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Portal:COVID-19

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The COVID-19 portal

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease spread worldwide, leading to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmission. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

The pandemic triggered severe social and economic disruption around the world, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression. Widespread supply shortages, including food shortages, were caused by supply chain disruption. The resultant near-global lockdowns saw an unprecedented pollution decrease. Educational institutions and public areas were partially or fully closed in many jurisdictions, and many events were cancelled or postponed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media, and political tensions intensified. The pandemic raised issues of racial and geographic discrimination, health equity, and the balance between public health imperatives and individual rights. (Full article)
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About the virus

SARS‑CoV‑2 belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus, with a single linear RNA segment. Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS, fatality rate ~34%). SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV.

Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (beta-CoV lineage B). Coronaviruses undergo frequent recombination. The mechanism of recombination in unsegmented RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is generally by copy-choice replication, in which gene material switches from one RNA template molecule to another during replication. SARS-CoV-2 RNA sequence is approximately 30,000 bases in length, relatively long for a coronavirus (which in turn carry the largest genomes among all RNA families) Its genome consists nearly entirely of protein-coding sequences, a trait shared with other coronaviruses. (Full article)

Disease progress

As of 25 June 2022, 542,915,294 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, resulting in 6,327,836 reported deaths.[1]


Updated June 25, 2022.
COVID-19 pandemic by location[1]
Location Cases Deaths
World[a] 542,915,294 6,327,836
European Union European Union[b] 147,064,683 1,101,940
United States United States 86,909,716 1,015,789
India India 43,378,234 524,974
Brazil Brazil 32,023,166 670,229
France France 30,574,230 149,386
Germany Germany 27,771,111 140,734
United Kingdom United Kingdom 22,671,160 180,105
South Korea South Korea 18,319,773 24,516
Russia Russia 18,144,007 373,075
Italy Italy 18,128,044 168,018
Turkey Turkey 15,085,742 98,996
Spain Spain 12,681,820 107,799
Vietnam Vietnam 10,742,234 43,084
Argentina Argentina 9,341,492 129,016
Japan Japan 9,210,607 31,104
Netherlands Netherlands 8,163,222 22,440
Australia Australia 7,978,875 9,655
Iran Iran 7,235,928 141,379
Colombia Colombia 6,151,354 139,970
Indonesia Indonesia 6,076,894 156,711
Poland Poland 6,012,635 116,412
Mexico Mexico 5,923,086 325,511
Portugal Portugal 5,120,970 24,013
Ukraine Ukraine 5,040,518 112,459
Malaysia Malaysia 4,552,359 35,745
Thailand Thailand 4,509,541 30,559
Austria Austria 4,400,566 20,015
Israel Israel 4,286,123 10,921
Belgium Belgium 4,211,511 31,883
South Africa South Africa 3,991,003 101,717
Canada Canada 3,939,607 41,875
Chile Chile 3,935,375 58,346
Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,928,797 40,313
Switzerland Switzerland 3,726,615 13,822
Philippines Philippines 3,699,251 60,507
Peru Peru 3,608,565 213,432
Greece Greece 3,595,498 30,154
Taiwan Taiwan 3,533,335 5,969
Denmark Denmark 3,161,148 6,438
Romania Romania 2,915,487 65,726
Slovakia Slovakia 2,548,069 20,142
Sweden Sweden 2,515,769 19,093
Iraq Iraq 2,336,764 25,229
Serbia Serbia 2,025,042 16,120
Bangladesh Bangladesh 1,962,213 29,135
Hungary Hungary 1,925,083 46,626
Jordan Jordan 1,698,316 14,068
Georgia (country) Georgia 1,659,371 16,839
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 1,587,385 7,469
Pakistan Pakistan 1,533,482 30,386
Norway Norway 1,443,637 3,280
Singapore Singapore 1,397,074 1,408
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1,395,337 19,018
New Zealand New Zealand 1,303,779 1,404
Hong Kong Hong Kong 1,234,166 9,398
Morocco Morocco 1,199,226 16,097
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,169,728 37,246
Croatia Croatia 1,143,966 16,047
Finland Finland 1,133,597 4,832
Lebanon Lebanon 1,106,766 10,458
Cuba Cuba 1,105,875 8,529
Lithuania Lithuania 1,066,353 9,163
Tunisia Tunisia 1,046,703 28,670
Slovenia Slovenia 1,034,172 6,648
Belarus Belarus 982,867 6,978
Nepal Nepal 979,489 11,952
Uruguay Uruguay 951,948 7,312
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 935,345 2,310
Mongolia Mongolia 926,282 2,179
Bolivia Bolivia 919,737 21,952
Panama Panama 912,348 8,340
Costa Rica Costa Rica 904,934 8,525
Ecuador Ecuador 898,667 35,695
Guatemala Guatemala 893,071 18,469
China China[c] 887,992 5,226
Latvia Latvia 832,884 5,855
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 793,106 9,717
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 788,294 9,194
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 664,052 16,521
State of Palestine Palestine 658,503 5,660
Paraguay Paraguay 655,532 18,963
Kuwait Kuwait 641,678 2,555
Bahrain Bahrain 615,125 1,492
Myanmar Myanmar 613,538 19,434
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 600,410 4,383
Estonia Estonia 579,316 2,588
Venezuela Venezuela 525,539 5,726
Moldova Moldova 519,741 11,563
Egypt Egypt 515,645 24,722
Cyprus Cyprus 504,717 1,072
Libya Libya 502,110 6,430
Ethiopia Ethiopia 486,831 7,527
Honduras Honduras 426,490 10,904
Armenia Armenia 423,104 8,629
Oman Oman 390,244 4,628
Qatar Qatar 378,818 678
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 378,413 15,799
Kenya Kenya 331,539 5,651
Zambia Zambia 325,110 4,003
Botswana Botswana 318,528 2,719
North Macedonia North Macedonia 313,360 9,322
Albania Albania 278,504 3,497
Algeria Algeria 266,025 6,875
Luxembourg Luxembourg 258,467 1,088
Nigeria Nigeria 256,711 3,144
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 255,309 5,549
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 240,087 1,637
Montenegro Montenegro 239,107 2,724
Mauritius Mauritius 229,479 1,002
Kosovo Kosovo 228,673 3,140
Mozambique Mozambique 227,527 2,212
Laos Laos 210,233 757
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 201,024 2,991
Iceland Iceland 192,991 153
Afghanistan Afghanistan 182,033 7,717
Maldives Maldives 180,384 300
El Salvador El Salvador 169,646 4,139
Namibia Namibia 169,007 4,058
Uganda Uganda 167,301 3,618
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 166,576 3,997
Ghana Ghana 164,843 1,448
Brunei Brunei 159,591 225
Jamaica Jamaica 142,161 3,112
Cambodia Cambodia 136,262 3,056
Rwanda Rwanda 130,749 1,459
Cameroon Cameroon 120,002 1,930
Malta Malta 100,138 740
Angola Angola 99,761 1,900
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 91,082 1,371
Malawi Malawi 86,348 2,645
Senegal Senegal 86,266 1,968
Barbados Barbados 83,524 473
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 82,953 804
Suriname Suriname 80,817 1,359
French Polynesia French Polynesia 73,234 649
Eswatini Eswatini 73,069 1,415
Guyana Guyana 66,947 1,249
Fiji Fiji 65,465 865
Madagascar Madagascar 65,009 1,398
New Caledonia New Caledonia 63,515 313
Belize Belize 63,037 679
Sudan Sudan 62,551 4,951
Bhutan Bhutan 59,674 21
Mauritania Mauritania 59,401 982
Cape Verde Cabo Verde 59,265 403
Syria Syria 55,920 3,150
Gabon Gabon 47,824 305
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 44,702 662
Seychelles Seychelles 44,669 167
Curaçao Curaçao 44,440 278
Andorra Andorra 43,774 153
Burundi Burundi 42,542 38
Aruba Aruba 40,179 221
Togo Togo 37,299 274
Guinea Guinea 36,817 442
The Bahamas Bahamas 35,810 816
Tanzania Tanzania 35,366 841
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands 34,658 28
Lesotho Lesotho 33,938 699
Isle of Man Isle of Man 33,821 108
Haiti Haiti 31,248 837
Mali Mali 31,150 736
Benin Benin 27,122 163
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 26,885 380
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 26,797 28
Somalia Somalia 26,748 1,361
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 24,128 385
East Timor Timor-Leste 22,949 133
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 21,544 153
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 21,044 387
Gibraltar Gibraltar 19,306 104
Grenada Grenada 18,243 232
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 17,814 85
Tajikistan Tajikistan 17,786 125
San Marino San Marino 17,719 115
South Sudan South Sudan 17,697 138
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 15,995 183
Bermuda Bermuda 15,957 138
Djibouti Djibouti 15,690 189
Dominica Dominica 14,821 67
Samoa Samoa 14,812 29
Central African Republic Central African Republic 14,649 113
Nicaragua Nicaragua 14,619 241
Monaco Monaco 12,769 57
Tonga Tonga 12,079 12
The Gambia Gambia 12,002 365
Greenland Greenland 11,971 21
Yemen Yemen 11,824 2,149
Vanuatu Vanuatu 11,044 14
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 10,320 37
Eritrea Eritrea 9,788 103
Niger Niger 9,031 310
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9,026 111
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 8,625 141
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 8,348 171
Comoros Comoros 8,136 160
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 7,693 125
Liberia Liberia 7,493 294
Chad Chad 7,424 193
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands 6,941 63
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands 6,211 36
São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe 6,023 73
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 5,941 43
Cook Islands Cook Islands 5,768 1
Palau Palau 5,201 6
Anguilla Anguilla 3,411 9
Kiribati Kiribati 3,236 13
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2,767 1
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands 1,807
Montserrat Montserrat 1,016 8
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 454 7
Macau Macau 125
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 38 0
Vatican City Vatican City 29 0
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 18
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 4
North Korea North Korea 1 6
  1. ^ Countries which do not report data for a column are not included in that column's world total.
  2. ^ Data on member states of the European Union are individually listed, but are also summed here for convenience. They are not double-counted in world totals.
  3. ^ Does not include special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau) or Taiwan.

About the symptoms

The symptoms of COVID-19 are variable depending on the type of variant contracted, ranging from mild symptoms to critical and possibly fatal illness. The Omicron variant became dominant in the U.S. starting in December of 2021 up until now. Symptoms with the Omicron variant are less severe as they are with other variants. Common symptoms include coughing, fever, loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), with less common ones including headaches, nasal congestion and runny nose, muscle pain, sore throat, diarrhea, eye irritation, and toes swelling or turning purple, and in moderate to severe cases breathing difficulties. People with the COVID-19 infection may have different symptoms, and their symptoms may change over time. Three common clusters of symptoms have been identified: one respiratory symptom cluster with cough, sputum, shortness of breath, and fever; a musculoskeletal symptom cluster with muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue; a cluster of digestive symptoms with abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In people without prior ear, nose, and throat disorders, loss of taste combined with loss of smell is associated with COVID-19 and is reported in as many as 88% of symptomatic cases. (Full article)

About the spread

COVID-19 is mainly transmitted when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets/aerosols and small airborne particles containing the virus. Infected people exhale those particles as they breathe, talk, cough, sneeze, or sing. Transmission is more likely the more physically close people are. However, infection can occur over longer distances, particularly indoors.

The number of people generally infected by one infected person varies, but it is estimated that the R0 ("R nought" or "R zero") number is around 2.5. The disease often spreads in clusters, where infections can be traced back to an index case or geographical location. Often in these instances, superspreading events occur, where many people are infected by one person. (Full article)

Containment measures

Goals of mitigation include delaying and reducing peak burden on healthcare (flattening the curve
) and lessening overall cases and health impact.
Many countries attempted to slow or stop the spread of COVID-19 by recommending, mandating or prohibiting behaviour changes, while others relied primarily on providing information. Measures ranged from public advisories to stringent lockdowns. Outbreak control strategies are divided into elimination and mitigation. Experts differentiate between" zero-COVID", which is an elimination strategy, and mitigation strategies that attempt to lessen the effects of the virus on society, but which still tolerate some level of transmission within the community. Containment strategies consists of the use of public health measures such as contact tracing, mass testing, border quarantine, lockdowns and mitigation software.These strategies can be pursued sequentially or simultaneously during the acquired immunity phase through natural and vaccine-induced immunity.

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Economic impact

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching economic consequences including the COVID-19 recession, the second largest global recession in recent history, decreased business in the services sector during the COVID-19 lockdowns, the 2020 stock market crash, which included the largest single-week stock market decline since the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the impact of the COVID-19 on financial markets, the 2021–2022 global supply chain crisis, the 2021–2022 inflation surge, shortages related to the COVID-19 pandemic including the 2020–present global chip shortage, panic buying, and price gouging. It led to governments providing an unprecedented amount of stimulus. The pandemic was also a factor in the 2021–2022 global energy crisis and 2022 food crises.

Many fashion, sport, and technology events have been canceled or have changed to be online. While the monetary impact on the travel and trade industry is yet to be estimated, it is likely to be in the billions and increasing. (Full article)

Workplace

Hazard controls for COVID-19 in workplaces are the application of occupational safety and health methodologies for hazard controls to the prevention of COVID-19. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against severe illness or death from COVID-19. Multiple layers of controls are recommended, including measures such as remote work and flextime, increased ventilation, personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings, social distancing, and enhanced cleaning programs. (Full article)

Misinformation

False information, including intentional disinformation and conspiracy theories, about the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic and the origin, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease has been spread through social media, text messaging, and mass media. False information has been propagated by celebrities, politicians, and other prominent public figures. Many countries have passed laws against "fake news", and thousands of people have been arrested for spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The spread of COVID-19 misinformation by governments has also been significant. (Full article)

Testing

COVID-19 testing involves analyzing samples to assess the current or past presence of SARS-CoV-2. The two main branches detect either the presence of the virus or of antibodies produced in response to infection. Molecular tests for viral presence through its molecular components are used to diagnose individual cases and to allow public health authorities to trace and contain outbreaks. Antibody tests (serology immunoassays) instead show whether someone once had the disease. They are less useful for diagnosing current infections because antibodies may not develop for weeks after infection. It is used to assess disease prevalence, which aids the estimation of the infection fatality rate. (Full article)

Vaccine research

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

The COVID‑19 vaccines are widely credited for their role in reducing the spread of COVID-19 and reducing the severity and death caused by COVID‑19. Many countries implemented phased distribution plans that prioritized those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers. (Full article)

Drug research

COVID-19 drug development is the research process to develop preventative therapeutic prescription drugs that would alleviate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). From early 2020 through 2021, several hundred drug companies, biotechnology firms, university research groups, and health organizations were developing therapeutic candidates for COVID-19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research (506 total candidates in April 2021), with 419 potential COVID-19 drugs in clinical trials, as of April 2021. (Full article)

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Get involved by joining WikiProject COVID-19. We discuss collaborations and all manner of issues on our talk page. As of 26 June 2022, there are 2,314 articles within the project's scope. A full list is available here.

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References

  1. ^ a b Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-06-25.

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