Oxford

Coordinates: 51°45′N 1°15′W / 51.750°N 1.250°W / 51.750; -1.250
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Oxford
From top left to bottom right: Oxford skyline panorama from St Mary's Church; Radcliffe Camera; High Street from above looking east; University College, main quadrangle; High Street by night; Natural History Museum and Pitt Rivers Museum
From top left to bottom right: Oxford skyline panorama from St Mary's Church; Radcliffe Camera; High Street from above looking east; University College, main quadrangle; High Street by night; Natural History Museum and Pitt Rivers Museum
OS grid reference
SP513061
PoliceThames Valley
AmbulanceSouth Central
Fire & RescueOxfordshire
Websitewww.oxford.gov.uk
Map

Oxford (/ˈɒksfərd/)[4][5] is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. It had a population of 162,100 at the 2021 census.[1] It is 56 miles (90 km) north-west of London, 64 miles (103 km) south-east of Birmingham and 61 miles (98 km) north-east of Bristol. The city is home to the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world;[6] it has buildings in every style of English architecture since late Anglo-Saxon. Oxford's industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing, information technology and science.

History

19th-century view of the High Street in Oxford

The history of Oxford in England dates back to its original settlement in the

Norman period, and in the late 12th century became home to the fledgling University of Oxford.[7] The city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142.[8]

The university rose to dominate the town. A heavily ecclesiastical town, Oxford was greatly affected by the changes of the English Reformation, emerging as the seat of a bishopric and a full-fledged city. During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I and stood at the heart of national affairs.[9]

The city began to grow industrially during the 19th century, and had an industrial boom in the early 20th century, with major printing and car-manufacturing industries. These declined, along with other British heavy industry, in the 1970s and 1980s, leaving behind a city which had developed far beyond the university town of the past.[10]

Geography

Physical

Location

Oxford's latitude and longitude are 51°45′N 1°15′W / 51.750°N 1.250°W / 51.750; -1.250 and its Ordnance Survey grid reference is

Carfax Tower, which is usually considered the centre). Oxford is 24 miles (39 km) north-west of Reading, 26 miles (42 km) north-east of Swindon, 36 miles (58 km) east of Cheltenham, 43 miles (69 km) east of Gloucester, 29 miles (47 km) south-west of Milton Keynes, 38 miles (61 km) south-east of Evesham, 43 miles (69 km) south of Rugby and 51 miles (82 km) west-north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames (also sometimes known as the Isis
locally, supposedly from the Latinised name Thamesis) run through Oxford and meet south of the city centre. These rivers and their flood plains constrain the size of the city centre.

Climate

Oxford has a

Meteorological Station. It boasts the longest series of temperature and rainfall records for one site in Britain. These records are continuous from January 1815. Irregular observations of rainfall, cloud and temperature exist from 1767.[12]

The driest year on record was 1788, with 336.7 mm (13.26 in) of rainfall. The wettest year was 2012, with 979.5 mm (38.56 in). The wettest month on record was September 1774, with a total fall of 223.9 mm (8.81 in). The warmest month on record is July 1983, with an average of 21.1 °C (70 °F) and the coldest is January 1963, with an average of −3.0 °C (27 °F). The warmest year on record is 2014, with an average of 11.8 °C (53 °F) and the coldest is 1879, with a mean temperature of 7.7 °C (46 °F). The sunniest month on record is May 2020, with 331.7 hours and December 1890 is the least sunny, with 5.0 hours. The greatest one-day rainfall occurred on 10 July 1968, with a total of 87.9 mm (3.46 in). The greatest known snow depth was 61.0 cm (24.0 in) in February 1888.[13]

Climate data for Oxford (RMS),[a] elevation: 200 ft (61 m), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1815–2020
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.9
(60.6)
18.8
(65.8)
22.1
(71.8)
27.6
(81.7)
30.6
(87.1)
34.3
(93.7)
38.1
(100.6)
35.1
(95.2)
33.4
(92.1)
29.1
(84.4)
18.9
(66.0)
15.9
(60.6)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
8.6
(47.5)
11.3
(52.3)
14.4
(57.9)
17.7
(63.9)
20.7
(69.3)
23.1
(73.6)
22.5
(72.5)
19.4
(66.9)
15.1
(59.2)
10.9
(51.6)
8.2
(46.8)
15.0
(59.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.5
(41.9)
7.5
(45.5)
9.9
(49.8)
12.9
(55.2)
15.9
(60.6)
18.1
(64.6)
17.8
(64.0)
15.0
(59.0)
11.5
(52.7)
7.9
(46.2)
5.4
(41.7)
11.1
(52.0)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
2.3
(36.1)
3.6
(38.5)
5.3
(41.5)
8.2
(46.8)
11.1
(52.0)
13.1
(55.6)
13.0
(55.4)
10.7
(51.3)
8.0
(46.4)
4.9
(40.8)
2.6
(36.7)
7.1
(44.8)
Record low °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−16.2
(2.8)
−12.0
(10.4)
−5.6
(21.9)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.4
(32.7)
2.4
(36.3)
0.2
(32.4)
−3.3
(26.1)
−5.7
(21.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
−17.8
(0.0)
−17.8
(0.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.6
(2.35)
46.8
(1.84)
43.2
(1.70)
48.7
(1.92)
56.9
(2.24)
49.7
(1.96)
52.5
(2.07)
61.7
(2.43)
51.9
(2.04)
73.2
(2.88)
71.5
(2.81)
66.1
(2.60)
681.6
(26.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.1 9.4 9.1 8.9 9.6 8.0 8.3 9.0 8.6 10.9 11.3 12.2 117.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 63.4 81.9 118.2 165.6 200.3 197.1 212.0 193.3 145.3 110.2 70.8 57.6 1,615.5
Source 1: Met Office[14]
Source 2: University of Oxford[15]
  1. ^ Weather station is located 0.7 miles (1.1 km) from the Oxford city centre.
Map of Oxford

Districts

The city centre

The city centre is relatively small, and is centred on

pedestrianised), St Aldate's and the High Street ("the High"; blocked for through traffic). Cornmarket Street and Queen Street are home to Oxford's chain stores, as well as a small number of independent retailers, one of the longest established of which was Boswell's, founded in 1738.[16] The store closed in 2020.[17] St Aldate's has few shops but several local government buildings, including the town hall
, the city police station and local council offices. The High (the word street is traditionally omitted) is the longest of the four streets and has a number of independent and high-end chain stores, but mostly university and college buildings. The historic buildings mean the area is regularly used by film and TV crews.

Suburbs

Aside from the city centre, there are several suburbs and neighbourhoods within the borders of the city of Oxford, including:

Green belt

Oxford Malmaison Hotel

Oxford is at the centre of the

St Margaret's Church and well, and Wolvercote Common and community orchard.[22]

Governance

Town Hall, St Aldate's

There are two tiers of local government covering Oxford, at district and county level: Oxford City Council and Oxfordshire County Council. From 1889 to 1974 the city of Oxford was a county borough, independent from the county council.[23] Oxford City Council meets at the Town Hall on the street called St Aldate's in the city centre. The current building was completed in 1897, on a site which had been occupied by Oxford's guildhall since the 13th century.[24]

Most of Oxford is an

Economy

Oxford's economy includes manufacturing, publishing and science-based industries as well as education, sports, entertainment, breweries, research and tourism.

Car production

Oxford has been an important centre of motor manufacturing since Morris Motors was established in the city in 1910. The principal production site for Mini cars, owned by BMW since 2000, is in the Oxford suburb of Cowley. The plant, which survived the turbulent years of British Leyland in the 1970s and was threatened with closure in the early 1990s, also produced cars under the Austin and Rover brands following the demise of the Morris brand in 1984, although the last Morris-badged car was produced there in 1982.

Publishing

University of Oxford, is based in the city, although it no longer operates its own paper mill and printing house. The city is also home to the UK operations of Wiley-Blackwell, Elsevier[26]
and several smaller publishing houses.

Science and technology

The presence of the university has given rise to many science and technology based businesses, including

Isis Innovation in 1987 to promote technology transfer. The Oxford Science Park was established in 1990, and the Begbroke Science Park, owned by the university, lies north of the city. Oxford increasingly has a reputation for being a centre of digital innovation, as epitomized by Digital Oxford.[27] Several startups including Passle,[28] Brainomix,[29] Labstep,[30]
and more, are based in Oxford.

Education

The Divinity School at the Bodleian Library
Wellington Square, the name of which has become synonymous with the university's central administration

The presence of the university has also led to Oxford becoming a centre for the education industry. Companies often draw their teaching staff from the pool of

EFL education, use their Oxford location as a selling point.[31]

Tourism

The University Church of St Mary the Virgin
Carfax Tower at Carfax, the junction of the High Street, Queen Street, Cornmarket and St Aldate's streets at what is considered by many to be the centre of the city

Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the university and colleges. As well as several famous institutions, the town centre is home to

Isis and the Cherwell is a common practice. As well as being a major draw for tourists (9.1 million in 2008, similar in 2009),[32]
Oxford city centre has many shops, several theatres and an ice rink.

Retail

Night view of High Street with Christmas lights – one of Oxford's main streets

There are two small

Blackwell's Bookshop is a bookshop which claims the largest single room devoted to book sales in the whole of Europe, the Norrington Room (10,000 sq ft).[35]

Brewing

There is a long history of

Morrell's Lion Brewery in St Thomas Street (see below), Simonds's Brewery in Queen Street, Weaving's Eagle Brewery (by 1869 the Eagle Steam Brewery) in Park End Street and Wootten and Cole's St. Clement's Brewery.[36]

The Swan's Nest Brewery, later the Swan Brewery, was established by the early 18th century in

Oxford Artisan Distillery, was established in 2017 in historic farm buildings at the top of South Park.[45]

Bellfounding

The Taylor family of Loughborough had a bell-foundry in Oxford between 1786 and 1854.[46]

The spires of Oxford facing Christ Church to the south (Christ Church Cathedral on the left and Tom Tower on the right)

Buildings

Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford
Oxford Botanic Garden

This is a small selection of the many notable buildings in Oxford.

Parks and nature walks

Oxford is a very green city, with several parks and nature walks within the ring road, as well as several sites just outside the ring road. In total, 28 nature reserves exist within or just outside the ring road, including:

Demography

Population pyramid of Oxford in 2021
UK and foreign born population pyramid of Oxford in 2021

Ethnicity

Ethnic Group 1981 estimations[47] 1991[48] 2001[49] 2011[50] 2021[51]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 83,762 93% 99,935 90.8% 116,948 87.1% 117,957 77.7% 120,509 70.7%
White: British 103,041 76.8% 96,633 63.6% 86,672 53.5%
White: Irish 2,898 2,431 2,351
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 92 62
White: Roma 501
White: Other 11,009 8.2% 18,801 12.4% 24,975 15.4%
Asian or Asian British
: Total
5,808 5.3% 8,931 6.7% 18,827 12.4% 24,991 15.4%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,560 1.4% 2,323 1.7% 4,449 2.9% 6,005 3.7%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 2042 1.9% 2,625 2.0% 4,825 3.2% 6,619 4.1%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 510 0.5% 878 0.7% 1,791 1.2% 2,025 1.3%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 859 0.8% 2,460 1.8% 3,559 2.3% 4,479 2.8%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 837 0.8% 645 0.5% 4,203 2.8% 5,863 3.6%
Black or Black British: Total 3,055 2.8% 3,368 2.5% 7,028 4.6% 7,535 4.7%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 1745 1,664 1,874 1,629
Black or Black British: African 593 1,408 4,456 5,060
Black or Black British: Other Black 717 296 698 846
Mixed or British Mixed: Total 3,239 2.4% 6,035 4% 9,005 5.6%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 1,030 1,721 1,916
Mixed: White and Black African 380 703 1,072
Mixed: White and Asian 974 2,008 3,197
Mixed: Other Mixed 855 1,603 2,820
Other: Total 1,305 1.2% 1,762 1.3% 2,059 1.4% 5,948 3.7%
Other: Arab 922 0.6% 1,449 0.9%
Other: Any other ethnic group 1,305 1.2% 1,762 1.3% 1,137 0.7% 4,499 2.8%
Ethnic minority: Total 6,265 7% 10,168 9.2% 17,300 12.9% 33,949 22.3% 47,479 29.3%
Total 90,027 100% 110,103 100% 134,248 100% 151,906 100% 162,040 100%

Religion

Religion 2001[52] 2011[53] 2021[54]
Number % Number % Number %
No religion 32,075 23.9 50,274 33.1 63,201 39.0
Christian 81,100 60.4 72,924 48.0 61,750 38.1
Religion not stated 11,725 8.7 12,611 8.3 16,110 9.9
Muslim 5,165 3.8 10,320 6.8 14,093 8.7
Hindu 1,041 0.8 2,044 1.3 2,523 1.6
Other religion 656 0.5 796 0.5 1,447 0.9
Buddhism
1,080 0.8 1,431 0.9 1,195 0.7
Jewish 1,091 0.8 1,072 0.7 1,120 0.7
Sikh 315 0.2 434 0.3 599 0.4
Total 134,248 100.00% 151,906 100.00% 162,040 100.0%

Transport

Air

In addition to the larger

airports in the region, Oxford is served by nearby Oxford Airport, in Kidlington. The airport is also home to CAE Oxford Aviation Academy and Airways Aviation[55] airline pilot flight training centres, and several private jet companies. The airport is also home to Airbus Helicopters UK headquarters.[56]

Rail–airport links

Direct trains run from

London Paddington where there is an interchange with the Heathrow Express train links serving Heathrow Airport. Passengers can change at Reading for connecting trains to Gatwick Airport. Some CrossCountry trains run direct services to Birmingham International, as well as to Southampton Airport Parkway
further afield.

Buses

park & ride
service
Oxford Bus Company flywheel energy storage bus on a BrookesBus service

Bus services in Oxford and its suburbs are run by the

WiFi installed.[62][63][64]

Coach

The Oxford to

Stagecoach Oxfordshire and the Oxford Bus Company runs the Airline services to Heathrow and Gatwick airports. There is a bus station at Gloucester Green, used mainly by the London and airport buses, National Express coaches and other long-distance buses including route X5 to Milton Keynes and Cambridge and Stagecoach Gold
routes S1, S2 and S6.

Cycling

Among British cities, Oxford has the second highest percentage of people cycling to work.[65]

Rail

Oxford railway station, in the city centre
Oxford Parkway Station, on the outskirts near Kidlington

London Marylebone. Oxford has had three main railway stations. The first was opened at Grandpont in 1844,[66] but this was a terminus, inconvenient for routes to the north;[67] it was replaced by the present station on Park End Street in 1852 with the opening of the Birmingham route.[68] Another terminus, at Rewley Road, was opened in 1851 to serve the Bletchley route;[69] this station closed in 1951.[70] There have also been a number of local railway stations, all of which are now closed. A fourth station, Oxford Parkway, is just outside the city, at the park and ride site near Kidlington
. The present railway station opened in 1852.

Oxford is the junction for a short branch line to

Varsity line to Cambridge. This Oxford–Bicester line was upgraded to 100 mph (161 km/h) running during an 18-month closure in 2014/2015 – and is scheduled to be extended to form the planned East West Rail line to Milton Keynes.[71] East West Rail is proposed to continue through Bletchley (for Milton Keynes Central) to Bedford,[72] Cambridge,[73] and ultimately Ipswich and Norwich,[74] thus providing alternative route to East Anglia without needing to travel via, and connect between, the London
mainline terminals.

Chiltern Railways operates from Oxford to London Marylebone via Bicester Village, having sponsored the building of about 400 metres of new track between Bicester Village and the Chiltern Main Line southwards in 2014. The route serves High Wycombe and London Marylebone, avoiding London Paddington and Didcot Parkway.

In 1844, the

London & North Western Railway opened its own route from Oxford to London Euston, via Bicester, Bletchley and Watford;[77] and in 1864 a third route, also to Paddington, running via Thame, High Wycombe and Maidenhead, was provided;[78] this was shortened in 1906 by the opening of a direct route between High Wycombe and London Paddington by way of Denham.[79] The distance from Oxford to London was 78 miles (125.5 km) via Bletchley; 63.5 miles (102.2 km) via Didcot and Reading; 63.25 miles (101.8 km) via Thame and Maidenhead;[80] and 55.75 miles (89.7 km) via Denham.[79]

Only the original (

Didcot) route is still in use for its full length, portions of the others remain. There were also routes to the north and west. The line to Banbury was opened in 1850,[67] and was extended to Birmingham Snow Hill in 1852;[68] a route to Worcester opened in 1853.[81] A branch to Witney was opened in 1862,[82] which was extended to Fairford in 1873.[83]
The line to Witney and Fairford closed in 1962, but the others remain open.

River and canal

Oxford was historically an important

Abingdon
and beyond.

Roads

The M40 extension

Oxford's central location on several transport routes means that it has long been a

service roads
adjoin, and was completed in 1966.

A roads

The main roads to/from Oxford are:

Zero Emission Zone

On 28 February 2022 a

zero-emission pilot area became operational in Oxford City Centre. Zero emission vehicles can be used without incurring a charge but all petrol and diesel vehicles (including hybrids) incur a daily charge if they are driven in the zone between 7am and 7pm.[86]

A consultation on the introduction of a wider Zero Emission Zone is expected in the future, at a date to be confirmed.

Bus gates

Oxford has eight bus gates, short sections of road where only buses and other authorised vehicles can pass.[87]

Six further bus gates are currently proposed. A council-led consultation on the traffic filters ended on 13 October 2022. In a decision made on 29 November 2022, Oxfordshire County Council cabinet approved the introduction on a trial basis, for a minimum period of six months.[88] The trial will begin after improvement works to Oxford railway station are complete, which is expected to be by Christmas 2023.[89] The additional bus gates have been controversial; Oxford University and Oxford Bus Company support the proposals but more than 3,700 people have signed an online petition opposing the new traffic filters for Marston Ferry Road and Hollow Way, and hotelier Jeremy Mogford has argued they would be a mistake.[90][91] In November 2022, Mogford announced that his hospitality group The Oxford Collection had joined up with Oxford Business Action Group (OBAG), Oxford High Street Association (OHSA), ROX (Backing Oxford Business), Reconnecting Oxford, Jericho Traders, and Summertown traders to launch a legal challenge to the new bus gates.[92]

Motorway

The city is served by the M40 motorway, which connects London to Birmingham. The M40 approached Oxford in 1974, leading from London to Waterstock, where the A40 continued to Oxford. When the M40 extension to Birmingham was completed in January 1991, it curved sharply north, and a mile of the old motorway became a spur. The M40 comes no closer than 6 miles (10 km) away from the city centre, curving to pass to the east of Otmoor. The M40 meets the A34 to the north of Oxford.

Education

Schools

Universities and colleges

Scrollable image. Aerial panorama of the university.
Sheldonian Theatre in 2009

There are two universities in Oxford, the

English-speaking world,[93] and one of the most prestigious higher education institutions of the world, averaging nine applications to every available place, and attracting 40% of its academic staff and 17% of undergraduates from overseas.[94] In September 2016, it was ranked as the world's number one university, according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[95] Oxford is renowned for its tutorial
-based method of teaching.

The Bodleian Library

The University of Oxford maintains the largest university library system in the United Kingdom,[96] and, with over 11 million volumes housed on 120 miles (190 km) of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the United Kingdom, after the British Library. The Bodleian Library is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the United Kingdom. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles (five kilometres) of shelving every year.[97]

Media

As well as the

South Today programme broadcast from Southampton
.

Local papers include

Nightshift is a monthly local free magazine that has covered the Oxford music scene since 1991.[102]

Culture

Museums and galleries

Oxford is home to many museums, galleries, and collections, most of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions. The majority are departments of the University of Oxford. The first of these to be established was the Ashmolean Museum, the world's first university museum,[103] and the oldest museum in the UK.[104] Its first building was erected in 1678–1683 to house a cabinet of curiosities given to the University of Oxford in 1677. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Turner, and Picasso, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead, the Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel. It also contains "The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence.[105]

The

anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the university establish a lectureship in anthropology.[107]

The

Art

Art

watercolourist and draughtsman Ken Messer (1931–2018) has been dubbed "The Oxford Artist" by some, with his architectural paintings around the city.[111] In 2018, The Oxford Art Book featured many contemporary local artists and their depictions of Oxford scenes.[112] The annual Oxfordshire Artweeks is well-represented by artists in Oxford itself.[113]

Music

Sir John Stainer was organist at Magdalen College and later Professor of Music at the university, and is buried in Holywell Cemetery.[117]

Oxford, and its surrounding towns and villages, have produced many successful bands and musicians in the field of

, founded in 1887.

Theatres and cinemas

Literature and film

{{{annotations}}}

"Dreaming spires" of Oxford University viewed from South Park in the snow

Well-known Oxford-based authors include:

Oxford appears in the following works:[citation needed]

Sport

Football

Kassam Stadium
Manor Ground
off London Road in Headington.

The city's leading

relegated to the Football Conference
in 2006, staying there for four seasons before returning to the Football League in 2010.

They play at the

Football League in the pyramid. Oxford City Nomads F.C. was a semi-professional football club who ground-shared with Oxford City and played in the Hellenic league
.

Rowing

Oxford University Boat Club compete in the world-famous Boat Race. Since 2007 the club has been based at a training facility and boathouse in Wallingford,[126] south of Oxford, after the original boathouse burnt down in 1999. Oxford Brookes University also has an elite rowing club,[127] and there are public clubs near Donnington Bridge, namely the City of Oxford Rowing Club,[128] Falcon Boat Club[129] and Oxford Academicals Rowing Club.[130]

Cricket

Oxford University Cricket Club is Oxford's most famous club with more than 300 Oxford players gaining international honours, including Colin Cowdrey, Douglas Jardine and Imran Khan.[131] Oxfordshire County Cricket Club play in the Minor Counties League.

Athletics

Headington Road Runners are based at the OXSRAD sports facility in

Marsh Lane (next to Oxford City F.C.) is Oxford's only road running club with an average annual membership exceeding 300. It was the club at which double Olympian Mara Yamauchi
started her running career.

Rugby league

In 2013,

both compete in the rugby league BUCS university League.

Rugby union

relegation, the club left Oxford.[136]

Hockey

There are several

to the north of the city.

Ice hockey

St Moritz, Switzerland in 1885.[139] The club currently competes in Checking Division 1 of the British Universities Ice Hockey Association.[140]

Speedway and greyhound racing

Speedway racing at Cowley in 1980

The Cesarewitch and Trafalgar Cup
. The stadium remains intact but unused after closing in 2012.

American football

American Football
team. One of the longest-running American football clubs in the UK, the Saints were founded in 1983 and have competed for over 30 years against other British teams across the country.

Gaelic football

Eire Óg Oxford is Oxford's local

Gaelic Football team. Originally founded as a hurling club by Irish immigrants in 1959,[141] the club plays within the Hertfordshire league and championship,[142] being the only Gaelic Football club within Oxfordshire. Hurling is no longer played by the club; however, Eire Óg do contribute players to the Hertfordshire-wide amalgamated club, St Declans. Several well-known Irishmen have played for Eire Óg, including Darragh Ennis of ITV's The Chase, and Stephen Molumphy, former member of the Waterford county hurling team.[citation needed
]

Religion

Christ Church Cathedral
Choir and organ of Christ Church Cathedral

International relations

Oxford is

twinned with:[143]

Freedom of the City

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City of Oxford.

Individuals

[152]

Military units

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b "Key Facts about Oxford". Oxford City Council. Retrieved 16 February 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "Civic office holders". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  3. Office for National Statistics
    . Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  4. .
  5. ^ Dictionary.com, "oxford" in Dictionary.com Unabridged. Source location: Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/oxford Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com Archived 20 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed: 4 July 2012.
  6. ^ Sager 2005, p. 36.
  7. ^ "A brief history of the University". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  8. .
  9. .
  10. .
  11. ^ "Daily Data from the Radcliffe Observatory site in Oxford". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  12. ^ "Radcliffe Meteorological Station". Archived from the original on 1 June 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  13. ^ "Monthly, Annual and Seasonal Data from the Radcliffe Observatory site in Oxford". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  14. ^ "Oxford (Oxfordshire) UK climate averages". Met Office. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  15. ^ "Daily Data from the Radcliffe Observatory site in Oxford". University of Oxford. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  16. ^ "About Boswells". Boswells-online.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  17. ^ Ffrench, Andrew (29 February 2020). "Everything must go now at Boswells in closing down sale". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  18. ^ "CPRE:The Oxford Green Belt: Key Facts". www.cpreoxon.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  19. ^ "Estate agents call for building on Green Belt to ease house price crisis". Oxford Mail. 4 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  20. ^ Elledge, Jonn (22 September 2017). "Loosen Britain's green belt. It is stunting our young people – Jonn Elledge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
  21. ^ White, Anna (26 February 2015). "Welcome to Britain's most unaffordable spot – it's not London". Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  22. ^ "Oxford Green Belt Study Final Report Prepared by LUC October 2015" (PDF). oxfordshire.gov.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  23. ^ "Local Government Act 1972", legislation.gov.uk, The National Archives, 1972 c. 70, retrieved 25 April 2023
  24. ^ Historic England. "Town Hall, Municipal Buildings and Library (Grade II*) (1047153)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  25. ^ "Parish council contact details". Oxford City Council. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  26. ^ "Elsevier". The Publishers Association. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  27. ^ "Home – Digital Oxford". Digital Oxford. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  28. ^ "Passle – become a thought leader". Passle: Don't have time to blog?. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  29. ^ "Brainomix". Brainomix. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  30. ^ "Labstep". angel.co. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  31. ^ "Learn English in Oxford". oxford-royale.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  32. ^ Hearn, Dan (19 August 2009). "Oxford tourism suffers triple whammy". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  33. ^ "Clarendon Shopping Centre". Clarendoncentre.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  34. ^ "Visit Oxford's premier shopping centre – the Westgate Shopping Centre". Oxfordcity.co.uk. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  35. ^ "Blackwell's Books, Oxford". britainexpress.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  36. ^
    ISSN 0308-5562
    .
  37. ^ Page, William, ed. (1907). A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 2: Industries: Malting and Brewing. Victoria County History. Archibald Constable & Co. pp. 225–277. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  38. from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  39. ^ "History of Headington, Oxford". Headington.org.uk. 19 April 2009. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  40. ^ "Morrells Brewery up for sale". Archive.thisisoxfordshire.co.uk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  41. ^ www.quaffale.org.uk (22 September 2001). "Morrells Brewery Ltd". Quaffale.org.uk. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  42. ^ "Jericho Echo". Pstalker.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  43. ^ "England | Brewer buys pub chain for £67m". BBC News. 18 June 2002. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  44. ^ "Brewery site plan nears final hurdle". Archive.thisisoxfordshire.co.uk. 19 February 2001. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  45. ^ Evans, Marc (27 July 2017). "Grab a glass: The Oxford Artisan Distillery opens in South Park today". Oxford Mail.
  46. ^ "Bell Founders". Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  47. ^ Equality, Commission for Racial (1985). "Ethnic minorities in Britain: statistical information on the pattern of settlement". Commission for Racial Equality: Table 2.2.
  48. ^ Data is taken from United Kingdom Casweb Data services of the United Kingdom 1991 Census on Ethnic Data for England, Scotland and Wales (Table 6)
  49. ^ "Office of National Statistics; 2001 Census Key Statistics". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  50. ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic Group, local authorities in England and Wales". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  51. ^ "Ethnic group, census2021 (TS021)". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  52. ^ "KS007 - Religion". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  53. ^ "2011 census – theme tables". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  54. ^ "Religion - Office for National Statistics".
  55. ^ Hikins, Richard (4 March 2016). "New Global Headquarters for Airways Aviation". oxfordairport.co.uk. Oxford Airport. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  56. ^ "Airbus Helicopters celebrates 40 years as the all-in-one solution for UK helicopter industry". Helicopters. Airbus. 15 July 2014. Archived from the original on 28 November 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  57. ^ "Park and ride car parks". Roads and transport. Oxfordshire County Council. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  58. ^ "Oxford Bus Company Fleet List" (PDF). Oxford Bus Company. August 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  59. ^ Little, Reg (15 July 2010). "Transport revolution". The Oxford Times. Oxford: Newsquest (Oxfordshire) Ltd. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
  60. ^ Holley, Mel (10 September 2014). "Gyrodrive debuts in Oxford". RouteOne. Diversified Communications. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  61. ^ "Smart ticketing". Sustainability. Go-Ahead Group. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
  62. ^ "Free Wi-Fi on city buses and buildings as Oxford gets Super Connected". Newsroom. Oxford City Council. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015.
  63. ^ Oxford Bus Company (4 November 2014). "Free Wi-Fi on buses announced as Oxford gets Super Connected!". WordPress. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015.
  64. ^ "Oxford bus users to get free wifi". News. ITV. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015.
  65. ^ "2011 Census Analysis – Cycling to Work". ONS. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  66. ^ MacDermot 1927, pp. 180–181.
  67. ^ a b MacDermot 1927, p. 300.
  68. ^ a b MacDermot 1927, p. 327.
  69. ^ Mitchell & Smith 2005, Historical Background.
  70. ^ Mitchell & Smith 2005, fig. 8.
  71. ^ "Welcome to". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  72. ^ "Western Section". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  73. ^ "Central Section". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  74. ^ "Eastern Section". East West Rail. 18 August 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  75. ^ Simpson 1997, p. 59.
  76. ^ Simpson 2001, p. 9.
  77. ^ Simpson 1997, p. 101.
  78. ^ Simpson 2001, p. 57.
  79. ^ a b MacDermot 1931, p. 432.
  80. ^ Cooke 1960, p. 70.
  81. ^ MacDermot 1927, p. 498.
  82. ^ MacDermot 1927, p. 551.
  83. ^ MacDermot 1931, p. 27.
  84. ^ Thacker, Fred. S. (1968) [1920]. The Thames Highway: Volume II Locks and Weirs. Newton Abbot: David and Charles.
  85. .
  86. ^ "About Oxford's Zero Emission Zone".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  87. ^ "Bus lanes and bus gates". Oxfordshire County Council. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  88. ^ Colivicchi, Anna. "Plans for six traffic filters in Oxford approved by council". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 4 December 2022.
  89. ^ "Consultation on trial traffic filters 2022". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  90. ^ "Oxford University and Oxford Bus Company back traffic filters". BBC News. 4 November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  91. ^ Ffrench, Andrew (25 October 2022). "Opinion: Why six new bus gates will be a mistake for Oxford says top hotelier". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  92. ^ Ffrench, Andrew (25 November 2022). "Legal challenge to bus gates is 'last resort' says Jeremy Mogford". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  93. ^ "Introduction and history". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  94. ^ "International students". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  95. ^ "World University Rankings 2016–2017". Times Higher Education. September 2016. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  96. ^ "Libraries". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012.
  97. ^ "A University Library for the Twenty-first Century". University of Oxford. 22 September 2005. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
  98. ^ "Oxford Student Radio". oxideradio.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 June 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
  99. ^ "Milestone Group" (PDF). Milestone Group. Retrieved 17 April 2010.[dead link]
  100. ^ "That's Oxfordshire". media.info. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  101. ^ Ffrench, Andrew (7 April 2015). "New Oxfordshire community TV channel 'just weeks from launch'". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  102. ^ "Preview: Nightshift night Archived 5 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine", "Oxford Mail", 6 July 2000
  103. ^ MacGregor, A. (2001). The Ashmolean Museum. A brief history of the museum and its collections. Ashmolean Museum & Jonathan Horne Publications, London.
  104. ^ "Support Us". The Ashmolean. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007.
  105. ^ "Ashmolean Museum website, What's in the Ashmolean". Oxford University Ashmolean Museum. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  106. ^ "Oxford University Museum of Natural History Homepage". Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
  107. ^ "Pitt Rivers Museum Website, About Augustus Pitt Rivers". University of Oxford Pitt Rivers Museum. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  108. ^ "About the Museum". Museum of the History of Science. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
  109. ^ "Visiting museums, libraries & places of interest – University of Oxford website". Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  110. ^ "Museums and Galleries – Experience Oxfordshire website". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  111. ^ "Obituary: Oxford artist Ken Messer". Oxford Mail. UK. 7 June 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  112. .
  113. ^ "Oxford". Artweeks 2020. Oxfordshire Artweeks. 2020. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  114. .
  115. ^ "Exploring Wadham's Holywell Music Room". Wadham College. 21 February 2017. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  116. ^ "Haydn in England". Oxford University Department for Continuing Education. 2018. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  117. ^ "Notable people buried in Oxford". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  118. ^ "Discography for NME Compilation Cassette for Oxford Sound City". Discogs. 1997. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  119. ^ Pegasus Theatre Archived 8 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, UK.
  120. ^ a b "Oxford authors Colin Dexter and Brian Aldiss added to biography dictionary". 14 January 2021.
  121. . Vol. 7 (11th ed.). pp. 851–852.
  122. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). "Wilde, Oscar O'Flahertie Wills" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 28 (11th ed.). pp. 632–633.
  123. ^ "Poems". Poetry Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  124. ^ Gray, John (n.d.). "'Only a thickness of wall': Empire and Oxford in Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure (1895)". Oxford and Empire Network. University of Oxford. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  125. ^ Della Sala, Sofia (28 September 2021). "James Bond: Every Oxfordshire filming location in No Time To Die, Spectre and more". Oxfordshire Live. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  126. ^ "Contact Us". Oxford University Boat Club. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  127. ^ "Oxford Brookes University opens elite rowing facilities". BBC News. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  128. ^ "About Us". City of Oxford Rowing Club. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  129. ^ "About Falcon". Falcon Boat Club. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  130. ^ "Find Us". Oxford Academicals Rowing Club. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  131. ^ "International Players". Oxford University Cricket in the Parks. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  132. ^ "Welcome to OURLFC". Oxford University Rugby League. Archived from the original on 11 October 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
  133. ^ "Oxford Brookes University Rugby League". Facebook. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  134. ^ "Rugby Union". ESPN. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  135. ^ "International Players". Oxford University Rugby Club. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  136. ^ Knox, Michael (27 June 2015). "RUGBY UNION: London Welsh quit Oxford's Kassam Stadium – but could be back". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 12 March 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  137. ^ "oxfordstars.com". Archived from the original on 10 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  138. ^ "oxfordjuniorstars.co.uk". oxfordstars.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011.
  139. ^ "OUIHC". oxforduniversityicehockey.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  140. ^ "OUIHC BUIHA". buiha.org.uk. Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  141. ^ "Éire Óg Oxford: Sixty Years" (online booklet). Eire Óg Oxford. 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  142. ^ "About Us". Eire Óg Oxford. Retrieved 6 December 2022.
  143. ^ "Oxford's International Twin Towns". Oxford City Council. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  144. ^ "City Twinnings". Stadt Bonn. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  145. ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble – Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  146. ^ Bragg, Alexander (21 October 2016). "The Oxford – Manizales connection of "town versus gown"". The City Paper. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  147. ^ Hughes, Tim (4 March 2022). "Oxford City Council ends unpopular Perm twin link in U-turn". Oxford Mail. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  148. ^ "Оксфорд разорвал отношения с Пермью из-за спецоперации на Украине". Ura.news. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  149. ^ Council, Oxford City. "Historic moment as Oxford and Ramallah in Palestine become twin cities". www.oxford.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  150. ^ "Oxford, Padua, Ramallah – twin cities recognised". Oxford City Council. 4 November 2019. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  151. ^ "Benny Wenda: West Papua leader receives freedom of Oxford". BBC News. 17 July 2019. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  152. ^ "Freedom of the City". Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  153. ^ Ffrench, Andrew (21 May 2015). "Regiment to exercise 'Freedom of the City'". Oxford Mail. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2019.

Sources

Further reading

External links

This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article: Oxford. Articles is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.Privacy Policy