Politics of Sweden
The politics of Sweden take place in a framework of a
Sweden has a typical Western
The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Sweden a "full democracy" its report for 2020.
The Constitution of Sweden consists of four fundamental laws. The most important is the Instrument of Government of 1974 which sets out the basic principles of political life in Sweden, defining rights and freedoms. The Act of Succession is a treaty between the old
The four fundamental laws are:
- Instrument of Government (1974)
- Act of Succession (1809)
- Freedom of the Press Act (1766)
- Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression (1991)
- King Carl XVI Gustafof the House of Bernadotte became king in 1973. His authority is formal, symbolic, and representational.
- Heiress apparent to the throne is Crown Princess Victoria since 1980.
Head of government
The prime minister of Sweden is nominated by the speaker of the Riksdag and elected through negative parliamentarism. In practice, this means that the prime minister nominee is confirmed if fewer than 175 members of parliament vote 'no', regardless of the number of 'yes' votes or abstentions.
Following a lengthy
In August 2021, Prime Minister Stefan Lofven announced his resignation and Finance Minister Magdalena Andersson was elected as the new head of Sweden's ruling Social Democrats in November 2021. On 30 November 2021, Magdalena Andersson became Sweden's first female prime minister. She formed a minority government made up of only her Social Democrats. Her plan for forming a new coalition government with the Green Party was unsuccessful because her budget proposal failed to pass.
On 18 October 2022, Ulf Kristersson of the Moderate Party became the new Prime Minister of Sweden. Kristersson's Moderates formed a centre-right coalition with the Christian Democrats and the Liberals. The new government will be backed by the biggest right-wing party, Sweden Democrats (SD) led by Jimmie Akesson, meaning tougher immigration policies as a crucial part of a policy deal with the SD.
The highest executive authority of the state is vested in the government, which consists of a prime minister and roughly 22 ministers who head the ministries. The ministers are appointed at the sole discretion of the prime minister. The prime minister is nominated by the speaker and appointed following a vote in the Riksdag itself. The monarch plays no part in this process. The only way to get rid of a government is through a motion of no confidence (misstroendevotum) in the Riksdag. This motion must get a majority of the total number of votes in the Riksdag (at least 175). Another example of the power the legislature has given the government is the adoption of the budget in the Riksdag. The government's proposition to budget is adopted, unless a majority of the members of the Riksdag vote against it. This is to make it possible to govern even in minority.
The main functions of the government are to:
- Present bills to the Riksdag
- Implement decisions taken by the Riksdag
- Exercise responsibility for the budget approved by the Riksdag
- Represent Sweden in the European Union
- Enter into agreements with other states
- Directing central government activities
The unicameral Riksdag has 349 members, popularly elected every four years. It is in session generally from September through mid-June.
Legislation may be initiated by the
The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after
Political parties and elections
A general election is held alongside local and regional elections every four years. The last election was held on 11 September 2022.
Swedish law, drawing on Germanic, Roman, and Anglo-American law, is neither as codified as in France and other countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code, nor as dependent on judicial practice and precedents as in the United States.
- Courts: Civil and criminal jurisdiction
- Administrative Courts: Litigation between the Public and the Government.
Government policy is carried out by the administrative authorities (förvaltningsmyndigheter) and government agencies of Sweden. These bodies are state-controlled and are formally headed by government-appointed directors-general but act independently from the executive and legislative branches of government. Ministerial governance (ministerstyre) is illegal; in accordance with 2 §, chapter 12 of the Instrument of Government, no member of the Riksdag or government may interfere in the day-to-day operation of an agency, nor in the outcome of individual cases.
Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" (folkrörelser), the most notable being
The political parties currently in parliament uphols
me Swedish political figures that have become known worldwignificantinclude Joe Hill, Carl Skoglund, Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, Dag Hammarskjöld, Olof Palme, Carl Bildt, Hans Blix, and Anna Lindh.
According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports that the average Swedish national parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.
Sweden is divided into 21 counties. In each county there is a
As of the 1974 constitutional revision, the number of municipal divisions was reduced from several thousand to 290, while also removing most of the previous lol enjoyed by the municipal governments (such as local laws, local law enforcement, and more).
As of 2005[update], the use of
In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power. Since then however, reports about radioactive leakages at a nuclear waste store in Forsmark, Sweden, have been published. This does not seem to have changed the public support of continued use of nuclear power.
Throughout the 20th century,
In 1995 Sweden, together with
Soon after his appointment in October 2022, new foreign minister, Tobias Billström, announced that Sweden will renounce "feminist foreign policy", implemented by the previous left-wing government.
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Stefan Löfven (S) är ny statsminister i en minoritetsregering som består av Socialdemokraterna och Miljöpartiet..
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