Pope

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Bishop of Rome

Pontifex maximus

Pope
Catholic
His Holiness
Location
Ecclesiastical provinceEcclesiastical Province of Rome
Residence
HeadquartersApostolic Palace, Vatican City
Information
First holderSaint Peter[1]
DenominationCatholic Church
Established1st century
DioceseRome
CathedralArchbasilica of Saint John Lateran
GovernanceHoly See
Website
Holy Father
Papal styles of
Pope
His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father

The pope (

primacy was conferred by Jesus, who gave Peter the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the Church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013.[5]

While his office is called the papacy, the

enclave within the conurbation of Rome, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal
and spiritual independence. The Holy See is recognized by its adherence at various levels to international organizations and by means of its diplomatic relations and political accords with many independent states.

According to

Saint Paul in the first century. The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in human history.[7] In ancient times, the popes helped spread Christianity and intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes.[8] In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs.[9][10][c] In addition to the expansion of Christian faith and doctrine, modern popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, and the defense of human rights.[11]

Over time, the papacy accrued

ex cathedra—literally 'from the chair (of Saint Peter)'—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.[8] The pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people due to the extensive diplomatic, cultural, and spiritual influence of his position on both 1.3 billion Catholics and those outside the Catholic faith,[12][13][14][15] and because he heads the world's largest non-government provider of education and health care,[16]
with a vast network of charities.

History

Title and etymology

The word

Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.[25]

Position within the Church

The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, that was held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome (the pope) as their head.[26] Thus is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "supreme pontiff".

The Catholic Church teaches that Jesus personally appointed Peter as the visible head of the Church,[d] and the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles.[28] Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century.[29]

The writings of the

Clement of Rome c. 96)[31] about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul.[32] Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement; in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans, he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did.[33]

Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine.[34][35][36]

Though open to historical debate, first-century Christian communities may have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as guides of their local churches. Gradually, episcopal sees were established in metropolitan areas.[37] Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome.[37] In Rome, there were over time at various junctures rival claimants to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them.[38] Some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome probably did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus, Cletus and Clement were possibly prominent presbyter-bishops, but not necessarily monarchical bishops.[29]

Documents of the 1st century and early second century indicate that the bishop of Rome had some kind of pre-eminence and prominence in the Church as a whole, as even a letter from the bishop, or patriarch, of Antioch acknowledged the bishop of Rome as "a first among equals",[39] though the detail of what this meant is unclear.[e]

Early Christianity (c. 30–325)

Sources suggest that at first, the terms episcopos and presbyter were used interchangeably,[43] with the consensus among scholars being that by the turn of the 1st and 2nd centuries, local congregations were led by bishops and presbyters, whose duties of office overlapped or were indistinguishable from one another.[44] Some[who?] say that there was probably "no single 'monarchical' bishop in Rome before the middle of the 2nd century...and likely later."[45]

In the early Christian era, Rome and a few other cities had claims on the leadership of worldwide Church.

James the Just, known as "the brother of the Lord", served as head of the Jerusalem church, which is still honored as the "Mother Church" in Orthodox tradition. Alexandria had been a center of Jewish learning and became a center of Christian learning. Rome had a large congregation early in the apostolic period whom Paul the Apostle addressed in his Epistle to the Romans, and according to tradition Paul was martyred there.[46]

During the 1st century of the Church (c. 30–130), the Roman capital became recognized as a Christian center of exceptional importance. The church there, at the end of the century, wrote an epistle to the Church in

outside of Rome.

In the

Ravenna Document
of 13 October 2007, theologians chosen by the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches stated:

41. Both sides agree [...] that Rome, as the Church that 'presides in love' according to the phrase of St Ignatius of Antioch,[48] occupied the first place in the taxis, and that the bishop of Rome was therefore the protos among the patriarchs. Translated into English, the statement means "first among equals". What form that should take is still a matter of disagreement, just as it was when the Catholic and Orthodox Churches split in the Great East-West Schism. They also disagree on the interpretation of the historical evidence from this era regarding the prerogatives of the bishop of Rome as protos, a matter that was already understood in different ways in the first millennium.[49]

In AD 195, Pope Victor I, in what is seen as an exercise of Roman authority over other churches, excommunicated the

computus
).

Nicaea to East-West Schism (325–1054)

The

Damasus I, and several other bishops.[53]

In 380, the

patriarch of Constantinople, the capital, wielded much power,[56] in the Western Roman Empire, the bishops of Rome were able to consolidate the influence and power they already possessed.[56] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, barbarian tribes were converted to Arian Christianity or Nicene Christianity;[57] Clovis I, king of the Franks, was the first important barbarian ruler to convert to the mainstream church rather than Arianism, allying himself with the papacy. Other tribes, such as the Visigoths, later abandoned Arianism in favour of the established church.[57]

Middle Ages

Gregory the Great (c. 540–604), in a painting by Carlo Saraceni, c. 1610, Rome.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the pope served as a source of authority and continuity. Pope Gregory I (c. 540–604) administered the church with strict reform. From an ancient senatorial family, Gregory worked with the stern judgement and discipline typical of ancient Roman rule. Theologically, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook; his popular writings are full of dramatic miracles, potent relics, demons, angels, ghosts, and the approaching end of the world.[58]

Gregory's successors were largely dominated by the

exarch of Ravenna, the Byzantine emperor's representative in the Italian Peninsula. These humiliations, the weakening of the Byzantine Empire in the face of the Muslim conquests, and the inability of the emperor to protect the papal estates against the Lombards, made Pope Stephen II turn from Emperor Constantine V. He appealed to the Franks to protect his lands. Pepin the Short subdued the Lombards and donated Italian land to the papacy. When Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne (800) as emperor, he established the precedent that, in Western Europe, no man would be emperor without being crowned by a pope.[58]

The low point of the papacy was 867–1049.

Otto I had John accused in an ecclesiastical court, which deposed him and elected a layman as Pope Leo VIII. John mutilated the Imperial representatives in Rome and had himself reinstated as pope. Conflict between the Emperor and the papacy continued, and eventually dukes in league with the emperor were buying bishops and popes almost openly.[60]

In 1049,

Leo IX traveled to the major cities of Europe to deal with the church's moral problems firsthand, notably simony and clerical marriage and concubinage. With his long journey, he restored the prestige of the papacy in Northern Europe.[60]

From the 7th century it became common for European monarchies and nobility to found churches and perform investiture or deposition of clergy in their states and fiefdoms, their personal interests causing corruption among the clergy.[61][62] This practice had become common because often the prelates and secular rulers were also participants in public life.[63]

To combat this and other practices that had been seen as corrupting the Church between the years 900 and 1050, centres emerged promoting ecclesiastical reform, the most important being the

Abbey of Cluny, which spread its ideals throughout Europe.[62] This reform movement gained strength with the election of Pope Gregory VII in 1073, who adopted a series of measures in the movement known as the Gregorian Reform, in order to fight strongly against simony and the abuse of civil power and try to restore ecclesiastical discipline, including clerical celibacy.[53]

This conflict between popes and secular autocratic rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor

Investiture controversy, was only resolved in 1122, by the Concordat of Worms, in which Pope Callixtus II decreed that clerics were to be invested by clerical leaders, and temporal rulers by lay investiture.[61] Soon after, Pope Alexander III began reforms that would lead to the establishment of canon law.[58]

Since the beginning of the 7th century,

Byzantine–Seljuq wars.[65] Urban, at the council of Clermont, called the First Crusade to assist the Byzantine Empire to regain the old Christian territories, especially Jerusalem.[66]

East–West Schism to Reformation (1054–1517)

A historical map of the Mediterranean states in 1400. The Western Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417.

With the

slight divergences of creed. Popes had galled the Byzantine emperors by siding with the king of the Franks, crowning a rival Roman emperor, appropriating the Exarchate of Ravenna, and driving into Greek Italy.[60]

In the Middle Ages, popes struggled with monarchs over power.[8]

From 1309 to 1377, the pope resided not in Rome but in Avignon. The Avignon Papacy was notorious for greed and corruption.[67] During this period, the pope was effectively an ally of the Kingdom of France, alienating France's enemies, such as the Kingdom of England.[68]

The pope was understood to have the power to draw on the

Treasury of Merit built up by the saints and by Christ, so that he could grant indulgences, reducing one's time in purgatory. The concept that a monetary fine or donation accompanied contrition, confession, and prayer eventually gave way to the common assumption that indulgences depended on a simple monetary contribution. The popes condemned misunderstandings and abuses, but were too pressed for income to exercise effective control over indulgences.[67]

Popes also contended with the

Various Antipopes challenged papal authority, especially during the Western Schism (1378–1417). It came to a close when the Council of Constance, at the high-point of Concilliarism, decided among the papal claimants.

The Eastern Church continued to decline with the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, undercutting Constantinople's claim to equality with Rome. Twice an Eastern Emperor tried to force the Eastern Church to reunify with the West. First in the Second Council of Lyon (1272–1274) and secondly in the Council of Florence (1431–1449). Papal claims of superiority were a sticking point in reunification, which failed in any event. In the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire.[70]

Reformation to present (1517 to today)

As part of the Catholic Reformation, Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), which established the triumph of the papacy over those who sought to reconcile with Protestants or oppose papal claims.

Protestant Reformers criticized the papacy as corrupt and characterized the pope as the antichrist.[71][72][73][74]

Popes instituted a Catholic Reformation[8] (1560–1648), which addressed the challenges of the Protestant Reformation and instituted internal reforms. Pope Paul III initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), whose definitions of doctrine and whose reforms sealed the triumph of the papacy over elements in the church that sought conciliation with Protestants and opposed papal claims.[75]

Gradually forced to give up secular power to the increasingly assertive

unification of Italy.[8]

In 1929, the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See established Vatican City as an independent city-state, guaranteeing papal independence from secular rule.[8]

In 1950, Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as dogma, the only time a pope has spoken ex cathedra since papal infallibility was explicitly declared.

The

Primacy of St. Peter
, the controversial doctrinal basis of the pope's authority, continues to divide the eastern and western churches and to separate Protestants from Rome.

Early Christian mentions

Church Fathers

The writings of several Early Church fathers contain references to the authority and unique position held by the bishops of Rome, providing valuable insight into the recognition and significance of the papacy during the early Christian era.[76] These sources attest to the acknowledgement of the bishop of Rome as an influential figure within the Church, with some emphasizing the importance of adherence to Rome's teachings and decisions. Such references served to establish the concept of papal primacy and have continued to inform Catholic theology and practice.[77][78]

Cyprian of Carthage (c. 210 – 258 AD), in his letters, recognized the bishop of Rome as the successor of St. Peter in his Letter 55 (c. 251 AD), which is addressed to Pope Cornelius,[79][80] and affirmed his unique authority in the early Christian Church.[81]

Cornelius [the Bishop of Rome] was made bishop by the choice of God and of His Christ, by the favorable witness of almost all the clergy, by the votes of the people who were present, and by the assembly of ancient priests and good men. And he was made bishop when no one else had been made bishop before him when the position of Fabian, that is to say, the position of Peter and the office of the bishop's chair, was vacant. But the position once has been filled by the will of God and that appointment has been ratified by the consent of us all, if anyone wants to be made bishop after that, it has to be done outside the church; if a man does not uphold the unity of the Church's unity, it is not possible for him to have the Church's ordination.

— Cyprian of Carthage, Letter 55, 8.4

Irenaeus of Lyons (c. 130 – c. 202 AD), a prominent Christian theologian of the second century, provided a list of early popes in his work Against Heresies III. The list covers the period from Saint Peter to Pope Eleutherius who served from 174 to 189 AD.[82][83]

The blessed apostles [Peter and Paul], then, having founded and built up the Church [in Rome], committed into the hands of

Clement was allotted the bishopric. [...] To this Clement there succeeded Eviristus. Alexander followed Evaristus; then, sixth from the apostles, Sixtus was appointed; after him, Telephorus, who was gloriously martyred; then Hyginus; after him, Pius; then after him, Anicetus. Soter
having succeeded Anicetus, Eleutherius does now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, hold the inheritance of the episcopate.

— Irenaeus of Lyons, Against Heresies III, Chapter 3.2

Ignatius of Antioch (died c. 108/140 AD) wrote in his "Epistle to the Romans" that the church in Rome is "the church that presides over love".[84][85]

...the Church which is beloved and enlightened by the will of Him that wills all things which are according to the love of Jesus Christ our God, which also presides in the place of the region of the Romans, worthy of God, worthy of honour, worthy of the highest happiness, worthy of praise, worthy of obtaining her every desire, worthy of being deemed holy, and which presides over love, is named from Christ, and from the Father, which I also salute in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father: to those who are united, both according to the flesh and spirit, to every one of His commandments;

— Ignatius of Antioch, Epistle to Romans

Augustine of Hippo (354 – 430 AD), in his Letter 53, wrote a list of 38 popes from Saint Peter to Siricius. The order of this list differs from the lists of Irenaeus and the Annuario Pontificio. Augustine's list claims that Linus was succeeded by Clement and Clement was succeeded by Anacletus as in the list of Eusebius, while the other two lists switch the positions of Clement and Anacletus.[86]

For if the lineal succession of bishops is to be taken into account, with how much more certainty and benefit to the Church do we reckon back till we reach Peter himself, to whom, as bearing in a figure the whole Church, the Lord said: Upon this rock will I build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it! Matthew 16:18. The successor of Peter was Linus, and his successors in unbroken continuity were these:— Clement, Anacletus, Evaristus...

— Augustine of Hippo, Letter 53, Paragraph 2

Other early Christian mentions

Eusebius (c. 260/265 – 339) mentions Linus as Saint Peter's successor and Clement as the third bishop of Rome in his book Church History. As recorded by Eusebius, Clement worked with Saint Paul as his "co-laborer".[87]

As to the rest of his followers, Paul testifies that Crescens was sent to Gaul; but Linus, whom he mentions in the Second Epistle to Timothy as his companion at Rome, was Peter’s successor in the episcopate of the church there, as has already been shown. Clement also, who was appointed third bishop of the church at Rome, was, as Paul testifies, his co-laborer and fellow-soldier.

— Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, Book III, Chapter 4:9-10

Tertullian (c. 155 – c. 220 AD) wrote in his work "The Prescription Against Heretics" about the authority of the church in Rome. In this work, Tertullian said that the Church in Rome has the authority of the Apostles because of its apostolic foundation.[88]

Since, moreover, you are close upon Italy, you have Rome, from which there comes even into our own hands the very authority (of apostles themselves). How happy is its church, on which apostles poured forth all their doctrine along with their blood! Where Peter endures a passion like his Lord's! Where Paul wins his crown in a death like John's where the Apostle John was first plunged, unhurt, into boiling oil, and thence remitted to his island-exile!

— Tertullian, The Prescription Against Heretics, Chapter 32

According to the same book, Clement of Rome was ordained by Saint Peter as the bishop of Rome.

For this is the manner in which the apostolic churches transmit their registers: as the church of Smyrna, which records that Polycarp was placed therein by John; as also the church of Rome, which makes Clement to have been ordained in like manner by Peter.

— Tertullian, Prescription against Heretics, Chapter 32

Optatus the bishop of Milevis in Numidia (today's Algeria) and a contemporary of the Donatist schism, presents a detailed analysis of the origins, beliefs, and practices of the Donatists, as well as the events and debates surrounding the schism, in his book The Schism of the Donatists (367 A.D). In the book, Optatus wrote about the position of the bishop of Rome in maintaining the unity of the Church.[89][90]

You cannot deny that you are aware that in the city of Rome the episcopal chair was given first to Peter; the chair in which Peter sat, the same who was head—that is why he is also called Cephas [‘Rock’]—of all the apostles; the one chair in which unity is maintained by all.

— Optatus, The Schism of the Donatists, 2:2

Saint Peter and the origin of the papal office

The Catholic Church teaches that, within the Christian community, the bishops as a body have succeeded to the body of the apostles (apostolic succession) and the bishop of Rome has succeeded to Saint Peter.[4]

Scriptural texts proposed in support of Peter's special position in relation to the church include:

  • Matthew 16:

    I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.[91]

  • Luke 22:

    Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned again, strengthen your brothers.[92]

  • John 21:

    Feed my sheep.[93]

The symbolic keys in the

Aramaic, to describe Peter.[100][101][102] The Encyclopædia Britannica comments that "the consensus of the great majority of scholars today is that the most obvious and traditional understanding should be construed, namely, that rock refers to the person of Peter".[103]

New Eliakim

According to the Catholic Church, the pope is also the new Eliakim, a figure in the Old Testament of the Bible who directed the affairs of the royal court, managed the palace staff, and handled state affairs. Isaiah also describes him as having the key to the house of David, which symbolizes his authority and power.[104]

A painting of Eliakim in Sistine Chapel, Vatican City
A fresco of Eliakim in Sistine Chapel, Vatican City

Both Matthew 16:18-19 and Isaiah 22:22 show similarities between Eliakim and Peter getting keys which symbolise power. Eliakim gets the power to close and open, while Peter gets the power to bind and loose.

According to the Book of Isaiah, Eliakim receives the keys and power to close and open.

I will place the key of the House of David on his shoulder; what he opens, no one will shut, what he shuts, no one will open.[105]

— Isaiah, 22:22

According to book of Matthew Peter also gets keys and power to bind and loose.

I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” [106]

— Matthew, 16:19

In the Books of Isaiah 22:3 and Matthew 16:18, both Eliakim and Peter are compared to an object. Eliakim to a peg (a structure that is driven into a wall or other structure to provide support and stability) while Peter to a rock.

And I will fasten him like a peg in a secure place, and he will become a throne of honor to his father's house.[107]

— Isaiah, 22:23

In Matthew 16:18 Peter was compared to a rock.

And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it [108]

— Matthew, 16:18

Election, death and resignation

Election

Delivery of the Keys painted by Pietro Perugino
(1492)

The pope was originally chosen by those senior clergymen resident in and near Rome. In 1059, the electorate was restricted to the cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, and the individual votes of all cardinal electors were made equal in 1179. The electors are now limited to those who have not reached 80 on the day before the death or resignation of a pope.

Urban VI in 1378.[110] If someone who is not a bishop is elected, he must be given episcopal ordination before the election is announced to the people.[111]

The

acclamation
, by selection (by committee), or by plenary vote. Acclamation was the simplest procedure, consisting entirely of a voice vote.

The conclave in Konstanz where Pope Martin V was elected

The election of the pope almost always takes place in the

Universi Dominici Gregis in 1996, a simple majority after a deadlock of twelve days was allowed, but this was revoked by Pope Benedict XVI by motu proprio
in 2007.)

Habemus Papam
" after the election of Pope Martin V

One of the most prominent aspects of the papal election process is the means by which the results of a ballot are announced to the world. Once the ballots are counted and bound together, they are burned in a special stove erected in the Sistine Chapel, with the smoke escaping through a small chimney visible from

fumata bianca) through the chimney and announcing to the world the election of a new pope.[113] Starting with the Papal conclave, 2005,[114] church bells are also rung as a signal that a new pope has been chosen.[115][116]

The dean of the College of Cardinals then asks two solemn questions of the man who has been elected. First he asks, "Do you freely accept your election as supreme pontiff?" If he replies with the word "Accepto", his reign begins at that instant. In practice, any cardinal who intends not to accept will explicitly state this before he receives a sufficient number of votes to become pope.[117][118]

The dean asks next, "By what name shall you be called?" The new pope announces the regnal name he has chosen. If the dean himself is elected pope, the vice dean performs this task.[119]

The new pope is led to the

Fisherman's Ring" by the camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.[121] The pope assumes a place of honor as the rest of the cardinals wait in turn to offer their first "obedience" (adoratio) and to receive his blessing.[122]

The

Habemus Papam! ("I announce to you a great joy! We have a pope!"). He announces the new pope's Christian name along with his newly chosen regnal name.[123][124]

Until 1978, the pope's election was followed in a few days by the papal coronation, which started with a procession with great pomp and circumstance from the Sistine Chapel to St. Peter's Basilica, with the newly elected pope borne in the sedia gestatoria. After a solemn Papal Mass, the new pope was crowned with the triregnum (papal tiara) and he gave for the first time as pope the famous blessing Urbi et Orbi ("to the City [Rome] and to the World"). Another renowned part of the coronation was the lighting of a bundle of flax at the top of a gilded pole, which would flare brightly for a moment and then promptly extinguish, as he said, Sic transit gloria mundi ("Thus passes worldly glory"). A similar warning against papal hubris made on this occasion was the traditional exclamation, "Annos Petri non-videbis", reminding the newly crowned pope that he would not live to see his rule lasting as long as that of St. Peter. According to tradition, he headed the church for 35 years and has thus far been the longest-reigning pope in the history of the Catholic Church.[125]

The Latin term, sede vacante ("while the see is vacant"),[126] refers to a papal interregnum, the period between the death or resignation of a pope and the election of his successor. From this term is derived the term sedevacantism, which designates a category of dissident Catholics who maintain that there is no canonically and legitimately elected pope, and that there is therefore a sede vacante.

For centuries, from 1378 on, those elected to the papacy were predominantly Italians. Prior to the election of the Polish-born John Paul II in 1978, the last non-Italian was

Benedict XVI, who was in turn followed by Argentine-born Francis, the first non-European after 1272 years and the first Latin American (albeit of Italian ancestry).[127][128]

Death

Funeral of Pope John Paul II at the Vatican in April 2005, presided over by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI

The current regulations regarding a papal interregnum—that is, a sede vacante ("vacant seat")—were promulgated by Pope John Paul II in his 1996 document Universi Dominici Gregis. During the sede vacante period, the College of Cardinals is collectively responsible for the government of the Church and of the Vatican itself, under the direction of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Canon law specifically forbids the cardinals from introducing any innovation in the government of the Church during the vacancy of the Holy See. Any decision that requires the assent of the pope has to wait until the new pope has been elected and accepts office.[129]

In recent centuries, when a pope was judged to have died, it was reportedly traditional for the cardinal camerlengo to confirm the death ceremonially by gently tapping the pope's head thrice with a silver hammer, calling his birth name each time.

personal apartment is sealed.[133]

The body

lies in state for several days before being interred in the crypt of a leading church or cathedral; all popes who have died in the 20th and 21st centuries have been interred in St. Peter's Basilica. A nine-day period of mourning (novendialis) follows the interment.[133]

Resignation

It is highly unusual for a pope to resign.

Gregory XII's resignation in 1415.[136]

Titles

Styles of
The Pope
His Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious styleHoly Father
Posthumous styleSee here

Regnal name

Popes adopt a new name on their accession, known as papal name, in Italian and Latin. Currently, after a new pope is elected and accepts the election, he is asked, "By what name shall you be called?" The new pope chooses the name by which he will be known from that point on. The senior cardinal deacon, or cardinal protodeacon, then appears on the balcony of Saint Peter's to proclaim the new pope by his birth name, and announce his papal name in Latin. It's customary when referring to popes to translate the regnal name into all local languages. For example, the current pope bears the papal name Papa Franciscus in Latin and Papa Francesco in Italian, but Papa Francisco in his native Spanish, Pope Francis in English, etc.

Official list of titles

The official list of titles of the pope, in the order in which they are given in the Annuario Pontificio, is:

Bishop of

Sovereign of the Vatican City State, Servant of the servants of God.[137]

The best-known title, that of "pope", does not appear in the official list, but is commonly used in the titles of documents, and appears, in abbreviated form, in their signatures. Thus

Paul VI signed as "Paulus PP. VI", the "PP." standing for "papa pontifex" ("pope and pontiff").[138][139][140][141][142]

The title "pope" was from the early 3rd century an honorific designation used for any bishop in the West.

bishop of Alexandria.[17] Marcellinus (d. 304) is the first bishop of Rome shown in sources to have had the title "pope" used of him. From the 6th century, the imperial chancery of Constantinople normally reserved this designation for the bishop of Rome.[17] From the early 6th century, it began to be confined in the West to the bishop of Rome, a practice that was firmly in place by the 11th century.[17]

In Eastern Christianity, where the title "pope" is used also of the bishop of Alexandria, the bishop of Rome is often referred to as the "pope of Rome", regardless of whether the speaker or writer is in communion with Rome or not.[143]

Vicar of Jesus Christ

"Vicar of Jesus Christ" (Vicarius Iesu Christi) is one of the official titles of the pope given in the Annuario Pontificio. It is commonly used in the slightly abbreviated form "vicar of Christ" (vicarius Christi). While it is only one of the terms with which the pope is referred to as "vicar", it is "more expressive of his supreme headship of the Church on Earth, which he bears in virtue of the commission of Christ and with vicarial power derived from him", a vicarial power believed to have been conferred on Saint Peter when Christ said to him: "Feed my lambs...Feed my sheep".[144][145]

The first record of the application of this title to a bishop of Rome appears in a synod of 495 with reference to

Eugene III (1145–1153).[146]

This title "vicar of Christ" is thus not used of the pope alone and has been used of all bishops since the early centuries.[153] The Second Vatican Council referred to all bishops as "vicars and ambassadors of Christ",[154] and this description of the bishops was repeated by John Paul II in his encyclical Ut unum sint, 95. The difference is that the other bishops are vicars of Christ for their own local churches, the pope is vicar of Christ for the whole Church.[155]

On at least one occasion the title "vicar of God" (a reference to Christ as God) was used of the pope.[145]

The title "vicar of Peter" (vicarius Petri) is used only of the pope, not of other bishops. Variations of it include: "Vicar of the Prince of the Apostles" (Vicarius Principis Apostolorum) and "Vicar of the Apostolic See" (Vicarius Sedis Apostolicae).[145] Saint Boniface described Pope Gregory II as vicar of Peter in the oath of fealty that he took in 722.[156] In today's Roman Missal, the description "vicar of Peter" is found also in the collect of the Mass for a saint who was a pope.[157]

Supreme pontiff

Benedict XVI
, Pontifex Maximus, in the year of Our Lord 2005, the first year of his pontificate."

The term "

archiereus, high priest)[161][162] The head of the college was known as the Latin: Pontifex Maximus (the greatest pontiff).[163]

In Christian use, pontifex appears in the Vulgate translation of the New Testament to indicate the High Priest of Israel (in the original Koine Greek, ἀρχιερεύς).[164] The term came to be applied to any Christian bishop,[165] but since the 11th century commonly refers specifically to the bishop of Rome,[166] who is more strictly called the "Roman Pontiff". The use of the term to refer to bishops in general is reflected in the terms "Roman Pontifical" (a book containing rites reserved for bishops, such as confirmation and ordination), and "pontificals" (the insignia of bishops).[167]

The Annuario Pontificio lists as one of the official titles of the pope that of "Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church" (Latin: Summus Pontifex Ecclesiae Universalis).[168] He is also commonly called the supreme pontiff or the sovereign pontiff (Latin: summus pontifex).[169]

Pontifex Maximus, similar in meaning to Summus Pontifex, is a title commonly found in inscriptions on papal buildings, paintings, statues and coins, usually abbreviated as "Pont. Max" or "P.M." The office of Pontifex Maximus, or head of the College of Pontiffs, was held by

bishop of Carthage.[172] The popes began to use this title regularly only in the 15th century.[172]

Servant of the servants of God

Although the description "servant of the servants of God" (Latin: servus servorum Dei) was also used by other Church leaders, including

John the Faster, who had assumed the title "ecumenical patriarch". It became reserved for the pope in the 12th century and is used in papal bulls and similar important papal documents.[173]

Patriarch of the West

From 1863 until 2005, the Annuario Pontificio also included the title "

Eastern Churches, as solemnly proclaimed by the Second Vatican Council.[174]

Other titles

Other titles commonly used are "

Dominus Apostolicus
" ("the Apostolic Lord") was also used.

Signature

The signature of Pope Francis
The signature of Pope Francis
The signature of Pope Benedict XVI
The signature of Pope Benedict XVI during his pontificate

Pope Francis signs some documents with his name alone, either in Latin ("Franciscus", as in an encyclical dated 29 June 2013)[175] or in another language.[176] Other documents he signs in accordance with the tradition of using Latin only and including the abbreviated form "PP.", for the Latin Papa ("Pope").[177] Popes who have an ordinal numeral in their name traditionally place the abbreviation "PP." before the ordinal numeral, as in "Benedictus PP. XVI" (Pope Benedict XVI), except in papal bulls of canonization and decrees of ecumenical councils, which a pope signs with the formula, "Ego N. Episcopus Ecclesiae catholicae", without the numeral, as in "Ego Benedictus Episcopus Ecclesiae catholicae" (I, Benedict, Bishop of the Catholic Church).

Regalia and insignia

  • Ring of the Fisherman, a gold or gilt ring decorated with a depiction of St. Peter in a boat casting his net, with the pope's name around it.[178]
  • Umbraculum (better known in the Italian form ombrellino) is a canopy or umbrella consisting of alternating red and gold stripes, which used to be carried above the pope in processions.[179]
  • flabella (fans made of white ostrich feathers), and sometimes a large canopy, carried by eight attendants. The use of the flabella was discontinued by Pope John Paul I. The use of the sedia gestatoria was discontinued by Pope John Paul II.[180]
The coat of arms of the Holy See. That of the State of Vatican City is the same except that the positions of the gold and silver keys are interchanged.[181]

In heraldry, each pope has his own personal coat of arms. Though unique for each pope, the arms have for several centuries been traditionally accompanied by two keys in saltire (i.e., crossed over one another so as to form an X) behind the escutcheon (shield) (one silver key and one gold key, tied with a red cord), and above them a silver triregnum with three gold crowns and red infulae (lappets—two strips of fabric hanging from the back of the triregnum which fall over the neck and shoulders when worn). This is blazoned: "two keys in saltire or and argent, interlacing in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or". The 21st century has seen departures from this tradition. In 2005, Pope Benedict XVI, while maintaining the crossed keys behind the shield, omitted the papal tiara from his personal coat of arms, replacing it with a mitre with three horizontal lines. Beneath the shield he added the pallium, a papal symbol of authority more ancient than the tiara, the use of which is also granted to metropolitan archbishops as a sign of communion with the See of Rome. Although the tiara was omitted in the pope's personal coat of arms, the coat of arms of the Holy See, which includes the tiara, remained unaltered. In 2013, Pope Francis maintained the mitre that replaced the tiara, but omitted the pallium.

The flag most frequently associated with the pope is the yellow and white flag of Vatican City, with the arms of the Holy See (blazoned: "Gules, two keys in saltire or and argent, interlacing in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or") on the right-hand side (the "fly") in the white half of the flag (the left-hand side—the "hoist"—is yellow). The pope's escucheon does not appear on the flag. This flag was first adopted in 1808, whereas the previous flag had been red and gold. Although Pope Benedict XVI replaced the triregnum with a mitre on his personal coat of arms, it has been retained on the flag.[182]

Papal garments

Dominican order. In reality, the basic papal attire was white long before. The earliest document that describes it as such is the Ordo XIII, a book of ceremonies compiled in about 1274. Later books of ceremonies describe the pope as wearing a red mantle, mozzetta, camauro and shoes, and a white cassock and stockings.[183][184] Many contemporary portraits of 15th and 16th-century predecessors of Pius V show them wearing a white cassock similar to his.[185]

Status and authority

Development

First Vatican Council

1881 illustration depicting papal infallibility

The status and authority of the pope in the Catholic Church was dogmatically defined by the First Vatican Council on 18 July 1870. In its Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ, the council established the following canons:[186]

If anyone says that the blessed Apostle Peter was not established by the Lord Christ as the chief of all the

militant Church, or, that the same received great honour but did not receive from the same our Lord Jesus Christ directly and immediately the primacy in true and proper jurisdiction: let him be anathema.[187]

If anyone says that it is not from the institution of Christ the Lord Himself, or by divine right that the blessed Peter has perpetual successors in the primacy over the universal Church, or that the Roman Pontiff is not the successor of blessed Peter in the same primacy, let him be anathema.[188]

If anyone thus speaks, that the Roman pontiff has only the office of inspection or direction, but not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the universal Church, not only in things which pertain to faith and morals, but also in those which pertain to the discipline and government of the Church spread over the whole world; or, that he possesses only the more important parts, but not the whole plenitude of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate, or over the churches altogether and individually, and over the pastors and the faithful altogether and individually: let him be anathema.[189]

We, adhering faithfully to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith, to the glory of God, our Saviour, the elevation of the Catholic religion and the salvation of Christian peoples, with the approbation of the sacred Council, teach and explain that the dogma has been divinely revealed: that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra, that is, when carrying out the duty of the pastor and teacher of all Christians by his supreme apostolic authority he defines a doctrine of faith or morals to be held by the universal Church, through the divine assistance promised him in blessed Peter, operates with that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer wished that His church be instructed in defining doctrine on faith and morals; and so such definitions of the Roman Pontiff from himself, but not from the consensus of the Church, are unalterable. But if anyone presumes to contradict this definition of Ours, which may God forbid: let him be anathema.[190]

Second Vatican Council

Pope Pius XII, wearing the traditional 1877 Papal tiara, is carried through St. Peter's Basilica on a sedia gestatoria c. 1955.

In its Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (1964), the Second Vatican Council declared:

Among the principal duties of bishops the preaching of the Gospel occupies an eminent place. For bishops are preachers of the faith, who lead new disciples to Christ, and they are authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach to the people committed to them the faith they must believe and put into practice, and by the light of the Holy Spirit illustrate that faith. They bring forth from the treasury of Revelation new things and old, making it bear fruit and vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock. Bishops, teaching in communion with the Roman Pontiff, are to be respected by all as witnesses to divine and Catholic truth. In matters of faith and morals, the bishops speak in the name of Christ and the faithful are to accept their teaching and adhere to it with a religious assent. This religious submission of mind and will must be shown in a special way to the authentic magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not speaking ex cathedra; that is, it must be shown so that his supreme magisterium is acknowledged with reverence, the judgments made by him are sincerely adhered to, according to his manifest mind and will. His mind and will in the matter may be known either from the character of the documents, from his frequent repetition of the same doctrine, or from his manner of speaking. ... this infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed His Church to be endowed in defining doctrine of faith and morals, extends as far as the deposit of Revelation extends, which must be religiously guarded and faithfully expounded. And this is the infallibility which the Roman Pontiff, the head of the

charism of infallibility of the Church itself is individually present, he is expounding or defending a doctrine of Catholic faith. The infallibility promised to the Church resides also in the body of Bishops, when that body exercises the supreme magisterium with the successor of Peter. To these definitions the assent of the Church can never be wanting, on account of the activity of that same Holy Spirit, by which the whole flock of Christ is preserved and progresses in unity of faith.[191]

On 11 October 2012, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council 60 prominent theologians, (including Hans Küng), put out a Declaration, stating that the intention of Vatican II to balance authority in the Church has not been realised. "Many of the key insights of Vatican II have not at all, or only partially, been implemented... A principal source of present-day stagnation lies in misunderstanding and abuse affecting the exercise of authority in our Church."[192]

Politics of the Holy See

Cardinal
Caprara.

Residence and jurisdiction

The pope's

a summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, situated on the site of the ancient city of Alba Longa
.

The names "Holy See" and "

ordinary jurisdiction of the bishop of Rome (including the Roman Curia); the pope's various honors, powers, and privileges within the Catholic Church and the international community derive from his Episcopate of Rome in lineal succession from the Saint Peter, one of the twelve apostles.[193] Consequently, Rome has traditionally occupied a central position in the Catholic Church, although this is not necessarily so. The pope derives his pontificate from being the bishop of Rome but is not required to live there; according to the Latin formula ubi Papa, ibi Curia, wherever the pope resides is the central government of the Church. As such, between 1309 and 1378, the popes lived in Avignon, France,[194] a period often called the "Babylonian captivity" in allusion to the Biblical narrative of Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah living as captives in Babylonia
.

Though the pope is the diocesan bishop of Rome, he delegates most of the day-to-day work of leading the diocese to the

cardinal vicar, who assures direct episcopal oversight of the diocese's pastoral needs, not in his own name but in that of the pope. The current cardinal vicar is Angelo De Donatis
, who was appointed to the office in June 2017.

Political role

Sovereign of the Vatican City State
His Holiness
ResidenceApostolic Palace
First SovereignPope Pius XI
Formation11 February 1929
Websitevaticanstate.va
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler

Though the progressive

coronation of Napoleon I
in 1804 but did not actually perform the crowning. As mentioned above, the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States ended in 1870 with their annexation by Italy.

Popes like

Julius II
, a formidable general and statesman, were not afraid to use power to achieve their own ends, which included increasing the power of the papacy. This political and temporal authority was demonstrated through the papal role in the Holy Roman Empire (especially prominent during periods of contention with the emperors, such as during the pontificates of Pope Gregory VII and Pope Alexander III).

Papal bulls,

Elizabeth I of England and declared that all her subjects were released from allegiance to her. The bull Inter gravissimas in 1582 established the Gregorian calendar.[196]

In recent decades, although the papacy has become less directly involved in politics, popes have nevertheless retained significant political influence. They have also served as mediators, with the support of the Catholic establishment.[197][198] John Paul II, a native of Poland, was regarded as influential in the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe.[199] He also mediated the Beagle conflict between Argentina and Chile, two predominantly Catholic countries.[200] In the 21st century, Francis played a role in brokering the 2015 improvement in relations between the United States and Cuba.[201][202]

International position

Under international law, a serving head of state has sovereign immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of other countries, though not from that of international tribunals.[203][204] This immunity is sometimes loosely referred to as "diplomatic immunity", which is, strictly speaking, the immunity enjoyed by the diplomatic representatives of a head of state.

International law treats the Holy See, essentially the central government of the Catholic Church, as the juridical equal of a state. It is distinct from the state of Vatican City, existing for many centuries before the foundation of the latter. (It is common for publications and news media to use "the Vatican", "Vatican City", and even "Rome" as

metonyms
for the Holy See.) Most countries of the world maintain the same form of diplomatic relations with the Holy See that they entertain with other states. Even countries without those diplomatic relations participate in international organizations of which the Holy See is a full member.

It is as head of the state-equivalent worldwide religious jurisdiction of the Holy See (not of the territory of Vatican City) that the

sexual abuse by Catholic priests could proceed, provided the plaintiffs could prove that the bishops accused of negligent supervision were acting as employees or agents of the Holy See and were following official Holy See policy.[206][207][208]

In April 2010, there was press coverage in Britain concerning a proposed plan by

atheist campaigners and a prominent barrister[who?] to have Pope Benedict XVI arrested and prosecuted in the UK for alleged offences, dating from several decades before, in failing to take appropriate action regarding Catholic sex abuse cases and concerning their disputing his immunity from prosecution in that country.[209] This was generally dismissed as "unrealistic and spurious".[210] Another barrister said that it was a "matter of embarrassment that a senior British lawyer would want to allow himself to be associated with such a silly idea".[211]

Sovereign immunity does not apply to disputes relating to commercial transactions, and governmental units of the Holy See can face trial in foreign commercial courts. The first such trial to take place in the English courts is likely to occur in 2022 or 2023.[212][213]

Objections to the papacy

Antichristus, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, from Luther's 1521 Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist. The pope is signing and selling indulgences.

The pope's claim to authority is either disputed or rejected outright by other churches, for various reasons.

Orthodox, Anglican and Old Catholic churches

Other traditional Christian churches (

Independent Catholic churches, etc.) accept the doctrine of Apostolic succession and, to varying extents, papal claims to a primacy of honour, while generally rejecting the pope as the successor to Peter in any other sense than that of other bishops. Primacy is regarded as a consequence of the pope's position as bishop of the original capital city of the Roman Empire, a definition explicitly spelled out in the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon. These churches see no foundation to papal claims of universal immediate jurisdiction, or to claims of papal infallibility. Several of these churches refer to such claims as ultramontanism
.

Protestant denominations

In 1973, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs and the USA National Committee of the Lutheran World Federation in the official Catholic–Lutheran dialogue included this passage in a larger statement on papal primacy:

In calling the pope the "Antichrist", the early

Daniel 11, a passage that even prior to the Reformation had been applied to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days.[214]

Man of Sin from 2 Thessalonians 2:3–12,[216] and the Beast out of the Earth from Revelation 13:11–18.[217]

Christus, by Lucas Cranach. This woodcut of John 13:14–17 is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist.[218] Cranach shows Jesus kissing Peter's foot during the footwashing. This stands in contrast to the opposing woodcut, where the pope demands others kiss his foot.
Antichristus, by the Lutheran Lucas Cranach the Elder. This woodcut of the traditional practice of kissing the pope's foot is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist.

This sweeping rejection is held by, among others, some denominations of Lutherans:

Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod (LCMS), adopted A Brief Statement of the Doctrinal Position of the Missouri Synod, which a small number of Lutheran church bodies now hold. The Lutheran Churches of the Reformation,[219] the Concordia Lutheran Conference,[220] the Church of the Lutheran Confession,[221] and the Illinois Lutheran Conference[222] all hold to the Brief Statement, which the LCMS places on its website.[223] The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS), another Confessional Lutheran church that declares the Papacy to be the Antichrist, released its own statement, the "Statement on the Antichrist", in 1959. The WELS still holds to this statement.[224]

Historically, Protestants objected to the papacy's claim of temporal power over all secular governments, including territorial claims in Italy,[225] the papacy's complex relationship with secular states such as the Roman and Byzantine empires, and the autocratic character of the papal office.[226] In Western Christianity these objections both contributed to and are products of the Protestant Reformation.

Antipopes

Groups sometimes form around antipopes, who claim the Pontificate without being canonically and properly elected to it.

Traditionally, this term was reserved for claimants with a significant following of cardinals or other clergy. The existence of an antipope is usually due either to doctrinal controversy within the Church (heresy) or to confusion as to who is the legitimate pope at the time (schism). Briefly in the 15th century, three separate lines of popes claimed authenticity.[227]

Other uses of the title "Pope"

In the earlier centuries of Christianity, the title "Pope", meaning "father", had been used by all bishops. Some popes used the term and others did not. Eventually, the title became associated especially with the bishop of Rome. In a few cases, the term is used for other Christian clerical authorities.

In English, Catholic priests are still addressed as "father", but the term "pope" is reserved for the head of the church hierarchy.

In the Catholic Church

"Black Pope" is a name that was popularly, but unofficially, given to the

Pius V the popes dress in white) and the cardinal prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (formerly called the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith), whose red cardinal's cassock gave him the name of the "Red Pope" in view of the authority over all territories that were not considered in some way Catholic. In the present time this cardinal has power over mission territories for Catholicism, essentially the Churches of Africa and Asia,[228]
but in the past his competence extended also to all lands where Protestants or Eastern Christianity was dominant. Some remnants of this situation remain, with the result that, for instance, New Zealand is still in the care of this Congregation.

In the Eastern Churches

Since the papacy of Heraclas in the 3rd century, the bishop of Alexandria in both the

In the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church and Macedonian Orthodox Church, it is not unusual for a village priest to be called a "pope" ("поп" pop). This is different from the words used for the head of the Catholic Church (Bulgarian "папа" papa, Russian "папа римский" papa rimskiy).

In new religious movements and other Christian-related new religious movements

Some

Cao Dai
, a Vietnamese faith that duplicates the Catholic hierarchy, is similarly headed by a pope.

Lengths of papal reign

Longest-reigning popes

Pope Pius IX, the pope with the longest verifiable reign

The longest papal reigns of those whose reign lengths can be determined from contemporary historical data are the following:

  1. Saint Peter (c. 30–64/68): c. 34 – c. 38 years (Around 12,000–14,000 days)[230]
  2. Bl. Pius IX (1846–1878): 31 years, 7 months and 23 days (11,560 days)
  3. St. John Paul II (1978–2005): 26 years, 5 months and 18 days (9,665 days)
  4. Leo XIII (1878–1903): 25 years, 5 months and 1 day (9,281 days)
  5. Pius VI (1775–1799): 24 years, 6 months and 15 days (8,962 days)
  6. Adrian I (772–795): 23 years, 10 months and 25 days (8,729 days)
  7. Pius VII (1800–1823): 23 years, 5 months and 7 days (8,560 days)
  8. Alexander III (1159–1181): 21 years, 11 months and 24 days (8,029 days)
  9. St. Sylvester I (314–335): 21 years, 11 months and 1 day (8,005 days)
  10. St. Leo I (440–461): 21 years, 1 month, and 13 days (7,713 days)

During the Western Schism,

anti-pope
, he is not included there.

Shortest-reigning popes

Pope Urban VII, the shortest-reigning pope

There have been a number of popes whose reign lasted about a month or less. In the following list the number of calendar days includes partial days. Thus, for example, if a pope's reign commenced on 1 August and he died on 2 August, this counts as reigning for two calendar days.

  1. Urban VII (15–27 September 1590): reigned for 13 calendar days, died before coronation.
  2. Boniface VI (April 896): reigned for 16 calendar days
  3. Celestine IV (25 October – 10 November 1241): reigned for 17 calendar days, died before coronation.
  4. Theodore II (December 897): reigned for 20 calendar days
  5. Sisinnius (15 January – 4 February 708): reigned for 21 calendar days
  6. Marcellus II (9 April – 1 May 1555): reigned for 23 calendar days
  7. Damasus II (17 July – 9 August 1048): reigned for 24 calendar days
  8. Pius III (22 September – 18 October 1503) and Leo XI (1–27 April 1605): both reigned for 27 calendar days
  9. Benedict V (22 May – 23 June 964): reigned for 33 calendar days
  10. Bl. John Paul I (26 August – 28 September 1978): reigned for 34 calendar days

consecration as a bishop. He is not recognized as a valid pope, but was added to the lists of popes in the 15th century as Stephen II, causing difficulties in enumerating later popes named Stephen. The Holy See's Annuario Pontificio, in its list of popes
and antipopes, attaches a footnote to its mention of Pope Stephen II:

On the death of

canon law of the time was the true commencement of his pontificate, his name is not registered in the Liber Pontificalis nor in other lists of the popes.[231]

Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes.[232]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ pontifex maximus or summus pontifex
  2. ^ Romanus pontifex
  3. ^ The papacy was an influence in regulating the colonization of the New World. See Treaty of Tordesillas and Inter caetera.
  4. ^ "Continuing in that same undertaking, this Council is resolved to declare and proclaim before all men the doctrine concerning bishops, the successors of the apostles, who together with the successor of Peter, the Vicar of Christ, the visible Head of the whole Church, govern the house of the living God."[27]
  5. Patriarch Athenegoras addressed the visiting pope as Peter's successor, the first in honor among us, and the presider over charity, this great church leader was expressing the essential content of the declarations of the primacy of the first millennium".[42]

References

  1. ^ Wilken, p. 281, quote: "Some (Christian communities) had been founded by Peter, the disciple Jesus designated as the founder of his church. [...] Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first Pope of the Christian church in Rome"
  2. ^ a b "Rome, Patriarchate of | Encyclopedia.com". encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  3. ^ a b "In Biden's visit with the pope, a page from Reagan's playbook?". theconversation.com. 27 October 2021. Archived from the original on 7 May 2022. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Christ's Faithful – Hierarchy, Laity, Consecrated Life: The episcopal college and its head, the pope". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1993. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  5. ^ "News from The Associated Press". Archived from the original on 15 March 2013.
  6. ^ "Definition of Holy See". Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  7. .
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wetterau, Bruce. World history. New York: Henry Holt & co. 1994.
  9. . Although Faus is deeply critical of the temporal power of the popes ("Once again this highlights one of the greatest drawbacks of the political status of Peter's successors" – page 64), he also admits a positive secular role on the part of the popes ("We cannot deny that papal interventions of this kind prevented more than one war in Europe" – page 65).
  10. ^ Jarrett, Bede (1913). "Papal Arbitration" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. ^ "The Role of the Vatican in the Modern World". Archived from the original on 4 May 2005.
  12. ^ "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. November 2014. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  13. ^ "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. January 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
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  18. .
  19. .
  20. .
  21. .
  22. .
  23. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica Book VII, chapter 7.4
  24. ^ "pope, n.1". Oxford English Dictionary Online. September 2011. Oxford University Press. 21 November 2011
  25. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church – Christ's Faithful – Hierarchy, Laity, Consecrated Life". Archived from the original on 6 September 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  26. ^ (Lumen Gentium, Pope Paul VI 1964, Chapter 3)
  27. ^ "Lumen gentium, 22". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  28. ^ .
  29. .
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  31. ^ Gröber, 510
  32. ^ "Letter of Ignatius of Antioch to the Romans". Crossroads Initiative. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  33. ^ O'Connor, Daniel William (2013). "Saint Peter the Apostle". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. p. 5. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2013. [M]any scholars [...> accept Rome as the location of the martyrdom and the reign of Nero as the time.
  34. ^ Zeitschr. fur Kirchengesch. (in German), 1901, pp. 1 sqq., 161 sqq
  35. ^ The Secrets of the 12 Disciples, Channel 4, transmitted on 23 March 2008.
  36. ^ .
  37. .
  38. ^ The Early Christian Church by Chadwick
  39. ^ (Emmanuel Clapsis, Papal Primacy Archived 3 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, extract from Orthodoxy in Conversation (2000), p. 110)
  40. ^ (Clapsis, p. 102)
  41. ^ (Clapsis, p. 113)
  42. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 1997 edition revised 2005, page 211
  43. ^ Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 1, 2006
  44. ^ Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 1, 2006, page 418
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  93. ^ Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on Matthew 16:18". Commentary on the Gospels. StudyLight.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. It is readily answered by the Papists, that "Peter was the rock." But let them tell me why Matthew used not the same word in Greek, if our Saviour used the same word in Syriac. If he had intimated that the church should be built upon Peter, it had been plainer and more agreeable to be the vulgar idiom to have said, "Thou art Peter, and upon thee I will build my church.
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  95. ^ Gill, John. "Commentary on Matthew 16:18". Exposition of the Whole Bible. StudyLight.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. by the rock, is meant, either the confession of faith made by Peter; not the act, nor form, but the matter of it, it containing the prime articles of Christianity, and which are as immoveable as a rock; or rather Christ himself, who points, as it were, with his finger to himself, and whom Peter had made such a glorious confession of; and who was prefigured by the rock the Israelites drank water out of in the wilderness; and is comparable to any rock for height, shelter, strength, firmness, and duration; and is the one and only foundation of his church and people, and on whom their security, salvation, and happiness entirely depend.
  96. ^ Wesley, John. "Commentary on Matthew 16:18". Wesley's Notes on the Bible. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2013. On this rock – Alluding to his name, which signifies a rock, namely, the faith which thou hast now professed; I will build my Church – But perhaps when our Lord uttered these words, he pointed to himself, in like manner as when he said, Destroy this temple, John 2:19; meaning the temple of his body. And it is certain, that as he is spoken of in Scripture, as the only foundation of the Church, so this is that which the apostles and evangelists laid in their preaching. It is in respect of laying this, that the names of the twelve apostles (not of St. Peter only) were equally inscribed on the twelve foundations of the city of God, Revelation 21:14. The gates of here – As gates and walls were the strength of cities, and as courts of judicature were held in their gates, this phrase properly signifies the power and policy of Satan and his instruments. Shall not prevail against it – Not against the Church universal, so as to destroy it. And they never did. There hath been a small remnant in all ages.
  97. ^ Scofield, C. I. "Commentary on Matthew 16:18". Scofield's Reference Notes. 1917 edition. StudyLight.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. There is the Greek a play upon the words, "thou art Peter petros-- literally 'a little rock', and upon this rock Petra I will build my church." He does not promise to build His church upon Peter, but upon Himself, as Peter is careful to tell us (1 Peter 2:4–9).
  98. ^ Henry, Matthew. "Commentary on Matthew 16:18". Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible. StudyLight.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013. First, Some by this rock understand Peter himself as an apostle, the chief, though not the prince, of the twelve, senior among them, but not superior over them. The church is built upon the foundation of the apostles, Ephesians 2:20. The first stones of that building were laid in and by their ministry; hence their names are said to be written in the foundations of the new Jerusalem, Revelation 21:14...First, Some by this rock understand Peter himself as an apostle, the chief, though not the prince, of the twelve, senior among them, but not superior over them. The church is built upon the foundation of the apostles, Ephesians 2:20. The first stones of that building were laid in and by their ministry; hence their names are said to be written in the foundations of the new Jerusalem, Revelation 21:14. ... Thirdly, Others by this rock understand this confession which Peter made of Christ, and this comes all to one with understanding it of Christ himself. It was a good confession which Peter witnessed, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God; the rest concurred with him in it. "Now", saith Christ, "this is that great truth upon which I will build my church." 1. Take away this truth itself, and the universal church falls to the ground. If Christ be not the Son of God, Christianity is a cheat, and the church is a mere chimera; our preaching is vain, your faith is vain, and you are yet in your sins, 1 Corinthians 15:14–17. If Jesus be not the Christ, those that own him are not of the church, but deceivers and deceived. 2. Take away the faith and confession of this truth from any particular church, and it ceases to be a part of Christ's church, and relapses to the state and character of infidelity. This is articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesia—that article, with the admission or the denial of which the church either rises or falls; "the main hinge on which the door of salvation turns;" those who let go this, do not hold the foundation; and though they may call themselves Christians, they give themselves the lie; for the church is a sacred society, incorporated upon the certainty and assurance of this great truth; and great it is, and has prevailed.
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Bibliography

Further reading

External links

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