A police raid is an unexpected visit by
Overview and methods
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The U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) defines a raid as "a sudden appearance by officers for the purpose of arresting suspected law violators and seizing contraband and the means and instruments used in the commission of a crime."
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A pre-dawn raid is a police tactic that involves police, right before sunrise, raiding a location in order to gain an upper hand in combat, retrieve an important document or file, or capture a specific person. There may be a hostage of high political influence or a dangerous person that poses a threat to the police.
Pre-dawn raids usually occur during the early morning, when most people are asleep. The police make a sudden entry into the premises or remain quiet to keep the element of surprise. Police often can catch their targets sleeping or unprepared, giving them the upper hand.
A no-knock raid is a type of police raid performed under a no-knock warrant. No-knock warrants are controversial for various reasons, and have seen increased usage from the 1960's on. There have been many cases where armed homeowners, believing that they are being invaded, have shot at officers, resulting in deaths on both sides.
The number of no-knock raids has increased from 3,000 in 1981 to more than 50,000 in 2005, according to Peter Kraska, a criminologist at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond. In 2010, Kraska estimated 60,000–70,000 no-knock or quick-knock raids were conducted by local police annually, the majority of which were looking for marijuana.
In Utah, no-knock warrants made up about 40% of warrants served by SWAT teams in 2014 and 2015, usually for drugs and usually done at night. In Maryland, 90% of SWAT deployments were to serve search warrants, with two-thirds through forced entry. From 2010 through 2016, at least 81 civilians and 13 officers died during SWAT raids, including 31 civilians and eight officers during execution of no-knock warrants. Half of the civilians killed were minorities. Of those subject to SWAT search warrants, 42% are black and 12% are Hispanic. Since 2011, at least seven federal lawsuits against officers executing no-knock warrants have been settled for over $1 million.
Dawn raids were a common event in
The Dawn raids were particularly controversial, as despite
In April 2021, members of the Pasifika community called for an official apology, describing the dawn raids as "government‑sanctioned racism". In mid-June 2021, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern confirmed that the New Zealand Government would formally apologise for the Dawn Raids at the Auckland Town Hall on 26 June 2021.
England and Wales
In January 2007 Ruth Turner was arrested in a dawn raid as part of the investigation into the
- Manuelo Bravo
In September 2005, Manuelo Bravo killed himself following a Dawn Raids. He and his son (13) were detained in Yarl's Wood Immigration Removal Centre where he had been threatened with deportation to Angola, where he feared his life was in danger as other family members had been killed there.
Dawn raids have become a regular feature in the arrest of
There has been speculation that the practice may be coming to an end
In 2002, Yurdugal Ay and her children were suddenly removed from their home by immigration officials and taken to Dungavel detention centre in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. They were all put together in one room where they lived for a year.
- Vucaj family
In September 2005, Isen and Nexhi Vucaj were dawn raided together with their three teenage children. They were taken to
- Akyol family
On 8 February 2006, Lutfu and Gultan Akyol and their two children, aged 10 and 6, were dawn raided after
In June 2006, Sakchai Makao,
- Temel family
- Benai family
In September 2006, Azzadine Benai escaped during a dawn raid on his home which saw his wife and two children (11 and 2) detained, by jumping out of a first floor window as he feared he would be killed if he was returned to Algeria. After public outcry, his wife and children, both of whom require ongoing medical treatment, were released.
- Sony family
On 2 October 2006, Caritas Sony and her two children Heaven (2) and Glad (4 months) were dawn raided with a metal battering ram. They were taken to
- Uzun family
On 3 October 2006, the Uzun family managed to avoid being detained during a dawn raid, as they were absent at the time. They had gone to demonstrate solidarity with Caritas Sony.
- Coban family
On 4 October 2006, Cem and Betsy Coban together with their two children, aged 14 and 3, were dawn raided. Cem Cobain threatened to jump from the balcony of his 20th storey flat rather than be deported to an uncertain future in Turkey, but after 3 hours of negotiations with Strathclyde Police he was eventually led away by immigration officials. Betsy was taken to hospital with complications related to a heart condition.
- Waku family
On 19 March 2007, Max and Onoya Waku and their three children, aged 14, 11 and 4, were dawn raided by immigration officers and taken to Dungavel detention centre. They were later released.
Dawn raids are a tactic often used by law enforcement agencies in the United States. High-profile dawn raids include:
- the 22 April 2000, apprehension of
- the arrest of Rod Blagojevich on corruption charges
- the 2006 Swift raids at six meatpacking plants, leading to 1300 arrests and many deportations
During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II, the Nazis carried out numerous raids. The largest and most infamous is the Raid of Rotterdam on 10 and 11 November 1944, in which 52,000 men between the ages of 17 and 40 (some 80% of all men) from Rotterdam and Schiedam were rounded up and put on transport to labor camps.
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- Balko, Radley (6 April 2006). "No SWAT". Cato Institute.
- "The war on drugs gave rise to 'no-knock' warrants. Breonna Taylor's death could end them". PBS NewsHour. 12 June 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
- Sack, Kevin (18 March 2017). "Door-Busting Drug Raids Leave a Trail of Blood". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 November 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
- Damon Fepulea'I, Rachel Jean, Tarx Morrison (2005). Dawn Raids (documentary). TVNZ, Isola Publications.
- Melanie Anae, 230–33
- Beaglehole, Ann. "Controlling Pacific Island immigration". Te Ara - The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
Ma'ia'i, Leni (10 April 2021). "'Government-sanctioned racism': Pasifika in New Zealand call for apology for dawn raid policy". ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
- Neilson, Michael (14 June 2021). "Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announces apology for dawn raids targeting Pasifika". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- Whyte, Anna (14 June 2021). "Government Minister Aupito William Sio in tears as he recalls family being subjected to dawn raid". 1 News. Archived from the original on 14 June 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- White, Michael (20 January 2007). "Honours inquiry moves closer to PM as aide arrested at dawn". the Guardian. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
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- Dawn Raids Okay for Children but not Labour Aides Archived 20 June 2007 at archive.today
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- "Dawn raids on asylum seekers may be scrapped". The Scotsman. 26 January 2007.
- "Nicol Stephen condemns dawn raids". 1 February 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2018 – via BBC News.
- After dawn raids… the new scandal Archived 22 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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- "Indymedia Scotland, UK – Dawn Raids Back in Glasgow: Protest Saturday". www.indymedia.org.uk. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
- "Sakchai Makao".
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- "Judge hands Benai family reprieve". BBC News. 29 September 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
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