Oscar I of Sweden

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Oscar I
Riddarholm Church
(m. 1823)
FatherCharles XIV John
MotherDésirée Clary
ReligionChurch of Sweden
prev. Catholic Church

Oscar I (born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte; 4 July 1799 – 8 July 1859) was

King of Sweden and Norway from 8 March 1844 until his death.[1][2][3] He was the second monarch of the House of Bernadotte

The only child of King Charles XIV John, Oscar inherited the thrones upon the death of his father. Throughout his reign he would pursue a liberal course in politics in contrast to Charles XIV John, instituting reforms and improving ties between Sweden and Norway. In an address to him in 1857, the Riksdag declared that he had promoted the material prosperity of the kingdom more than any of his predecessors.[4]

Early life and family

Oscar was born at 291 Rue Cisalpine in Paris (today: 32 Rue Monceau)

, Le Moine.

Prince of Sweden

As the Swedish king

Swedish language, Désirée had difficulty adjusting and despised the cold weather. Consequently, she left Sweden in the summer of 1811, and would not return until 1823.[7]

Oscar, who was accompanied to Sweden by Le Moine, immediately got a teacher of Swedish and was soon able to serve as his father's interpreter. On 17 January 1816, Oscar was elected an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1818 was appointed chancellor of Uppsala University, where he spent one semester.[8]

Oscar became

Crown Prince
in 1818 upon the death of his adoptive grandfather, and the accession of Charles John to the Swedish and Norwegian thrones.

Marriage and issue

Seeking to legitimise the new Bernadotte dynasty, Charles XIV John had selected four princesses as candidates for marriage, in order of his priority:[9]

Oscar would eventually marry Josephine, first by proxy at the Leuchtenberg Palace in Munich on 22 May 1823 and in person at a wedding ceremony conducted in Stockholm on 19 June 1823.

The couple had five children:

  1. King Charles XV & IV
  2. Prince Gustaf, Duke of Uppland (1827–1852)
  3. King Oscar II (1829–1907)[12]
  4. Princess Eugenie
  5. Prince August, Duke of Dalarna (1831–1873)

Oscar also had two extramarital sons (unofficially called the Princes of Lapland) by actress Emilie Högquist:[13]

  1. Hjalmar Högquist, born 18 June 1839 in Hamburg, died 1874 in London.
  2. Max Högquist, born 12 August 1840 in Stockholm, died 1872 in China.

By Countess

Jaquette Löwenhielm
(née Gyldenstolpe) Oscar had a premarital daughter:

  1. Oscara Hilder née Meijergeer (1819–1880)

Crown Prince

In 1824 and 1833, Oscar briefly served as Viceroy of Norway.

In 1832–1834 he completed the romantic opera Ryno, the errant knight, which had been left unfinished on the death of the young composer Eduard Brendler. In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, and in 1841 anonymously published Om Straff och straffanstalter, a work advocating prison reforms.


In 1838 Charles XIV John began to suspect that his son was plotting with the Liberal politicians to bring about a change of ministry, or even his own

Union badge of Norway and Sweden
, as well as a new coat of arms for the union.

In foreign affairs, Oscar I was a friend of the principle of

Truce of Malmö (26 August 1848). He was also one of the guarantors of the integrity of Denmark (the London Protocol, 8 May 1852).[11]

Photograph of Oscar I (right) and his son Prince Gustaf
(left), c. 1852

As early as 1850, Oscar I had conceived the plan of a dynastic union of the three

Varanger Fjord induced him to remain neutral during the Crimean War, and, subsequently, to conclude an alliance with Great Britain and the Second French Empire (25 November 1855) for preserving the territorial integrity of Sweden-Norway.[11]


In the 1850s, Oscar's health began to rapidly deteriorate, becoming paralyzed in 1857; he died two years later at the Royal Palace in Stockholm on 8 July 1859, four days after his birthday. He was buried in the traditional burial site for Swedish monarchs, the

Charles XV


Swedish and Norwegian honours

Foreign honours

Arms and monogram

Coat of arms of Oscar, Duke of Södermanland.svg
Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland

Blason du Prince Oscar 1826-1844.svg
Crown Prince, Duke of Södermanland

Armoiries des rois Oscar Ier et Charles XV de Suede.svg

King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway
Oskar I, monogram.svg

Royal Monogram of King Oscar I
of Sweden


  1. ^ On 4 July 1911, a memorial plaque was placed on the building by the Société archéologique.


  1. ^ "Oscar 1, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Kong Oscar I (1799–1859)". kongehuset.no. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  3. ^ "Oskar, konungar af Sverige och Norge". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  4. ^ Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). A History of Sweden from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. ch 40 pp 273–88
  5. ^ "Karl 3 Johan, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  6. ^ "Desideria, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  7. .
  8. ^ "Karl 2". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  9. ^ Hjalmar Lagerqvist, Sveriges drottningar
  10. ^ "Josefine, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  11. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911.
  12. ^ "Oscar 2, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  13. Bonniers
    , Stockholm 1944, p. 279
  14. ^ "Oscar I". Soylent Communications. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  15. pp. 273–274
  16. ^ "The Order of St. Olav". www.royalcourt.no. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  17. ^ Liste der Ritter des Königlich Preußischen Hohen Ordens vom Schwarzen Adler (1851), "Von Seiner Majestät dem Könige Friedrich Wilhelm III. ernannte Ritter" p. 16
  18. ^ Almanach de la cour: pour l'année ... 1817. l'Académie Imp. des Sciences. 1817. pp. 63, 78.
  19. ^ a b Johann Heinrich Friedrich Berlien (1846). Der Elephanten-Orden und seine Ritter: eine historische Abhandlung über die ersten Spuren dieses Ordens und dessen fernere Entwicklung bis zu seiner gegenwärtigen Gestalt, und nächstdem ein Material zur Personalhistorie, nach den Quellen des Königlichen Geheimen-Staatsarchivs und des Königlichen Ordenskapitelsarchivs zu Kopenhagen. Gedruckt in der Berlingschen Officin. pp. 168-169.
  20. ^ "Caballeros existentes en la insignie Orden del Toison de Oro". Guía de forasteros en Madrid para el año de 1850 (in Spanish). En la Imprenta Nacional. 1850. p. 80.
  21. ^ Bayern (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1858. Landesamt. p. 7.
  22. ^ Hof- und Adreß-Handbuch des Fürstenthums Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen: 1844. Beck und Fränkel. 1844. p. 19.
  23. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1853), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 31, 46
  24. ^ "Militaire Willems-Orde: Wales, Oscar I." [Military William Order: Oscar I]. Ministerie van Defensie (in Dutch). 21 June 1849. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  25. ^ "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold", Almanach Royal Officiel (in French), 1850, p. 35 – via Archives de Bruxelles
  26. ^ Staat Hannover (1858). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1858. Berenberg. pp. 37, 66.
  27. ^ ""A Szent István Rend tagjai"". Archived from the original on 22 December 2010.
  28. ^ Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau: 1859. Schellenberg. 1859. p. 7.


Further reading

External links

Oscar I
Born: 4 July 1799 Died: 8 July 1859
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles XIV/III John
King of Sweden and Norway
Succeeded by
Charles XV/IV
Swedish royalty
Preceded by
Charles XIII/II
Duke of Södermanland
Succeeded by
Italian nobility
Preceded by Duke of Galliera
with Josephine

Succeeded by