Nicomedes III of Bithynia

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Nicomedes III Benefactor
Basileus of Bithynia
Kings of Bithynia
Reignc. 127 BC - 94 BC
PredecessorNicomedes II
SuccessorNicomedes IV
SpouseAristonica (wife)
Nysa (wife)
Laodice of Cappadocia (wife)
Hagne (concubine)
IssueNicomedes IV
Socrates Chrestus
Pylaemenes III (possibly)
FatherNicomedes II

Nicomedes III Euergetes ("the Benefactor", Greek: Νικομήδης Εὐεργέτης) was the king of Bithynia, from c. 127 BC to c. 94 BC. He was the son and successor of Nicomedes II of Bithynia.


Mithridates V of Pontus. Both Nicomedes III and Nysa shared a lineage from the Seleucid dynasty of the Seleucid Empire.[2] He and Nysa likely had a daughter also named Nysa.[3] Nicomedes also had another son, Socrates Chrestus, from a concubine called Hagne who was from Cyzicus. He sent Socrates and Hagne to Cyzicus with 500 talents.[4]
His third wife was Laodice of Cappadocia, his former mother-in-law.

Nicomedes and

Mithridates VI of Pontus made an alliance. The latter invaded Paphlagonia and drove its ruler, who descended from Pylaemenes, out.[5] The two kings partitioned it among themselves.[6][7]

Mithridates VI had Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia (the husband of Laodice and father of Nysa) murdered by a certain

Ariarathes IX under the guardianship of Gordius.[8]

In 100 BC, after the murder of Ariarathes VII the Cappadocians revolted against Mithridates VI and called his for brother, Ariarathes VIII of Cappadocia, who was in Pergamon for his education, to return to Cappadocia to become king. Mithridates invaded Cappadocia and drove him out. Ariarathes VIII died in 96 BC. With his death, his dynasty died out. Nicomedes III now feared that Mithridates would invade Bithynia. He pretended that Laodice had a third son from him and instructed a young man to apply for the throne of Bithynia (or, more likely, the Cappadocian throne, see note) from the Roman senate.[a] He sent Laodice to Rome to testify that he was Nicomedes' son. When Mithridates heard about this, he sent Gordius to Rome to legitimise his enthronement of Ariarathes IX in Cappadocia by claiming this man was a descendant of Ariarathes V of Cappadocia, who had been an ally of Rome and who died in 130 BC when he supported Rome in a war against Eumenes III of Pergamon. The senate saw the scheming by both kings. It ordered Mithridates to leave Cappadocia and, "to console him", also ordered Nicomedes III to leave Paphlagonia.[9]

The text of a decree issued in 102 B.C by the city of Delphi has survived. It concerned the assignment of tasks for thirty slaves which king Nicomedes and queen Laodice provided when the city sent delegates to them to ask them for slaves. The decree also made arrangements for honouring Nicomedes and Laodice. It provided for the erection of a statue of the king and one of queen in the most prominent place in the temple of Pythian Apollo and for the grant to the two monarchs and their descendants of proxeny, priority of access to the oracle of Delphi and in receiving justice, tax exemption, privileged seating at the city's games and other privileges that were given to other proxenoi and benefactors of the city who were given same rights as its citizens, except for public office, and free trade in the city.[10]

praetors should take care to see that they were all set free."[11]


  1. ^ It is unclear why Nicomedes III should pretend to have had this son with Laodice and get him to apply for the Bithynian throne. Nicomedes has an heir for the Bithynian throne. Moreover, Bithynia was an independent kingdom. Thus, there was no need for applying for its throne from the Romans. It is more likely that this was about the Cappadocian throne. Claiming that Nicomedes ad Laodice had a son together would mean that there was a legitimate heir to the Cappadocian throne, while Ariarathes IX was a usurper. The fact that Cappadocia was an ally of Rome meant that she could rule in favour of Nicomedes' claim and against Ariarathes IX. This would also explain why Mithridates sent Gordius to Rome to support his son. This confusion might be due to an error in the transcription from the original manuscript.


  1. ^ Memnon, History of Heracleia 22.5
  2. ^ Gabelko,O.L. The Dynastic History of the Hellenistic Monarchies of Asia Minor [1] Archived 2011-03-16 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ McGing, The foreign policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus p. 143
  4. ^ Granius Licinianus, History of Rome, 29
  5. ^ Orosius , History against the pagans 6.2.2 [2]
  6. ^ Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Philippic Histories, 37.4.2
  7. ^ Festus, Summary of the history of Rome, 11.1 [3]
  8. ^ Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Philippic Histories, 38.1
  9. ^ Justin: Epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Philippic Histories, 38.2
  10. ^ OGIS: 345
  11. ^ Diodorus Siculus,Library of History, 36.3.1-2


Primary sources
Secondary sources
Preceded by King of Bithynia
127 BC – 94 BC
Succeeded by