This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2013))
; Prazdroj brewery gate; and brewery water tower.
Location in the Czech Republic
|Coordinates: 49°44′51″N 13°22′39″E / 49.74750°N 13.37750°E|
301 00 – 326 00
Plzeň (Czech pronunciation: [ˈpl̩zɛɲ] (listen); German and English: Pilsen, in German pronounced [ˈpɪlzn̩] (listen)) is a city in the Czech Republic. About 90 kilometres (56 miles) west of Prague in western Bohemia, it is the fourth most populous city in the Czech Republic with about 181,000 inhabitants.
The city is known worldwide for Pilsner beer, created by Bavarian brewer Josef Groll in the city in 1842.
Plzeň is divided into ten boroughs, which are further divided into 25 administrative parts (in brackets):
- Plzeň 1-Bolevec (Bolevec and Severní Předměstí)
- Plzeň 2-Slovany (Božkov, Černice (partly), Doudlevce (partly), Hradiště, Koterov, Lobzy (partly) and Východní Předměstí (partly))
- Plzeň 3-Bory (Doudlevce (partly), Jižní Předměstí, Litice (partly), Nová Hospoda, Radobyčice, Skvrňany, Valcha, Vnitřní Město and Východní Předměstí (partly))
- Plzeň 4-Doubravka (Bukovec, Červený Hrádek, Doubravka, Lobzy (partly), Újezd and Východní Předměstí (partly))
- Plzeň 5-Křimice
- Plzeň 6-Litice (Litice (partly))
- Plzeň 7-Radčice
- Plzeň 8-Černice (Černice (partly))
- Plzeň 9-Malesice (Dolní Vlkýš and Malesice)
- Plzeň 10-Lhota
Plzeň is located about 78 km (48 mi) southwest of Prague. The city is situated at the confluences of four rivers: Mže, Úhlava, Úslava and Radbuza. From the confluence of the Mže and Radbuza, the river is known as the Berounka. Plzeň lies mostly in the Plasy Uplands; a small parts of the municipal territory in the east and south extend into the Švihov Highlands. The highest point is the hill Chlum at 416 m (1,365 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is the river bed of the Berounka at 293 m (961 ft). The largest body of water is the České údolí Reservoir, built on the Radbuza. A system of ponds is located on the northern edge of the city.
Plzeň has a cool and
Winters are chilly but milder than some adjacent areas. Snow cover is erratic and lasts on average for 51 days. Though an average year has 113 days with minimum temperature below zero, the temperature falls below −15 °C (5 °F) on 5 days. The record low temperatures is around −20 °C (−4 °F). Winters are often murky with frequent long-standing haze. Spring is short, and in April to June there is blooming vegetation. Summer lasts from the end of May until the first third of September. During that period Plzeň has changeable weather which can be warm to hot. Temperatures are always above 5 degrees Celsius with nights between 8 and 18 °C (46 and 64 °F) and days between 16 and 35 °C (61 and 95 °F). Days are up to 16 hours long.
Plzeň can be hot, especially during heat waves originating in the southern
Extreme values for years 2011 and 2012: An extremely cold day of 2011 had −7.6 °C (18.3 °F) on average (23 February), −0.7 to −13.3 °C (30.7 to 8.1 °F) and extremely hot day 25.2 °C (77.4 °F) on average (24 August, 19.5 to 32.8 °C (67.1 to 91.0 °F). The year 2012 had the coldest day on 12 February with minimum plummeting to −22.1 °C (−7.8 °F) and maximum around −3.7 °C (25.3 °F) with average −14.9 °C (5.2 °F). The hottest day of 2012 occurred on 21 August with daily maximum temperature 33.9 °C (93.0 °F) and minimum staying on 19.4 °C (66.9 °F) with all day average on 25.5 °C (77.9 °F). Absolute minimum and maximum for both years were −22.1 °C (−7.8 °F) (February 2012) and 37.4 °C (99.3 °F) during August 2012.
Number of rainy/snowy days for 2011: 78; number of days with frost: 76; number of days with minimal temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F): 12; number of days with average temperature below zero: 35; number of days with daily average temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F): 188; number of days with daily average higher than 20 °C (68 °F): 32. Total amount of precipitation for year 2011: 529.1 mm (20.83 in); average year humidity value: 80.8%. Maximal temperature: 33.3 °C (91.9 °F); minimal temperature −14.8 °C (5.4 °F). Average 2011 temperature: 9.7 °C (49 °F); average speed of wind: 4.7 km/h (2.9 mph), mainly from SSE.
Number of days with frost was 96 during year 2012; 18 days had minima below −10 °C (14 °F) and 165 days with an average temperature on or above 10.0 °C (50.0 °F). Number of days with maxima on or above 20.0 °C (68.0 °F) was 42.
|Climate data for Plzeň|
|Record high °C (°F)||16
|Average high °C (°F)||0.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−4.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−24
|Average precipitation days||20||15||17||15||14||14||14||12||12||12||17||19||181|
|Source 1: www.weatherbase.com|
|Source 2: http://portal.chmi.cz http://www.en.climate-data.org/location/776|
Plzeň was first mentioned as a castle in 976, as the scene of a battle between Duke
From the end of the 17th century, the architecture of Plzeň has been influenced by the
In the second half of the 19th century Plzeň, already an important trade centre for
After 1898 the second largest employer was the National Railways train workshop, with about 2,000 employees: this was the largest rail repair shop in all Austria-Hungary. Between 1861 and 1877, the Plzeň railway junction was completed and in 1899 the first tram line started in the city. This burst of industry had two important effects: the growth of the local Czech population and of the urban poor. After 1868 first Czech mayor of the city was elected.
World War II
Between 17 and 26 January 1942, over 2,000 Jewish inhabitants, most of Plzeň's Jewish population, were deported by the Nazis to the
The German-speaking population was expelled from the city after the end of the war in 1945, according to the provisions of the Potsdam Agreement. All of their property was confiscated.
On 6 May 1945, in the final days before the
The next year, a West German homing pigeon was lost near the Czechoslovak border. It returned two days later, bearing a strong anticommunist message, signed "Unbowed Pilsen." The bird, named Leaping Lena, was taken to the United States, where it was celebrated as a Cold War hero.
Plzeň is a centre of business in the western part of the Czech Republic.
Since the late 1990s the city has experienced high growth in foreign investment. In 2007, Israeli mall developer Plaza Centers opened the Pilsen Plaza, a 20,000 m2 (220,000 sq ft) shopping mall and entertainment centre featuring a multiplex cinema from Cinema City Czech Republic.
Plzeň produces about two-thirds of the Plzeň Region GDP, even though it contains only 29.8% of its population. Based on these figures, the city of Plzeň has a total GDP of approximately $7.2 billion, and a per capita GDP of $44,000. While part of this is explained by commuters to the city, it is one of the most prosperous cities in the Czech Republic.
The Škoda company, established in Plzeň in 1859, has been an important element of Austro-Hungarian, Czechoslovak and Czech engineering, and one of the biggest European arms factories. During the Communist era (1948–1989) the company's production had been directed to the needs of the Eastern Bloc. Disarray in the era after the Velvet Revolution, and unsuccessful efforts to gain new Western markets, resulted in sales problems and debts. After a huge restructuring process, the company was divided into several subsidiaries, which were later sold. The most important successors companies are Škoda Transportation and Doosan Škoda Power.
Many foreign companies now have manufacturing bases in Plzeň, including Daikin, Hisense and Panasonic. There has been much discussion of redeveloping those large areas of the Škoda plant which the company no longer uses.
Stock, located in the Božkov district, is the biggest distillery in the Czech Republic.
Plzeň is well known for the Pilsner Urquell (since 1842) and Gambrinus (since 1869) breweries, currently owned by Asahi Group Holdings.
Plzeň is an important city in the history of beer, including the development of Pilsner. In 1375, Bohemian King Charles IV endowed the Dobrow Monastery near Plzeň with the beer right, and it is one of the oldest breweries to survive to modern times. Many breweries were located in the interconnected deep cellars of the city.
The officials of Plzeň founded a city-owned brewery in 1839, Bürger Brauerei (Citizens' Brewery, nowPilsner Brauart-style brewing was widely imitated.
In 1859, "Pilsner Bier" was registered as a brand name at the Chamber of Commerce and Trade in Plzeň. In 1898, the Pilsner Urquell trade mark was created to put emphasis on it being the original brewery.
Trams, trolleybuses and buses
The Plzeň metropolitan area is largely served by a network of trams, trolleybuses and buses operated by the PMDP. Like other continental European cities, tickets bought from vending machines or small shops are valid for any transport run by the city of Plzeň. For residents of the city, a Plzeň Card can be purchased and through a system of "topping up" be used on any public transport with no limitations, as long as it is paid up and valid. Tickets can be purchased in vehicles with a contactless smart card.
Plzeň is an important centre of Czech railway transport, with the crossing of five main railway lines:
- line Nr. 170: Prague – Beroun – Plzeň – Cheb
- line Nr. 180: Plzeň – Domažlice – Furth im Wald (Germany)
- line Nr. 183: Plzeň – Klatovy – Železná Ruda
- line Nr. 160: Plzeň – Žatec
- line Nr. 190: Plzeň – České Budějovice
Plzeň main railway station (Plzeň hlavní nádraží) serves all five of these lines.
The most important transport link in the city is the D5 highway connecting Prague and Nuremberg.
A public domestic and private international airport is located 11 km south-west from Plzeň, at the nearby village of Líně.
Since 31 May 1993 Plzeň has been the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Plzeň. The first bishop (current bishop emeritus) was František Radkovský. The current bishop is Tomáš Holub. The diocese covers an area with a total of 818,700 inhabitants. The diocesan see is in St. Bartholomew's Cathedral on Republiky Square in Plzeň. The diocese is divided into 10 vicariates with a total of 72 parishes.
The seat of the West Bohemian seniorate (literary presbytery; Central European protestant equivalent of a diocese) of Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren is currently set in Plzeň. The current senior is Miroslav Hamari, the preacher of Koranda parish congregation of the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren in Plzeň, commonly known as Koranda congregation located in the city centre of Plzeň. The senioral churchwarden is Josef Beneš, the parish churchwarden of the same congregation. There are two other parish congregations of Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren in the Plzeň-City District – The Western congregation of the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren in Plzeň, known as The Western congregation located in the Western part of the city in the borough of Jižní předměstí and The Congregation of the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren in Chrást located in Chrást in the very east of Plzeň-City District.
The seat of Plzeň diocese of the Czechoslovak Hussite Church is located in Plzeň (although the bishop has resided in Mirovice for several years due to a reconstruction of episcopacy). The current bishop is Filip Štojdl.
The Czech Evangelical Lutheran Church is headquartered in Plzeň. St. Paul's Lutheran Church is a church of the Czech Evangelical Lutheran Church in Plzeň.
The other churches also present in Plzeň are the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in the Czech Republic, the United Methodist Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of Brethren, the Orthodox Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia, the Greek Catholic Church, and others.
The University of West Bohemia in Plzeň is well known for its Faculty of Law, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Faculty of Applied Science in particular.
Martin Luther Elementary School (Základní škola Martina Luthera) is a private Christian school of the Czech Evangelical Lutheran Church in Plzeň.
Plzeň was a European Capital of Culture in 2015, along with Mons in Belgium.
The ice hockey club
The most prominent sights of Plzeň are the Gothic St. Bartholomew's Cathedral, founded in the late 13th century, whose tower, at 102 m (335 ft), is the highest in the Czech Republic, the Renaissance Town Hall, and the Moorish Revival Great Synagogue, the second largest synagogue in Europe, after the Dohány Street Synagogue in Budapest. There is also a 20 km (12 mi) historic tunnel and cellar network, among the longest in Central Europe. Part of this network is open to the public for tours of about 750 m (2,500 ft) in length and down to a depth of 12 m (39 ft).
Built in 1532, the former water tower was integrated into the city's fortification system at Prague Gate. Another storey was added in 1822 in French Imperial style. The Gothic portal dating from the 1500s and coming from another house, which had been demolished, was added in 1912. Above the portal there is a commemorative plaque dedicated to Dr Josef Škoda (a professor at the Vienna University), who was born next door on 10 December 1805.
A popular tourist attraction is the Plzeňský Prazdroj brewery tour where visitors can discover the history of beer.
- Franciscan Monastery – Museum of Christian Art
- Západočeské muzeum v Plzni
- Emil von Škoda (1839–1900), engineer and industrialist
- Josef Finger (1841–1925), physicist and mathematician
- Emma B. Mandl (1842–1928), Chicago charities founder
- Friedrich Goldscheider(1845–1897), ceramist and industrialist
- František Křižík (1847–1941), inventor
- Augustin Němejc (1861–1938), painter
- Rudolf Karel (1880–1945), composer
- Emil Lederer (1882–1939), economist and sociologist
- Růžena Šlemrová (1886–1962), actress
- Josef Beran (1888–1969), cardinal, Czech primate, archbishop of Prague
- Josef Skupa (1892–1957), puppeteer
- Jaroslav Vogel (1894–1970), conductor and composer
- Ladislav Sutnar (1897–1976), graphic designer, pioneer of information design and information architecture
- Jaroslav Černý (1898–1970), Oxford professor and Egyptologist
- Jiří Trnka (1912–1969), artist
- Miroslav Štandera (1918–2014), fighter pilot for the Royal Air Force during World War II
- Ota Šik (1919–2004), economist
- Karel Černý (1922–2014), art director
- Miroslav Holub (1923–1998), poet
- Josef Rösch (1925–2016), interventional radiologist
- Kurt Dietmar Richter (1931−2019), German composer and conductor
- Karla Erbová (born 1933), poet, prose writer and journalist
- Gabriela Basařová (1934–2019), professor of chemistry. She researched fermentation chemistry, brewing, and malting.
- Peter Grünberg (1939–2018), German physicist, 2007 Nobel prize winner
- Karel Gott (1939–2019), singer
- Vaclav Smil (born 1943), scientist
- Jaroslav Beneš(born 1946), fine art photographer
- Tomáš Šmíd (born 1956), tennis player
- Vítězslav Lavička (born 1963), football manager
- Tomáš Cihlář (born 1967), chemist and virologist
- David Kotyza (born 1967), tennis coach
- Martin Straka (born 1972), ice hockey player
- Luboš Motl (born 1973), physicist
- Jiří Mužík (born 1976), track and field athlete
- Petr Sýkora (born 1976), ice hockey player
- Milan Kraft (born 1980), ice hockey player
- Petr Čech (born 1982), football player
- Kateřina Emmons (born 1983), sport shooter, Olympic medalist
- Andrea Hlaváčková(born 1986), tennis player
- Barbora Strýcová (born 1986), tennis player
- Andrej Šustr (born 1990), ice hockey player
- Pavel Francouz (born 1990), ice hockey player
- Dominik Kubalík (born 1995), ice hockey player
Twin towns – sister cities
- Birmingham, United States
- Liège, Belgium
- Limoges, France
- Regensburg, Germany
- Takasaki, Japan
- Winterthur, Switzerland
- Žilina, Slovakia
Náměstí Republiky, the city's main square
- Josef Kajetán Tyl Theatre
Museum of Western Bohemia
Sokolovna (seat of the Sokol organization)
Faculty of Law of the University of West Bohemia
- ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2023". Czech Statistical Office. 23 May 2023.
- ^ "Sedm plzeňských NEJ. Hledali jsme na dně i na vrcholu" (in Czech). E15. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
- ^ Mikovec, Ferdinand Břetislav (1860). Malerisch-historische Skizzen aus Böhmen (in German). Vol. 3. Wien/Olmütz: Hölzel. pp. 352–355.
- ^ "Gestapogefängnis Pilsen". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 7 November 2021.
- ^ "Arbeitserziehungslager Pilsen-Karlow". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 7 November 2021.
- ^ "Iron Curtain Bird Here on Crusade". The New York Times. 2 August 1954. p. 10.
- ^ "Heroine Pigeon Now a 'Citizen'". The New York Times. 23 August 1954. p. 19.
- ^ Cummings, Richard H. (2010). Radio Free Europe's "Crusade for Freedom". McFarland. pp. 116–117.
- ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Plzeň-město" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 1–2.
- ^ "Population Census 2021: Population by sex". Public Database. Czech Statistical Office. 27 March 2021.
- ^ "Krajský úřad Plzeňského kraje: Základní informace o kraji". Kr-plzensky.cz. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- ^ Doosan, About Us, Business Highlights, Global Growth, 2009
- ^ ISBN 978-1405333016.
- ^ 'Beer: Its History and Its Economic Value as a National Beverage' by F.W. Salem, 1880, page 21
- ^ 'Medicinal and Food Plants: With 200 Illustrations for Artists and Craftspeople' by Ernst Lehner and Johanna Lehner, page 33
- ^ "Plzen Historical Underground". web.zcu.cz. Archived from the original on 30 December 2019.
- ^ "Pilsen Historical Underground". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017.
- ^ "Plzeňský Prazdroj, a. s." prazdroj.cz. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
- ^ Platby bezkontaktními kartami ve vozech MHD v Plzni (18 May 2016)
- ^ a b "ČESKÁ EVANGELICKÁ LUTERÁNSKÁ CÍRKEV".
- ^ "Czech Evangelical Lutheran Church".
- ^ "Základní Škola Martina Luthera Plzeň".
- ^ "Czech wartime RAF fighter pilot Standera dies aged 95". Czech News Agency. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Statutární město Plzeň. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- Official website
- Tourist Information Server
- Official website of the candidature of Pilsen candidature 2015 Cultural Capital of Europe
- Description of Plzeň
- PMDP – Public Transport of Plzeň
- Plzeň at the official website of the Czech Republic
- Description of Plzeň
- University of West Bohemia
- Pilsner Pubs – restaurant and gastronomy guide to the city
- A-Plzen.com – Tourist Information
- Plzenska.com – articles about Plzeň
- WebCams from Plzeň