following the idea established in Yellowstone and Mackinac, there soon followed parks in other nations. In Australia, what is now Royal National Park was established just south of Sydney, Colony of New South Wales, on 26 April 1879, becoming the world's second official national park Since Mackinac lost its national park status, the Royal National Park is, by some considerations, the second oldest national park now in existence.
Banff National Park became Canada's first national park in 1885. New Zealand established Tongariro National Park in 1887.
In Europe, the first national parks were a set of nine parks in Sweden in 1909, followed by the
In 1895, the Groenkloof Nature Reserve was established as the first game sanctuary in Africa. In 1926, the government of South Africa designated Kruger National Park as the nation's first national park, although it was an expansion of the earlier Sabie Game Reserve established in 1898 by President Paul Kruger of the old South African Republic, after whom the park was named.
Argentina became the third country in the Americas to create a national park system, with the creation of the Nahuel Huapi National Park in 1934, through the initiative of Francisco Moreno.
In 1971, Lahemaa National Park in Estonia was the first area to be designated a national park in the former Soviet Union.
In 1973, Mount Kilimanjaro was classified as a National Park and was opened to public access in 1977.
In 1989, the
National parks services
The world's first national park service was established May 19, 1911, in Canada. The Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act placed the dominion parks under the administration of the Dominion Park Branch (now Parks Canada), within the Department of the Interior. The branch was established to "protect sites of natural wonder" to provide a recreational experience, centred on the idea of the natural world providing rest and spiritual renewal from the urban setting. Canada now has the largest protected area in the world with 450,000 km2 of national park space.
Even with the creation of Yellowstone, Yosemite, and nearly 37 other national parks and monuments, another 44 years passed before an agency was created in the United States to administer these units in a comprehensive way – the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). The 64th United States Congress passed the National Park Service Organic Act, which President Woodrow Wilson signed into law on 25 August 1916. Of the 424 sites managed by the National Park Service of the United States, only 63 carry the designation of National Park.
The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974 and is 972,000 km2 (375,000 sq mi) in area.
The smallest official national park in the world is
Countries with a large ecotourism industry, such as Costa Rica, often experience a huge economic effect on park management as well as the economy of the country as a whole.
Tourism to national parks has increased considerably over time. In Costa Rica for example, a
The duties of a park ranger are to supervise, manage, and/or perform work in the conservation and use of park resources. This involves functions such as park conservation; natural, historical, and cultural resource management; and the development and operation of interpretive and recreational programs for the benefit of the visiting public. Park rangers also have fire fighting responsibilities and execute search and rescue missions. Activities also include heritage interpretation to disseminate information to visitors of general, historical, or scientific information. Management of resources such as wildlife, lake shores, seashores, forests, historic buildings, battlefields, archaeological properties, and recreation areas are also part of the job of a park ranger. Since the establishment of the National Park Service in the US in 1916, the role of the park ranger has shifted from merely being a custodian of natural resources to include several activities that are associated with law enforcement. They control traffic, manage permits for various uses, and investigate violations, complaints, trespass/encroachment, and accidents.
While national parks are often seen as positive environmental service, many authors have discussed the darker side of its history. National parks were created by individuals who felt that pristine, natural sections of nature should be set aside and preserved from urban development. In America, this movement came about during the Great American Frontier and were meant to be monuments to America's true history. Yet the lands that were to be set aside and protected were already being inhabited by native communities, who were removed and set aside to create ″pristine″ sites for public consumption. Critics claim that the removal of people from national parks enhanced the belief that nature can only be protected when humans do not exist within it, and that this leads to perpetuating the dichotomy between nature and humans (also known as the nature–culture divide). They see creation of national parks as a form of eco-land grabbing. Others claim that travelling to national parks to appreciate nature there leads people to ignore the nature that exists around them every day. Some argue that tourism can actually negatively impact the areas that are being visited.
- List of national parks – by country
- Lists of tourist attractions
- Conservation ecology
- Conservation movement
- Conservation park (disambiguation)
- Federal lands (United States)
- Fossil park
- Global Geoparks Network
- International Park
- National monument
- National Park Foundation
- Provincial park
- State park
- Sustainable development
- United Nations Environment Programme
- World Database on Protected Areas
- ^ "The Floating Islands of India". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
The largest island is home to the Keibul Lamjao, the world's only floating national park. It serves as a habitat for the endangered brow-antlered sangai, or "dancing deer," whose hooves have adapted to the island's spongy ground. The park, covering 15 square miles (40 km2), was specifically created to preserve the deer, which were once thought to be extinct.
- ^ McKechnie, Ben. "The world's only floating national park". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
- ^ Europarc Federation (eds.) 2009, Living Parks, 100 Years of National Parks in Europe, Oekom Verlag, München
- ^ "Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920". memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017.
- ^ Report of the Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park for the Year 1872 Archived 3 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 43rd Congress, 3rd Session, ex. doc. 35, quoting Department of Interior letter of 10 May 1872, "The reservation so set apart is to be known as the "Yellowstone National Park"."
- ^ "Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve". UNESCO. 17 August 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- ^ Hardy, U. (9 April 2017). "The 10 Oldest National Parks in the World". The CultureTrip. Archived from the original on 17 October 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- ISBN 978-1-315-88297-0.
- ^ Irish, Paul (13 May 2011). "Parks Canada celebrates a century of discovery". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- ^ "Category II: National Park". IUCN. 5 February 2016. Archived from the original on 18 November 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- ^ "History of the National Parks". Association of National Park Authorities. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- ^ a b c d Gissibl, B., S. Höhler and P. Kupper, 2012, Civilizing Nature, National Parks in Global Historical Perspective, Berghahn, Oxford
- ^ "History of Koli National Park". Nationalparks.fi. Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- ^ Jane Levere (29 August 2011). "The World's Most Beautiful National Parks". Forbes. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- ^ Gulez, Sumer (1992). A method of evaluating areas for national park status.
- ISSN 1725-9177 pdf Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machinedoi=10.2800/55955
- ^ John S. Marsh, "Provincial Parks Archived 10 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine," in The Canadian Encyclopedia (Historica Canada, 2018‑05‑30), [accessed 2020‑02‑18].
- ^ Angela de Sario. "La "Regia Caccia" Di Torre Guevara Nel Settecento" (PDF). Fondazionecariforli.it. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2021. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- ^ Museo privato Agriturismo Maria Sofia di Borbone, Azienda Agricola Le Tre Querce, Seminara, Calabria, organised by the Study Centre for Environmental Education in the Mediterranean Area of Reggio, Italy
- ^ Wordsworth, William (1835). A guide through the district of the lakes in the north of England with a description of the scenery, &c. for the use of tourists and residents (5th ed.). Kendal, England: Hudson and Nicholson. p. 88.
sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy.
- ^ Catlin, George (1841). Letters and Notes on the manners, customs, and condition of the North American Indians: written during eight years' travel amongst the wildest tribes of Indians in North America in 1832, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39. Vol. 1. Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, London: Published by the author. pp. 261–262. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016.
- ^ a b Shugart, Sharon (2004). "Hot Springs of Arkansas Through the Years: A Chronology of Events" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
- ^ Peters, Richard, ed. (1866). "Twenty-Second Congress, Session 1, Chap. 70: An Act authorizing the governor of the territory of Arkansas to lease the salt springs, in said territory, and for other purposes (April 20, 1832)" (PDF). The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789, to 3 March 1845, Treaties, and Proclamations of the United States of America from December 1863, to December 1865. Vol. 4. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown. p. 505. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2011.
- ^ "Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park (1872)". Our Documents.gov. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- ^ "Mission & History". National Park Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
- ISBN 978-0836883183.
- ^ John Muir. "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park" Archived 2 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Century Magazine, Vol. XL. September 1890. No. 5
- ^ John Muir. "The Treasures of the Yosemite" Archived 2 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Century Magazine, Vol. XL. August 1890. No. 4
- ^ Adam Wesley Dean. Natural Glory in the Midst of War: The Establishment of Yosemite State Park In: Abstract. Civil War History, Volume 56, Number 4, December 2010, pp. 386–419 | 10.1353/cwh.2010.0008
- ^ Sanger, George P., ed. (1866). "Thirty-Eighth Congress, Session 1, Chap. 184: An Act authorizing a Grant to the State of California of the "Yo-Semite Valley" and of the Land embracing the "Mariposa Big Tree Grove" (June 30, 1864)" (PDF). 38th United States Congress, Session 1, 1864. In: The Statutes at Large, Treaties, and Proclamations of the United States of America from December 1863, to December 1865. Vol. 13. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 325. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2011.
- ^ Mangan, Elizabeth U. Yellowstone, the First National Park from Mapping the National Parks Archived 19 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.
- ^ Kimberly A. Jones, Simon R. Kelly, Sarah Kennel, Helga Kessler-Aurisch, In the forest of Fontainebleau: painters and photographers from Corot to Monet, National Gallery of Art, 2008, p.23
- ^ "Famous Quotes Concerning the National Parks: Wallace Stegner, 1983". Discover History. National Park Service. 16 January 2003. Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- ^ "Mackinac Island". Michigan State Housing Development Authority. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- ^ a b Kim Allen Scott, 2011 "Robertson's Echo The Conservation Ethic in the Establishment of Yellowstone and Royal National Parks" Yellowstone Science 19:3
- ^ "1879: Australia's first national park created". National Museum of Australia. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- ^ "Audley Bottom". Pinkava.asu.edu. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- ^ Rodney Harrison, 2012 "Heritage: Critical approaches" Routledge
- ^ "History of our National Park". Peak District National Park. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ "Kilimanjaro: The National Park". Private Kilimanjaro: About Kilimanjaro. Private Expeditions, Ltd. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- ^ Daniel C. Taylor, Carl E. Taylor, Jesse O. Taylor, Empowerment on an Unstable Planet New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, Chapter 9
- ^ "WWF News and Stories". Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- ^ Irish, Paul (13 May 2011). "Parks Canada celebrates a century of discovery". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- ^ "Parks Canada History". Parks Canada. 2 February 2009. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- ^ "Parks Canada". Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- ^ "National Park System (U.S. National Park Service)". 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 20 April 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- ^ Magdalen Islands (Iles de la Madeleine) in Senegal Archived 26 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Protected Planet
- ^ a b U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Handbook of occupational groups and families. Washington, D.C. January 2008. Page 19. OPM.gov Archived 3 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 November 2014.
- ^ R Meadows ; D L Soden In: National Park Ranger Attitudes and Perceptions Regarding Law Enforcement Issues. Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Abstract. Justice Professional Volume:3 Issue:1 (Spring 1988) Pages:70–93
- OCLC 36306399.
- S2CID 230646912.
- S2CID 195819004.
- Eagles, Paul F. J; McCool, Stephen F. (2002). Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas: Planning and Management. CABI. ISBN 0851997597. 320 pages.
- Sellars, Richard West (2009). Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300154146. 404 pages.
- Sheail, John (2010) Nature's Spectacle - The World's First National Parks and Protected Places Earthscan, London, Washington. ISBN 978-1-84971-129-6
- "Areas of Biodiversity Importance: National Parks". Biodiversity A-Z. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Europe's protected areas". EUROPARC Federation.
- "FAQs". U.S. National Park Service.
- Macomber, Drew (10 September 2018). "Map of All The World's National Parks". Travel Is Free.
- "Man and the Biosphere Programme (Biosphere Reserves)". UNESCO. 7 January 2019.
- "National parks, landscape parks and protected areas in the world". nighthee.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "National Parks Worldwide". amu.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2008.
- "World Database of Protected Areas". Protected Planet.
- "Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA)". by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
- "World Heritage Sites". UNESCO.