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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

SARS-CoV-2 as seen by a cryo-electron tomography scan.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures. (Full article...)

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About the virus

This colorized transmission electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2—also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19—isolated from a patient in the U.S.

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus (which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families) Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article...)

About the symptoms and spread

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Common symptoms include headache, loss of smell and taste, nasal congestion and runny nose, cough, muscle pain, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, and breathing difficulties. People with the same infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19.

As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a person first becomes infected and the appearance of the first symptoms. The median delay for COVID-19 is four to five days. Most symptomatic people experience symptoms within two to seven days after exposure, and almost all will experience at least one symptom within 12 days. (Full article...)

The disease is mainly transmitted via the respiratory route when people inhale droplets and small airborne particles (that form an aerosol) that infected people breath out as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Infected people are more likely to transmit COVID-19 when they are physically close. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors. 2). (Full article...)

Disease progress

Cases
240,070,992
Deaths
4,889,737

Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 240,070,992 4,889,737
United States United States 44,884,868 723,754
European Union European Union[b] 38,795,444 782,347
India India 34,053,573 451,980
Brazil Brazil 21,627,476 602,669
United Kingdom United Kingdom 8,400,983 138,792
Russia Russia 7,804,750 217,382
Turkey Turkey 7,601,596 67,225
France France 7,180,773 118,153
Iran Iran 5,765,904 123,695
Argentina Argentina 5,271,361 115,660
Spain Spain 4,984,386 86,974
Colombia Colombia 4,978,689 126,796
Italy Italy 4,712,482 131,503
Germany Germany 4,366,833 94,605
Indonesia Indonesia 4,233,014 142,889
Mexico Mexico 3,749,860 284,008
Poland Poland 2,933,834 76,067
South Africa South Africa 2,915,560 88,562
Ukraine Ukraine 2,731,325 64,068
Philippines Philippines 2,713,509 40,580
Malaysia Malaysia 2,377,033 27,770
Peru Peru 2,187,368 199,775
Netherlands Netherlands 2,079,689 18,669
Iraq Iraq 2,032,660 22,713
Thailand Thailand 1,762,190 18,123
Japan Japan 1,714,201 18,084
Czech Republic Czechia 1,705,971 30,528
Canada Canada 1,684,435 28,521
Chile Chile 1,667,547 37,594
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,564,881 27,746
Romania Romania 1,430,475 41,130
Israel Israel 1,314,213 7,976
Belgium Belgium 1,279,869 25,747
Pakistan Pakistan 1,263,664 28,252
Sweden Sweden 1,161,933 14,956
Portugal Portugal 1,078,729 18,078
Serbia Serbia 1,037,707 8,996
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 992,488 16,618
Morocco Morocco 941,446 14,533
Cuba Cuba 930,822 8,018
Vietnam Vietnam 857,639 21,043
Switzerland Switzerland 854,591 11,158
Jordan Jordan 839,544 10,859
Hungary Hungary 833,115 30,351
Nepal Nepal 804,516 11,277
Austria Austria 771,143 11,151
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 738,372 2,118
Tunisia Tunisia 710,673 25,082
Greece Greece 689,896 15,317
Georgia (country) Georgia 652,677 9,396
Lebanon Lebanon 632,781 8,413
Guatemala Guatemala 586,318 14,236
Belarus Belarus 567,938 4,369
Costa Rica Costa Rica 551,144 6,797
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 547,845 8,758
Bulgaria Bulgaria 537,752 22,188
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 530,421 13,449
Ecuador Ecuador 513,026 32,899
Bolivia Bolivia 506,150 18,824
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 498,630 6,734
Myanmar Myanmar 485,646 18,297
Panama Panama 469,998 7,288
Paraguay Paraguay 460,322 16,209
State of Palestine Palestine 447,032 4,556
Slovakia Slovakia 433,709 12,816
Croatia Croatia 424,666 8,862
Kuwait Kuwait 412,258 2,455
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 411,554 5,306
Uruguay Uruguay 390,762 6,066
Venezuela Venezuela 390,045 4,693
Honduras Honduras 371,861 10,083
Denmark Denmark 369,293 2,681
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 368,830 4,082
Lithuania Lithuania 363,630 5,376
Ethiopia Ethiopia 358,345 6,169
Libya Libya 349,210 4,860
South Korea South Korea 340,978 2,644
Mongolia Mongolia 336,508 1,527
Egypt Egypt 316,711 17,884
Moldova Moldova 313,849 7,172
Slovenia Slovenia 306,064 4,631
Oman Oman 304,025 4,103
Armenia Armenia 278,431 5,713
Bahrain Bahrain 275,975 1,391
Kenya Kenya 251,803 5,210
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 243,914 11,110
Qatar Qatar 237,798 608
Zambia Zambia 209,477 3,657
Nigeria Nigeria 208,797 2,769
Algeria Algeria 205,106 5,867
North Macedonia North Macedonia 196,376 6,901
Norway Norway 195,808 884
Botswana Botswana 181,856 2,386
Latvia Latvia 180,440 2,869
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 180,162 1,283
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 179,681 2,629
Albania Albania 177,108 2,807
Estonia Estonia 170,159 1,415
Kosovo Kosovo 160,515 2,973
Afghanistan Afghanistan 155,688 7,238
Mozambique Mozambique 151,080 1,925
Finland Finland 149,897 1,116
Singapore Singapore 141,772 215
Australia Australia 141,031 1,515
Montenegro Montenegro 137,046 2,018
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 132,285 4,655
Ghana Ghana 128,368 1,158
Namibia Namibia 128,239 3,538
Uganda Uganda 125,049 3,180
Cyprus Cyprus 121,995 560
Cambodia Cambodia 116,140 2,610
El Salvador El Salvador 110,188 3,447
Rwanda Rwanda 99,067 1,313
Cameroon Cameroon 98,402 1,550
China China[c] 96,579 4,636
Jamaica Jamaica 86,986 2,072
Maldives Maldives 85,977 237
Luxembourg Luxembourg 79,720 839
Senegal Senegal 73,859 1,871
Angola Angola 62,606 1,660
Malawi Malawi 61,709 2,292
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 60,982 674
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 57,269 1,089
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 53,689 1,584
Fiji Fiji 51,701 663
Eswatini Eswatini 46,359 1,233
Suriname Suriname 46,132 1,007
Madagascar Madagascar 43,616 960
Sudan Sudan 39,416 2,976
Syria Syria 38,365 2,382
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 38,006 347
Malta Malta 37,437 459
Mauritania Mauritania 36,591 787
Guyana Guyana 34,240 862
Gabon Gabon 33,442 213
Laos Laos 31,188 36
Guinea Guinea 30,572 385
Tanzania Tanzania 26,034 724
Togo Togo 25,865 238
Benin Benin 24,560 161
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 24,041 266
Belize Belize 23,990 461
Haiti Haiti 22,827 649
Seychelles Seychelles 21,854 119
The Bahamas Bahamas 21,580 590
Lesotho Lesotho 21,524 655
Somalia Somalia 21,269 1,180
East Timor Timor-Leste 19,703 119
Burundi Burundi 19,555 38
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,484 125
Mauritius Mauritius 16,621 129
Taiwan Taiwan 16,325 846
Nicaragua Nicaragua 15,737 206
Mali Mali 15,577 555
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 15,514 222
Andorra Andorra 15,338 130
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 14,657 203
Djibouti Djibouti 13,377 179
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 12,840 156
Iceland Iceland 12,455 33
Barbados Barbados 12,427 109
Hong Kong Hong Kong 12,285 213
South Sudan South Sudan 12,184 130
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 12,129 232
Central African Republic Central African Republic 11,469 100
Brunei Brunei 10,251 68
The Gambia Gambia 9,946 339
Yemen Yemen 9,495 1,798
Eritrea Eritrea 6,767 44
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 6,396 121
Niger Niger 6,143 204
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 6,129 141
Liberia Liberia 5,803 286
Grenada Grenada 5,721 192
San Marino San Marino 5,473 91
Chad Chad 5,067 174
New Zealand New Zealand 4,940 28
Comoros Comoros 4,184 147
Dominica Dominica 4,153 28
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4,096 38
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 3,858 93
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 3,670 56
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 3,584 60
Monaco Monaco 3,357 35
Bhutan Bhutan 2,617 3
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,525 21
Vatican City Vatican City 27 0
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 20
Palau Palau 8 0
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 4
Vanuatu Vanuatu 4 1
Samoa Samoa 3
Kiribati Kiribati 2
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1 0
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

National responses

Due to the pandemic in Europe, many countries in the Schengen Area have restricted free movement and set up border controls. National reactions have included containment measures such as quarantines and curfews (known as stay-at-home orders, shelter-in-place orders, or lockdowns). The WHO's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganise, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the long-term responses to the pandemic should consist of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.

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Recent news

16 October 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Australia
COVID-19 pandemic in Tasmania
Southern Tasmania, including the state capital of Hobart, enters lockdown after an increase in local COVID-19 transmission. (The Guardian Australia)
COVID-19 pandemic in Russia
Russia on Saturday recorded 1,000 COVID-related deaths in a single day for the first time since the pandemic began. Only about one third of the population has been vaccinated, amid wide distrust. (BBC News)
15 October 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Asia

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences beyond the spread of the disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. As the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The pandemic caused the 2nd largest global recession in history, with more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Global stock markets fell on 24 February 2020 due to a significant rise in the number of COVID-19 cases outside mainland China. By 28 February 2020, stock markets worldwide saw their largest single-week declines since the financial crisis of 2007–2008. This culminated in the 2020 stock market crash. (Full article...)

Workplace

An inverted triangle consisting of five colored horizontal levels, each containing one tee five hazard control methods: elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment
The hierarchy of hazard controls contains methods for controlling exposures to hazards. Methods listed towards the top potentially more effective than those at the bottom at reducing the risk of illness or injury.[2]

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The proper hazard controls in the workplace depend on the worksite and job task, based on an occupational risk assessment of sources of exposure, disease severity in the community, and risk factors of individual workers who may be vulnerable to contracting COVID-19.

OSHA considers healthcare and mortuary workers exposed to known or suspected person with COVID-19 to be at high exposure risk, which increases to very high exposure risk if workers perform aerosol-generating procedures on, or collect or handle specimens from, known or suspected person with COVID-19. Hazard controls appropriate for these workers include engineering controls such as negative pressure ventilation rooms, and personal protective equipment appropriate to the job task. (Full article...)

Misinformation

COVID-19 misinformation refers to any kind of subject about the COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in misinformation and conspiracy theories about the scale of the pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. False information, including intentional disinformation, has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Multiple countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article...)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article...)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, an established body of knowledge existed about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This knowledge accelerated the development of various vaccine platforms during early 2020. The initial focus of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was on preventing symptomatic, often severe illness. On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19. The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread, severity, and death caused by COVID-19. (Full article...)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article...)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 16 October 2021, there are 2,084 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  2. ^ "Hierarchy of Controls". U.S. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2017-03-05.

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