Partula (gastropod)

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Partula
Partula radiolata
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Heterobranchia
Order: Stylommatophora
Infraorder: Pupilloidei
Superfamily: Pupilloidea
Family: Partulidae
Genus: Partula
Férussac, 1821[1]
Synonyms
  • Astraea Hartman, 1881
  • Bulimus (Partula)
  • Clytia Hartman, 1881
  • Echo Hartman, 1881
  • Harmonia Hartman, 1881
  • Helena Hartman, 1881
  • Marianna Pilsbry, 1909
  • Matata Hartman, 1881
  • Nenia Hartman, 1881
  • Oenone Hartman, 1881
  • Partula (Astraea) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Astraea Röding, 1798 [Gastropoda, Turbinidae])
  • Partula (Carolinella) Pilsbry, 1909
  • Partula (Clytia) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Clytia Lamouroux, 1812 [Cnidaria])
  • Partula (Echo) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Echo Selys, 1853 [Odonata]; Leptopartula is a replacement name)
  • Partula (Harmonia) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Harmonia Mulsant, 1846 [Coleoptera]; Marianna is a replacement name)
  • Partula (Helena) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Helena Risso, 1826 [Crustacea])
  • Partula (Leptopartula) Pilsbry, 1909
  • Partula (Marianella) Pilsbry, 1909
  • Partula (Marianna) Pilsbry, 1909
  • Partula (Matata) Hartman, 1881
  • Partula (Melanesica) Pilsbry, 1909
  • Partula (Nenia) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Nenia H. & A. Adams, 1855 [Gastropoda, Clausiliidae])
  • Partula (Oenone) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Oenone Lamarck, 1818 [Annelida])
  • Partula (Partula) A. Férussac, 1821· accepted, alternate representation
  • Partula (Pasithea) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Pasithea Oken, 1807 [Vermes], Pasithea Lamarck, 1812 [Cnidaria] and Pasithea Lea, 1833 [Gastropoda])
  • Partula (Rennellia) Clench, 1941 (junior synonym)
  • Partula (Sterope) Hartman, 1881 (invalid: junior homonym of Sterope Goodsir, 1845 [Crustacea])
  • Partula (Thakombaua) Pilsbry, 1909
  • Pasithea Hartman, 1881 (junior synonym)
  • Rennellia Clench, 1941 (junior synonym)
  • Scilistylus Iredale, 1941
  • Sterope Hartman, 1881
Black-and-white photo taken in July 1920 in Saipan, showing numerous Partula snails on the underside of a single leaf of Caladium
Partula gibba
Partula langfordi

Partula is a

mollusks in the family Partulidae.[2][3]

Many species of Partula are known under the general common names "Polynesian tree snail" and "Moorean viviparous tree snail".[4] Partulids are distributed across 5,000 sq mi (13,000 km2) of Pacific Ocean islands, from the Society Islands to New Guinea.[citation needed]

Once used as decorative items in Polynesian ceremonial wear and jewelry, these small snails (averaging about one-half to three-quarters of an inch in length) gained the attention of science when Dr. Henry Crampton (along with Yoshio Kondo) spent 50 years studying and cataloging partulids, detailing their remarkable array of morphological elements, ecological niches, and behavioral aspects that illustrate adaptive radiation.[5][6]

Decline

The partulids of the island of Tahiti act as an example of the possible deleterious effects of attempted biological control. After an infestation of the introduced giant African land snails (Achatina spp.), the carnivorous Florida rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) was introduced into Tahiti in an attempt to combat the African species.

The wolfsnail chose instead to hunt and eat members of the nearly 76 species of Partula that were endemic to Tahiti and the nearby islands, devouring all but 12 species in a decade. Several scientists recognized what was going on, and were able to save 12 species prior to their becoming

extinct
.

Today, the Zoological Society of London runs the Partula Programme Consortium which maintains a captive-breeding programme in the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.

The 2008

critically endangered, 11 extinct in the wild, and 48 extinct Partula species.[7] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species version 2009.2 contains 13 critically endangered, 11 extinct in the wild and 51 extinct Partula species.[8] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species version 2015-4 contains 83 Partula species.[9]

Individuals are being reintroduced to Tahiti from captive breeding programmes since 2014.[10][11] In April 2023, over 5,000 individual snails from zoos in the United States and the United Kingdom were released on Tahiti and Mo'orea.

Species

Species within the genus Partula include: [6]

Full list

Collected for ex situ conservation

The Partula that were collected for ex situ breeding were the following:[12]

Tahiti - P. affinis, P. clara, P. hyalina, P. nodosa, P. otaheitana

Moorea - P. aurantia, P. mirabilis, P. mooreana, P. suturalis, P. taeniata, P. tohiveana

Huahine - P. arguta, P. rosea, P. varia

Raiatea - P. faba, P. garrettii (P. tristis), P. hebe, P. navigatoria (P. dentifera), P. turgida

Marianas -

P. gibba, P. langfordi

P. garrettii and P. navigatoria were misidentified as the species in parentheses next to them.

Surviving species

Looking at the list of surviving species[13] it appears more species survived than initially thought. The list of surviving species is as follows:

Tahiti - P. affinis, P. clara, P. hyalina, P. incrassa, P. nodosa, P. otaheitana

Moorea - P. mirabilis, P. mooreana, P. suturalis, P. taeniata, P. tohiveana

Huahine - P. rosea, P. varia

Raiatea - P. garrettii (P. tristis), P. hebe, P. meyeri, P. navigatoria (P. dentifera)

Marianas -

Micronesia - P. emersoni, P. rufa

Fiji - P. leefei, P. lirata

Solomon Islands - P. cramptoni, P. micans

Papua New Guinea - P. auraniana, P. similaris

Cook Islands - P. assimilis

Cladogram

Phylogenetic analyses revealed that many of the Partula species are not monophyletic.[14] The resulting cladogram is shown below.

Partulidae
Partula

P. aurantia

P. suturalis dendronica

P. suturalis strigosa

P. suturalis vexillum

P. suturalis strigosa

P. suturalis vexillum

P. clara

P. mirabilis

P. suturalis vexillum

P. hyalina

P. varia

P. rosea

P. hebe

P. hebe bella

P. clara

P. exigua

P. mooreana

P. taeniata elongata

P. taeniata nucleola

P. taeniata simulans

P. taeniata

P. clara

P. taeniata nucleola

P. mooreana

P. tohivea

(

undescribed species
)

P. otaheitana otaheitana

P. otaheitana lignaria

P. otaheitana sinistralis

P. otaheitana sinistrorsa

P. otaheitana crassa

P. producta

P. hyalina (Austral Islands, etc.)

P. hyalina (Tahiti)

P. mooreana

P. mirabilis propinqua

P. tohiveana

P. dentifera

P. dentifera

P. tristis

P. meyeri

P. faba

P. turgida

P. assimilis

P. luteola

P. gibba

P. radiolata

P. carteriensis

P. similaris

P. otaheitana

P. otaheitana affinis

P. affinis

P. otaheitana

P. otaheitana rubescens

(

undescribed species
)

P. otaheitana crassa

P. nodosa composita

P. nodosa intermedia

P. subgonochila

P. auraniana

P. turneri

P. lirata

Samoana

Samoana decussatula

Samoana attenuata

Samoana burchi

Samoana conica

Samoana thurstoni

Samoana fragilis

Palaopartula

Palaopartula thetis

Palaopartula calypso

Eua

Eua globosa

Eua zebrina

Ecology

Partula species on Tahiti were usually found on the undersides of the leaves of

plantain, although in some valleys, they were frequently found on Dracaena and turmeric.[15]

References

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[15]

  1. ^ Férussac A. É. d'A. de (June 1821). Journ. de Physique 92: 460; 1821, H.N. g. et p. Moll., Tabl. Limaçons, 23.
  2. ^ Myers, P.; Espinosa, R.; Parr, C. S.; Jones, T.; Hammond, G. S. & Dewey, T. A. (2006). The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed at http://animaldiversity.org.
  3. ^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Partulidae
  4. ^ Searching for "Partula". In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 14 September 2010.
  5. ^ Jung, Younghun, Taehwan Lee, Burch J. B. & Diarmaid Ó Foighil. (2005) "Historical phylogeny of Tahitian Partula". Proc. Joint Conference - American Malacological Society and Western Society of Malacologists.
  6. ^ a b Gerlach, J. (2016) Icons of Evolution - Pacific island tree snails, family Partulidae. Phelsuma Press, Cambridge
  7. ^ IUCN (2008). 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 December 2008.
  8. ^ IUCN (2009). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 14 November 2009.
  9. ^ IUCN (2016). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 June 2016.
  10. ^ Kuta, Sarah (2 May 2023). "Scientists Reintroduce 5,000 Snails to French Polynesian Islands". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2023-05-27.
  11. ^ Elizabeth Claire Alberts (28 April 2023). "'Extinct' snails return to Tahiti in largest wildlife reintroduction ever". Mongabay. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  12. ^ "Tentacle 3" (PDF). University of Hawaii.
  13. ^ "Partula". IUCN Red List.
  14. ^ "34". d-nb.info.
  15. ^
    Mayer A. G. (January 1902). "Some species of Partula from Tahiti. A study in variation". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy XXVI(2)
    , Cambridge, U.S.A.

Further reading

External links