Oscar I of Sweden
|Father||Charles XIV John|
|Religion||Church of Sweden|
prev. Catholic Church
Oscar I (born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte; 4 July 1799 – 8 July 1859) was
The only child of King Charles XIV John, Oscar inherited the thrones upon the death of his father. Throughout his reign he would pursue a liberal course in politics in contrast to Charles XIV John, instituting reforms and improving ties between Sweden and Norway. In an address to him in 1857, the Riksdag declared that he had promoted the material prosperity of the kingdom more than any of his predecessors.
Early life and family
Oscar was born at 291 Rue Cisalpine in Paris (today: 32 Rue Monceau)
Prince of Sweden
As the Swedish king
Oscar, who was accompanied to Sweden by Le Moine, immediately got a teacher of Swedish and was soon able to serve as his father's interpreter. On 17 January 1816, Oscar was elected an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1818 was appointed chancellor of Uppsala University, where he spent one semester.
Marriage and issue
Seeking to legitimise the new Bernadotte dynasty, Charles XIV John had selected four princesses as candidates for marriage, in order of his priority:
- Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel (ultimately she married first Frederick VII of Denmark and second Karl, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg)
- Marie of Hesse-Kassel (born 6 September 1804), daughter of William II, Elector of Hesse and Augusta of Prussia (ultimately she married Bernard II of Saxe-Meiningen)
- Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (born 3 February 1808), daughter of Charles Frederick I of Saxe-Weimar and Maria Pavlovna of Russia (ultimately she married Prince Charles of Prussia)
Oscar would eventually marry Josephine, first by proxy at the Leuchtenberg Palace in Munich on 22 May 1823 and in person at a wedding ceremony conducted in Stockholm on 19 June 1823.
The couple had five children:
- King Charles XV & IV(1826–1872)
- Prince Gustaf, Duke of Uppland (1827–1852)
- King Oscar II (1829–1907)
- Princess Eugenie(1830–1889)
- Prince August, Duke of Dalarna (1831–1873)
Oscar also had two extramarital sons (unofficially called the Princes of Lapland) by actress Emilie Högquist:
- Hjalmar Högquist, born 18 June 1839 in Hamburg, died 1874 in London.
- Max Högquist, born 12 August 1840 in Stockholm, died 1872 in China.
- Oscara Hilder née Meijergeer (1819–1880)
In 1824 and 1833, Oscar briefly served as Viceroy of Norway.
In 1832–1834 he completed the romantic opera Ryno, the errant knight, which had been left unfinished on the death of the young composer Eduard Brendler. In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, and in 1841 anonymously published Om Straff och straffanstalter, a work advocating prison reforms.
In 1838 Charles XIV John began to suspect that his son was plotting with the Liberal politicians to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own
In foreign affairs, Oscar I was a friend of the principle of
As early as 1850, Oscar I had conceived the plan of a dynastic union of the three
In the 1850s, Oscar's health began to rapidly deteriorate, becoming paralyzed in 1857; he died two years later at the Royal Palace in Stockholm on 8 July 1859, four days after his birthday. He was buried in the traditional burial site for Swedish monarchs, the
Swedish and Norwegian honours
- Knight and Commander of the Order of the Seraphim, 26 September 1810
- Knight of the Order of Charles XIII, 26 September 1810
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword, 26 September 1810
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star, 26 September 1810
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of Vasa, 26 September 1810
- Founder and Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, 21 August 1847
- Kingdom of Prussia: Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, 27 August 1811
- Russian Empire:
- Knight of the Order of St. Andrew, 30 August 1812
- Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, 30 August 1812
- Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant, 1 December 1835
- Spain: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, 15 June 1844
- Order of St. Hubert, 1844
- Hohenzollern: Cross of Honour of the Princely House Order of Hohenzollern, 1st Class
- Knight of the House Order of Fidelity, 1845
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion, 1845
- Empire of Brazil:
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Rose
- Military William Order, 21 June 1849
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (military), 20 October 1849
- Kingdom of Hanover:
- Knight of the Order of St. George, 1849
- Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order
- Order of St. Stephen, 1850
- Order of the Gold Lion of Nassau, July 1858
Arms and monogram
Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland
Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland
King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway
Royal Monogram of King Oscar I
- ^ On 4 July 1911, a memorial plaque was placed on the building by the Société archéologique.
- ^ "Oscar 1, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ "Kong Oscar I (1799–1859)". kongehuset.no. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ "Oskar, konungar af Sverige och Norge". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. ch 40 pp 273–88
- ^ "Karl 3 Johan, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ "Desideria, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ISBN 91-7054-755-6.
- ^ "Karl 2". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ Hjalmar Lagerqvist, Sveriges drottningar
- ^ "Josefine, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ^ a b c Chisholm 1911.
- ^ "Oscar 2, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- Bonniers, Stockholm 1944, p. 279
- ^ "Oscar I". Soylent Communications. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- ISBN 91-0-075007-7pp. 273–274
- ^ "The Order of St. Olav". www.royalcourt.no. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- ^ Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm III. ernannte Ritter" p. 16
- ^ Almanach de la cour: pour l'année ... 1817. l'Académie Imp. des Sciences. 1817. pp. 63, 78.
- ^ a b Johann Heinrich Friedrich Berlien (1846). Der Elephanten-Orden und seine Ritter: eine historische Abhandlung über die ersten Spuren dieses Ordens und dessen fernere Entwicklung bis zu seiner gegenwärtigen Gestalt, und nächstdem ein Material zur Personalhistorie, nach den Quellen des Königlichen Geheimen-Staatsarchivs und des Königlichen Ordenskapitelsarchivs zu Kopenhagen. Gedruckt in der Berlingschen Officin. pp. 168-169.
- ^ "Caballeros existentes en la insignie Orden del Toison de Oro". Guía de forasteros en Madrid para el año de 1850 (in Spanish). En la Imprenta Nacional. 1850. p. 80.
- ^ Bayern (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1858. Landesamt. p. 7.
- ^ Hof- und Adreß-Handbuch des Fürstenthums Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen: 1844. Beck und Fränkel. 1844. p. 19.
- ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1853), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 31, 46
- ^ "Militaire Willems-Orde: Wales, Oscar I." [Military William Order: Oscar I]. Ministerie van Defensie (in Dutch). 21 June 1849. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- ^ "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold", Almanach Royal Officiel (in French), 1850, p. 35 – via Archives de Bruxelles
- ^ Staat Hannover (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1858. Berenberg. pp. 37, 66.
- ^ ""A Szent István Rend tagjai"". Archived from the original on 22 December 2010.
- ^ Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau: 1859. Schellenberg. 1859. p. 7.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oscar I.". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
- The American Cyclopædia. 1879. .
- Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. pp. 273–88.
- Ulvros, Eva Helen (2007) Oscar I: en biografi (Stockholm: Historiska media) ISBN 978-91-85507-10-8
- Media related to Oscar I of Swedenat Wikimedia Commons
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- 19th-century Norwegian monarchs
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- Converts to Lutheranism from Roman Catholicism
- Dukes of Galliera
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- Honorary members of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences
- House of Bernadotte
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- Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
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