Nuremberg

Coordinates: 49°27′14″N 11°04′39″E / 49.45389°N 11.07750°E / 49.45389; 11.07750
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Nuremberg
Nürnberg (
Pegnitz River
Flag of Nuremberg
Coat of arms of Nuremberg
Location of Nuremberg
Map
Urban district
Subdivisions10 districts
Government
 • Lord mayor (2020–26) Marcus König[1] (CSU)
Area
 • City186.46 km2 (71.99 sq mi)
Elevation
302 m (991 ft)
Population
 (2022-12-31)[2]
 • City523,026
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,374,524
 • Metro
3,610,543
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
90000-90491
Dialling codes0911, 09122, 09129
Vehicle registrationN
Websitenuernberg.de

Nuremberg (

East Franconian dialect: Nämberch [ˈnɛmbɛrç]) is the largest city in Franconia, the second-largest city in the German state of Bavaria, and its 545,000 inhabitants[3] make it the 14th-largest city
in Germany.

Nuremberg sits on the Pegnitz, which carries the name Regnitz from its confluence with the Rednitz in Fürth onwards (PegnitzRegnitzMainRhineNorth Sea), and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, that connects the North Sea to the Black Sea. Lying in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, it is the largest city and unofficial capital of the entire cultural region of Franconia. The city is surrounded on three sides by the Reichswald (de), a large forest, and in the north lies Knoblauchsland (garlic land) (de), an extensive vegetable growing area and cultural landscape.

The city forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of

East Franconian
dialect area (colloquially: "Franconian"; German: Fränkisch).

Nuremberg and

Nuremberg Subway runs along this route. Subway lines U2 and U3 are the first German driverless subway lines, automatically moving railcars.[5] Nuremberg Airport (Flughafen Nürnberg "Albrecht Dürer") is the second-busiest airport in Bavaria after Munich Airport
, and the tenth-busiest airport in the country.

Institutions of higher education in Nuremberg include the

university hospital in Erlangen (Universitätsklinikum Erlangen), Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm, Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg and the newly founded University of Technology Nuremberg (de). The Nuremberg exhibition centre (Messe Nürnberg) is one of the biggest convention center
companies in Germany and operates worldwide.

concerts (main venue: Meistersingerhalle). Its orchestra, the Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Albrecht Dürer and Johann Pachelbel. 1. FC Nürnberg is the most famous football club of the city and one of the most successful football clubs in Germany. Nuremberg was one of the host cities of the 2006 FIFA World Cup
.

History

Middle Ages

Old fortifications of Nuremberg

The first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an

King of Germany from 1137 to 1152, established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raabs. With the extinction of their male line around 1189, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I of the House of Hohenzollern
, inherited the burgraviate in 1193.

From the late 12th century to the Interregnum (1254–1573), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor (German: Reichsschultheiß) from 1173/74.[8][9] The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, finally broke out into open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city.[9]

The Imperial Castle

The city and particularly

Diets of Nuremberg from 1211 to 1543, after the first Nuremberg diet elected Frederick II as emperor. Because of the many Diets of Nuremberg, the city became an important routine place of the administration of the Empire during this time and a somewhat 'unofficial capital' of the Empire.[citation needed] In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief ('Great Letter of Freedom'), including town rights, Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit), the privilege to mint coins, and an independent customs policy – almost wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.[8][9] Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy
to Northern Europe.

In 1298, the

pandemic of the mid-14th century.

In 1349, Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom.[11] They were burned at the stake or expelled, and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter.[12] The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520, and 1534.[13]

Nuremberg in 1493 (from the Nuremberg Chronicle)

The largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century.

kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire.[8] Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely Peter Parler), where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna.[8]

In 1349 the members of the

, the city purchased the ruins and the forest belonging to the castle (1427), resulting in the city's total sovereignty within its borders.

Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory.[9] The Hussite Wars (1419–1434), the second Black Death pandemic in 1437, and the First Margrave War (1449–1450) led to a severe fall in population in the mid-15th century.[9] Siding with Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria-Munich, in the War of the Succession of Landshut of 1503–1505, led the city to gain substantial territory, resulting in lands of 25 sq mi (64.7 km2), making it one of the largest imperial cities.[9]

During the Middle Ages, Nuremberg fostered a rich, varied, and influential literary culture.[14]

Early modern age

Map of Nuremberg, 1648

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg in the 15th and 16th centuries made it the centre of the

Welser families from Augsburg
, although on a slightly smaller scale.

Wolffscher Bau of the old city hall

The state of affairs in the early 16th century[

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. Even after the Thirty Years' War, however, there was a late flowering of architecture and culture; secular Baroque architecture is exemplified in the layout of the civic gardens built outside the city walls, and in the Protestant city's rebuilding of St. Egidien church, destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 18th century, considered a significant contribution to the baroque church architecture of Middle Franconia.[8]

After the Thirty Years' War, Nuremberg attempted to remain detached from external affairs, but contributions were demanded for the

Landshut War of Succession, to which Bavaria had maintained its claim; Prussia also claimed part of the territory. Realising its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated into Prussia but Frederick William II refused, fearing to offend Austria, Russia and France.[9] At the Imperial diet in 1803, the independence of Nuremberg was affirmed, but on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine on 12 July 1806, it was agreed to hand the city over to Bavaria from 8 September, with Bavaria guaranteeing the amortisation of the city's 12.5 million guilder public debt.[9]

After the Napoleonic Wars

Old town of Nuremberg in the 19th century
The British-built Adler was the locomotive of the first German Railway between Nuremberg and Fürth.

After the fall of Napoleon, the city's trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon made the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Having been incorporated into a Catholic country, the city was compelled to refrain from further discrimination against Catholics, who had been excluded from the rights of citizenship. Catholic services had been celebrated in the city by the priests of the Teutonic Order, often under great difficulties. After their possessions had been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1,010 people.[9]

In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of

Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835. The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria into Zollverein (the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity.[9] In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics. It subsequently grew to become the more important industrial city of Southern Germany, one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany, but after the Austro-Prussian War it was given to Prussia as part of their telegraph stations they had to give up. In 1905, its population, including several incorporated suburbs, was 291,351: 86,943 Catholics, 196,913 Protestants, 3,738 Jews and 3,766 members of other religions.[9]
The Fränkischer Kurier was published as a local newspaper in Nuremberg.

Nazi-Era

Nuremberg rally
, 1935

Nuremberg held great significance during the

Nazi propaganda events, a centre of Nazi ideals. The 1934 rally was filmed by Leni Riefenstahl, and made into a propaganda film called Triumph des Willens (Triumph of the Will
).

At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews and other non-Aryans. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer.

Map of city centre with air raid destruction
Bombed-out Nuremberg, 1945

During the

concentration camps where they were killed. At the end of the War in 1945, there were no Jews left in Nuremberg. There are many Stolpersteine installed in the streets of the city;[17]
these commemorate Jews who were persecuted by the Nazi regime.

On 2 January 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids.

Nuremberg was a heavily fortified city that was captured in

Imperial Free City had to be largely reconstructed.[22]

Nuremberg trials

Defendants in the dock at the Nuremberg trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in war crimes and crimes against humanity were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg trials. The Soviet Union had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin. However, Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

  • The city had been the location of the Nazi Party's Nuremberg rallies and the laws stripping Jews of their citizenship were passed there. There was symbolic value in making it the place of Nazi demise.
  • The Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged (one of the few that had remained largely intact despite extensive Allied bombing of Germany). The already large courtroom was reasonably easily expanded by the removal of the wall at the end opposite the bench, thereby incorporating the adjoining room. A large prison was also part of the complex.
  • As a compromise, it was agreed that Berlin would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Due to the Cold War, subsequent trials never took place.

Following the trials, in October 1946, many prominent German Nazi politicians and military leaders were executed in Nuremberg.

The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the

Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organized by the United States as occupying power
in the area.

In order to come to terms with the role Nuremberg played during the

Third Reich, the city established the Nuremberg International Human Rights Award in 1995, awarded every two years to individuals or groups defending human rights worldwide.[23]

Geography

Map of Nuremberg
Location of Nuremberg (in red) in Middle Franconia (light red) in Bavaria (dark grey)

Several old villages now belong to the city, for example Grossgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the northeast, Altenfurt and Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser is a modern suburb.

Climate

Nuremberg has an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) with a certain humid continental influence (Dfb), categorized in the latter by the 0 °C isotherm.[24] The city's climate is influenced by its inland position and higher altitude. Winters are changeable, with either mild or cold weather: the average temperature is around −3 °C (27 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F), while summers are generally warm, mostly around 13 °C (55 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the afternoon. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year, although February and April tend to be a bit drier whereas July tends to have more rainfall.[25]

Climate data for Nuremberg (1991–2020 normals, extremes since 1955)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
(59.0)
19.3
(66.7)
24.4
(75.9)
31.0
(87.8)
32.7
(90.9)
36.2
(97.2)
38.6
(101.5)
37.6
(99.7)
32.3
(90.1)
29.6
(85.3)
20.4
(68.7)
16.5
(61.7)
38.6
(101.5)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
13.2
(55.8)
18.9
(66.0)
24.3
(75.7)
28.5
(83.3)
32.1
(89.8)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
27.6
(81.7)
22.7
(72.9)
16.2
(61.2)
11.5
(52.7)
34.7
(94.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
5.3
(41.5)
10.0
(50.0)
15.4
(59.7)
19.7
(67.5)
23.2
(73.8)
25.1
(77.2)
24.9
(76.8)
19.9
(67.8)
14.1
(57.4)
7.8
(46.0)
4.1
(39.4)
14.4
(57.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
1.5
(34.7)
5.1
(41.2)
9.7
(49.5)
14.1
(57.4)
17.5
(63.5)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
14.2
(57.6)
9.4
(48.9)
4.7
(40.5)
1.5
(34.7)
9.7
(49.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.4
(32.7)
3.5
(38.3)
7.8
(46.0)
11.4
(52.5)
13.3
(55.9)
12.8
(55.0)
8.8
(47.8)
5.1
(41.2)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.3
(29.7)
4.9
(40.8)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−10.2
(13.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.8
(33.4)
5.3
(41.5)
7.0
(44.6)
6.7
(44.1)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−10.2
(13.6)
−14.5
(5.9)
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
(−13.7)
−30.2
(−22.4)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
−4.3
(24.3)
0.0
(32.0)
3.1
(37.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
−7.3
(18.9)
−12.7
(9.1)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−30.2
(−22.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.0
(1.57)
32.8
(1.29)
39.1
(1.54)
32.9
(1.30)
61.3
(2.41)
64.0
(2.52)
76.7
(3.02)
59.5
(2.34)
48.9
(1.93)
49.4
(1.94)
47.1
(1.85)
48.8
(1.92)
600.5
(23.64)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 15.0 13.4 13.6 12.2 13.6 13.2 14.7 12.4 11.7 13.8 14.4 17.1 165.2
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 4.6 2.7 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.4 10.6
Average
relative humidity
(%)
83.9 79.8 74.0 66.7 67.4 67.4 66.9 69.3 76.3 82.8 86.3 86.6 75.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.6 85.4 129.7 186.7 218.6 228.6 239.2 225.5 165.2 113.7 57.9 44.0 1,753.1
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[26]
Source 2: DWD[25] Météo Climat[27] Infoclimat[28]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
13975,626—    
144918,420+227.4%
148536,000+95.4%
150038,000+5.6%
162240,250+5.9%
170035,000−13.0%
175030,000−14.3%
181028,544−4.9%
182231,665+10.9%
183039,870+25.9%
184046,824+17.4%
184950,828+8.6%
186162,797+23.5%
187183,214+32.5%
188099,519+19.6%
1890142,590+43.3%
1900261,081+83.1%
1910333,142+27.6%
1920364,093+9.3%
1930416,700+14.4%
1940429,400+3.0%
1945286,833−33.2%
1950362,459+26.4%
1960458,401+26.5%
1970478,181+4.3%
1980484,405+1.3%
1990493,692+1.9%
2000488,400−1.1%
2005499,237+2.2%
2010505,664+1.3%
2015509,975+0.9%
2020515,543+1.1%
2022523,026+1.5%

Nuremberg has been a destination for immigrants. 50.1% of the residents had an immigrant background in 2022 (counted with MigraPro).[29]

Rank Nationality Population (31.12.2022)[30]
1  Turkey 17,408
2  Romania 14,903
3  Greece 12,145
4  Italy 7,232
5  Ukraine 6,891
6  Poland 6,670
7  Croatia 5,893
8  Bulgaria 5,801
9  Iraq 4,745
10  Syria 4,710
11  Russia 3,617
12  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,137
13  Serbia 3,027
14  Kosovo 2,456
15  Hungary 2,142

Economy

Nuremberg for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (Lebkuchen) products, sausages, and handmade toys. Pocket watchesNuremberg eggs — were made here in the 16th century by Peter Henlein. Only one of the districts in the 1797–1801 sample was early industrial; the economic structure of the region around Nuremberg was dominated by metal and glass manufacturing, reflected by a share of nearly 50% handicrafts and workers.[31] In the 19th century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products and printed materials.

The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city.

The Nuremberg International Toy Fair, held at the city's exhibition centre, is the largest of its kind in the world.[32]

Tourism

Nuremberg is Bavaria's second largest city after Munich, and a popular tourist destination for foreigners and Germans alike. It was a leading city 500 years ago, but 90% of the town was destroyed in 1945 during the war. After World War II, many medieval-style areas of the town were rebuilt.

Attractions

View from Nuremberg Central Station towards Lorenzkirche and into Königstraße (King Street) which is spanned by Christkindlesmarkt symbols

Beyond its main attractions of the

thermal spas. There are also six nearby amusement parks.[33] The city's tourism board sells the Nurnberg Card which allows for free use of public transportation and free entry to all museums and attractions in Nuremberg for a two-day period.[33]

Culinary tourism

Notable foods available in the city include lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, Schäufele, and Nürnberger Rostbratwürstchen, or Nuremberg grilled sausages. There are hundreds of restaurants for all tastes, including traditional Franconian restaurants and beer gardens. It also has vegan, vegetarian and organic restaurants. Nuremberg boasts a two Michelin Star-rated restaurant, Essigbrätlein.[33]

Pedestrian zones

Like many European cities, Nuremberg offers a pedestrian-only zone covering a large portion of the old town, which is a main destination for shopping and specialty retail,[35] including year-round Christmas stores where tourists and locals alike can purchase Christmas ornaments, gifts, decorations, and additions to their toy Christmas villages. The Craftsmen's Courtyard, or Handwerkerhof, is another tourist shopping destination in the style of a medieval village. It houses several local family-run businesses which sell handcrafted items from glass, wood, leather, pottery, and precious metals. The Handwerkerhof is also home to traditional German restaurants and beer gardens.[36]

The Pedestrian zones of Nuremberg host festivals and markets throughout the year, the best known being Christkindlesmarkt, Germany's largest Christmas market and the gingerbread capital of the world. Visitors to the Christmas market can peruse the hundreds of stalls and purchase local wood crafts and nutcrackers while sampling Christmas sweets and traditional Glühwein.[37]

Hospitality

In 2017, Nuremberg saw a total of 3.3 million[38] overnight stays, a record for the town, and is expected to have surpassed that in 2018, with more growth in tourism anticipated in the coming years.[39] There are over 175 registered places of accommodation in Nuremberg, ranging from hostels to luxury hotels, bed and breakfasts, to multi-hundred room properties.[33]

Culture

Albrecht Dürer's House
Christkindlesmarkt with Schöner Brunnen

Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts.

In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, created woodcuts of the first maps of the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe.[40]

Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe.

Sculptors such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg.

Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the

St. Sebaldus Church
.

The academy of fine arts situated in Nuremberg is the oldest art academy in central Europe and looks back to a tradition of 350 years of artistic education.

Nuremberg is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas market), which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies.

Museums

Performing arts

The Nuremberg State Theatre
Bardentreffen 2015

The Nuremberg State Theatre, founded in 1906, is dedicated to all types of opera, ballet and stage theatre. During the season 2009/2010, the theatre presented 651 performances for an audience of 240,000 persons.[41] The State Philharmonic Nuremberg (Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg) is the orchestra of the State Theatre. Its name was changed in 2011 from its previous name: The Nuremberg Philharmonic (Nürnberger Philharmoniker). It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria.[42] Besides opera performances, it also presents its own subscription concert series in the Meistersingerhalle. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between 2006 and 2011. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011.

The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (Nürnberger Symphoniker) performs around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more than 180,000.[43] The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the Meistersingerhalle but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the Kongresshalle and the Serenadenhof. Alexander Shelley has been the principal conductor of the orchestra since 2009.

The Nuremberg International Chamber Music Festival (Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg) takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary. Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval Burg. The Bardentreffen, an annual folk festival in Nuremberg, has been deemed the largest world music festival in Germany and takes place since 1976. 2014 the Bardentreffen starred 368 artists from 31 nations.[44]

Cuisine

Nürnberger Bratwurst

Nuremberg is known for Nürnberger Bratwurst, which is shorter and thinner than other bratwurst sausages.

Another Nuremberg speciality is Nürnberger Lebkuchen, a kind of gingerbread eaten mainly around Christmas time.

Education

The Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg

Nuremberg has 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts. Secondary education is offered at 23

Realschulen and 17 Gymnasien (state, city, church, and privately owned). There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc.[45]

Higher education

Nuremberg hosts the joint university

Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, two Fachhochschulen (Technische Hochschule Nürnberg and Evangelische Hochschule Nürnberg), a pure art academy (Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg, the first art academy in the German-speaking world) in addition to the design faculty at the TH and a music conservatoire (Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg).[46] There are also private schools such as the Akademie Deutsche POP Nürnberg offering higher education.[47]

Main sights

A panoramic city view
Nuremberg, seen from the castle

Politics

Nuremberg is represented in the Bundestag by two constituencies; Nuremberg North and Nuremberg South. Since 2002, both constituencies have been held by the CSU.

At the local level, Nuremberg has historically been left-leaning in the conservative state of Bavaria – since the end of World War II, the city has mainly elected SPD mayors with the exception of Ludwig Scholz (elected 1996, served until 2002) and Marcus König (elected 2020). From 1957 to 1987, the position of Chief Mayor (Oberbürgermeister) was continuously held by Andreas Urschlechter (SPD) for 30 years.

Mayor

Results of the second round of the 2020 mayoral election

The current mayor of Nuremberg is Marcus König of the Christian Social Union (CSU). The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 March 2020, with a runoff held on 29 March, and the results were as follows:

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Marcus König Christian Social Union 66,521 36.5 103,865 52.2
Thorsten Brehm Social Democratic Party 63,742 34.9 95,237 47.8
Verena Osgyan Alliance 90/The Greens 27,535 15.1
Roland Hübscher Alternative for Germany 7,696 4.2
Titus Schüller The Left 4,631 2.5
Florian Betz Pirate Party/Die PARTEI 2,153 1.2
Christian Rechholz Ecological Democratic Party 2,029 1.1
Ümit Sormaz Free Democratic Party 1,905 1.0
Marion Padua Left List Nuremberg 1,469 0.8
Fridrich Luft Citizens' Initiative A (BIA) 869 0.5
Philipp Schramm The Good Ones (Guten) 637 0.4
Valid votes 182,493 99.6 199,102 99.2
Invalid votes 790 0.4 1,626 0.81
Total 183,283 100.0 200,728 100.0
Electorate/voter turnout 390,547 47.1 388,998 51.6
Source: City of Nuremberg (1st round, 2nd round)

City council

Results of the 2020 city council election

The Nuremberg city council governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 15 March 2020, and the results were as follows:

Party Votes % ± Seats ±
Christian Social Union (CSU) 3,584,755 31.3 Increase 1.9 22 Increase 1
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 2,943,118 25.7 Decrease 18.4 18 Decrease 13
Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne) 2,283,988 20.0 Increase 11.0 14 Increase 8
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 650,369 5.7 New 4 New
The Left (Die Linke) 449,463 3.9 New 3 New
Free Voters of Bavaria (FW) 324,475 2.8 Steady 0.0 2 Steady 0
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP) 265,079 2.3 Increase 0.2 2 Steady 0
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 241,329 2.1 Increase 0.1 1 Steady 0
Die PARTEI/Pirate Party (PARTEI/Piraten) 194,693 1.7 New 1 Steady 0
Socio-Cultural Freedom, Participation and Sustainability (Politbande) 190,710 1.7 New 1 New
Left List Nuremberg 151,992 1.3 Decrease 2.8 1 Decrease 2
The Good Ones (Guten) 95,862 0.8 Decrease 0.9 1 Steady 0
Citizens' Initiative A (BIA) 62,374 0.6 Decrease 2.5 0 Decrease 2
Valid votes 178,999 97.7
Invalid votes 4,124 2.3
Total 183,123 100.0 70 Steady 0
Electorate/voter turnout 389,547 47.0 Increase 2.7
Source: City of Nuremberg

Transport

The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe.

Railways

The main railway station
An U-Bahn station in Nuremberg

Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line with 300 km/h (186 mph) operation opened 28 May 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on 10 December 2006. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour. The Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway
opened in December 2017.

City and regional transport

An automatic U-Bahn train on the line U3

The Nuremberg tramway network was opened in 1881. As of 2008, it extends a total length of 36 km (22 mi), has six lines, and carried 39.152 million passengers annually. The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. Nuremberg's trams, buses and U-Bahn are operated by the Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft Nürnberg (VAG; Nuremberg Transport Corporation), a member of the Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg (VGN; Greater Nuremberg Transport Network).

There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks.

S-Bahn network
U-Bahn network
Tramway Network
S- and R-Bahn network
S-, U-Bahn and Tramway network
Bus map
Nightbus and S-Bahn map

Motorways

Nuremberg is located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The

Frankfurt–WürzburgVienna) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The A9 (Berlin–Munich) passes in a north–south direction on the east of the city. The A6 (FranceSaarbrückenPrague) passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg
.

Airport

Aerial image of Nuremberg Airport

U-Bahn subway system. Stuttgart Airport
is also now served by its U-Bahn network, with the line U6 terminating there.

Canals

Nuremberg is an important port on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal.

Sport

Max-Morlock-Stadion is the football stadium of Bundesliga club 1. FC Nürnberg.

Football

2.Bundesliga. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. They won their first regional title in the Southern German championship in 1916 closely followed by their first national title in 1920. Besides the eleven regional championships they won the German championship for a total of nine times. With this they held the record for the most German championship titles until 1986 when the current record holder FC Bayern München surpassed them. The current chairmen are Nils Rossow and Dieter Hecking. They play in Max-Morlock-Stadion which was refurbished for the 2006 FIFA World Cup
and accommodates 50,000 spectators.

  • German Champion: 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1936, 1948, 1961, 1968
  • German Cup: 1935, 1939, 1962, 2007

TuS Bar Kochba is a league that was founded in 1913 as a social-sport club for the Jewish community in Nürnberg. Established as the "Jewish Gymnastics and Sports Club Nuremberg", the league was dissolved by the Nazi party in 1939. It was reformed in 1966.[48] The club plays in the senior A-league of the Bavarian Football Association.[49]

Basketball

The

Baskets Nürnberg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 2005 to 2007. Since then, teams from Nuremberg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Nürnberg Falcons BC have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA
and aim to take on the heritage of the SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg. The Falcons play their home games at the KIA Metropol Arena.

Ice Hockey

The Nürnberg Ice Tigers play in the country's premier league, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. They've been runner-up in 1999 and 2007. The Ice Tigers play their home games at the Arena Nürnberger Versicherung.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Nuremberg is

twinned with:[50]

Cooperation

Nuremberg also cooperates with:

  • Venice, Italy; since 1954 a twin town, relations renewed in 1999 as a cooperation agreement[51]

Associated cities

Twin towns/sister cities and associated cities of Nuremberg

Nuremberg maintains friendly relations with:[52]

  • Klausen, Italy, since 1970
  • Gera, Germany, since 1988, renewed 1997
  • Kalkudah, Sri Lanka, since 2005
  • Bar, Montenegro, since 2006
  • Brașov, Romania, since 2006
  • Changping
    , China, since 2006
  • Montan
    , Italy, since 2012
  • Nablus, Palestine, since 2015

Notable people

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Bavarian state theatres in Munich: Bavarian State Opera, Bayerisches Staatsschauspiel, and Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz; in Nuremberg: Staatstheater Nürnberg; in Augsburg: Staatstheater Augsburg

References

  1. Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik. Archived
    from the original on 30 June 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  2. ^ Genesis Online-Datenbank des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Statistik Tabelle 12411-003r Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes: Gemeinden, Stichtag (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011).
  3. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Hauptwohnung". www.nuernberg.de. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  4. ^ Region Nürnberg Archived 4 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine on hey.bayern
  5. ^ "VAG: 15 years of the automatic Nuremberg subway – a successful project" (in German). 14 June 2023. Retrieved 25 March 2024.
  6. ^ https://www.bigboytravel.com/europe/topmedievalcities/
  7. ^ Compare: (in German) Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung Archived 18 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), Historisches Lexikon Bayerns: "Nürnberg ist erstmals 1050 als Reichsburg inmitten eines großen Reichsgutkomplexes schriftlich bezeugt. [...] Die Stadt Nürnberg entstand um die Wende zum 11. Jahrhundert in Anlehnung an eine 1050 erstmals erwähnte Reichsburg inmitten eines ausgedehnten Reichsgutkomplexes in Ostfranken und dem bayerischen Nordgau." [The first written attestation of Nuremberg occurs in 1050 as an Imperial castle in the middle of an extensive complex of Imperial property. [...] The city of Nuremberg originated about the turn of the 11th century inconnection with an Imperial castle (first mentioned in 1050) in the centre of an expansive complex of Imperial property in East Franconia and in the Bavarian Nordgau.]
  8. ^ a b c d e f (in German) Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung Archived 18 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), Historisches Lexikon Bayerns
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Public Domain Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Nuremberg". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  10. ^ "Image Gallery of the Coins of Nürnberg". www.medievalcoinage.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Black Death Archived 4 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine". JewishEncyclopedia.com
  12. ^ Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History, Mark Girouard, Yale University Press, 1985, p.69
  13. ISBN 978-0-19-873535-9. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2016. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help
    )
  14. .
  15. ^ Keeffe, Christine O. "Concentration Camps List". Tartanplace.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  16. ^ "Stumbling Stones in Nuremberg". Geschichte Für Alle e.V.- Institut für Regionalgeschichte. 2021. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  17. ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939–1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 90, 129, 135
  18. ^ Neil Gregor, Haunted City. Nuremberg and the Nazi Past (New Haven, 2008)
  19. ^ https://zensus2011.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Publikationen/Aufsaetze_Archiv/2015_12_NI_GWZ_endgueltig.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4
  20. ^ https://www.geodaten.bayern.de/denkmal_static_data/externe_denkmalliste/pdf/denkmalliste_merge_564000.pdf
  21. ^ https://geoportal.bayern.de/denkmalatlas/searchResult.html?koid=80428&objtyp=bau&top=1
  22. ^ "International Nuremberg Human Rights Award - Human Rights Office of the City of Nuremberg". Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  23. ^ "Nuremberg, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". Dwd.de. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  25. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020". World Meteorological Organization Climatological Standard Normals (1991–2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 12 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  26. ^ "German climate normals 1981–2010" (in French). Météo Climat. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  27. ^ "Climatologie de l'année à Nuernberg" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 29 October 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  28. ^ "Stadt Nürnberg: Daten und Fakten". nuernberg.de. Archived from the original on 23 July 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  29. ^ "Bevölkerungsstand". Stadtforschung und Statistik für Nürnberg und Fürth. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  30. .
  31. ^ "10 Reasons for visiting". Spielwarenmesse Nürnberg. 6 February 2019. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  32. ^ a b c d e "Home". Tourismus Nürnberg. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  33. ^ "Germany: Frankfurt and Nürnberg – Video – Rick Steves' Europe". www.ricksteves.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  34. .
  35. ^ "Craftmen's Courtyard in Nuremberg – a friendly welcome awaits you!". www.christkindlesmarkt.de (in German). Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  36. ^ "European Christmas TV Special | Rick Steves' Europe". www.ricksteves.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  37. ^ "Record results for tourism in 2017: Overnight stays in Nuremberg exceed all expectations". Congress- und Tourismus-Zentrale Nürnberg. 2 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  38. ^ "Record results for tourism in 2017: Overnight stays in Nuremberg exceed all expectations". Tourismus Nürnberg. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  39. ^ Waetzoldt, Wilhelm (1935). Dürer und seine Zeit. Vienna: Phaedon. pp. 306–309.
  40. ^ "Audience of the Staatstheater (Mehr Besucher im Staatstheater Nürnberg)" (in German). Mittelbayerische.de. 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  41. ^ "Die Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg" (in German). Staatstheater-nuernberg.de. 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  42. ^ "Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra, audience and concerts stats" (in German). 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  43. ^ ""Krieg und Frieden" – Pippo Pollina eröffnet Bardentreffen". Frankenfernsehen.tv. 2 August 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  44. ^ Schulreferat, Stadt Nürnberg (20 August 2015). "Schulen in Nürnberg". nuernberg.de. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  45. ^ Stadt Nürnberg (1 May 2016). "Nürnberg in Zahlen" (PDF). nuernberg.de. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  46. ^ "Deutsche Pop Nürnberg". 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  47. ^ "Die Chronik des TuS Bar Kochba". nordbayern.de (in German). Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  48. ^ "TuS Bar Kochba Nürnberg e.V." www.tusbarkochba.de. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Partnerstädte". nuernberg.de (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Archived from the original on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  50. ^ "Norimberga – Germania". comune.venezia.it (in Italian). Venezia. 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 27 November 2020. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  51. ^ "Befreundete Kommunen". nuernberg.de (in German). Nuremberg Office for International Relations. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2020.

Bibliography

External links