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Portugal

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Anthem: 
EU-Portugal with islands circled.svg
Location of Portugal (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Lisbon
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.150°W / 38.767; -9.150
Official languagesPortuguese
Recognised regional languagesMirandese[note 1]
Ethnic groups
(2021)
Religion
(2021)[4]
  • 14.1%
    constitutional republic[5]
• President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
António Costa
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
Establishment
868
1095
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
25 July 1139
5 October 1143
1 December 1640
23 September 1822
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[note 3]
1 January 1986
Atlantic/Azores)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (WEST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)
Note: Continental Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST; the Azores are 1 hour behind.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ By country of birth
  3. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 4] is a country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It features the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian portion is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, the sole country to have a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form two autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Lisbon is the capital and largest city by population.

Portugal is the oldest continuously existing nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples who had contact with Phoenicians and Ancient Greek traders, it was ruled by the Romans, followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples, in turn followed by the Moors who eventually were expelled. Portugal as a county was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora (1143).[14]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the

powers.[15] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. By the early 19th century however, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the resulting independence of Brazil in 1822 led to a marked decay of Portugal's prior opulence.[16] This was followed by the civil war between liberal
constitutionalists and conservative absolutists over royal succession, which lasted from 1828 to 1834.

The 1910 revolution deposed Portugal's centuries-old monarchy, and established the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic, later being superseded by the Estado Novo (New State) authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence

national central bank,[17] the 8th largest proven reserves of lithium,[18][19][20] with the weight of exports representing 49% of its GDP in 2022[21] and high living standards.[22][23][24] Additionally, it ranks highly in peacefulness, democracy,[25] press freedom, stability, social progress, prosperity and English proficiency. A member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Council of Europe (CoE), Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
.

Etymology

The word Portugal derives from the

Callaeci, Gallaeci or Gallaecia, who occupied the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula.[27] The names Cale and Callaici are the origin of today's Gaia and Galicia.[28][29]

Another theory proposes that Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for 'port', like the

Gaelic, Gael, Gaul, Wales, Cornwall, Wallonia and others all stem from one linguistic root.[28][30][31]

Another theory has it that Cala was the name of a Celtic goddess (drawing a comparison with the

Gaelic Cailleach, a supernatural hag). Some French scholars believe the name may have come from Portus Gallus,[32]
the port of the Gauls or Celts.

Around 200 BC, the

Minho
. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale, Portugallia, Portvgallo or Portvgalliae was already referred to as Portugal.

The 14th-century

excrescence, spread to Middle English.[33] Middle English variant spellings included Portingall, Portingale,[note 5] Portyngale and Portingaill.[33][35] The spelling Portyngale is found in Chaucer's Epilogue to the Nun's Priest's Tale. These variants survive in the Torrent of Portyngale, a Middle English romance composed around 1400, and "Old Robin of Portingale", an English Child ballad. Portingal and variants were also used in Scots[33] and survive in the Cornish name for the country, Portyngal
.

History

Prehistory

The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the

Carthaginians and Ancient Greeks, was incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia
, after 45 BC until 298 AD.

The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by

Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula.[38] These were subsistence societies and although they did not establish prosperous settlements, they did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing.[38]

It is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of

different tribes.[39] Another theory suggests that Celts inhabited western Iberia / Portugal well before any large Celtic migrations from Central Europe.[40] In addition, a number of linguists expert in ancient Celtic have presented compelling evidence that the Tartessian language, once spoken in parts of SW Spain and SW Portugal, is at least proto-Celtic in structure.[41]

Modern archaeology and research shows a Portuguese root to the Celts in Portugal and elsewhere.[42] During that period and until the Roman invasions, the Castro culture (a variation of the Urnfield culture also known as Urnenfelderkultur) was prolific in Portugal and modern Galicia.[43][44][29] This culture, together with the surviving elements of the Atlantic megalithic culture

Castro Culture.[46][47] This designation refers to the characteristic Celtic populations called 'dùn', 'dùin' or 'don' in Gaelic and that the Romans called castrae in their chronicles.[48]

Based on the Roman chronicles about the

druids to meet in councils with the druids of other areas, which ensured the transmission of knowledge and the most significant events.[citation needed
]

The first documentary references to Castro society are provided by chroniclers of Roman military campaigns such as Strabo, Herodotus and Pliny the Elder among others, about the social organization, and describing the inhabitants of these territories, the Gallaeci of Northern Portugal as:

"A group of barbarians who spend the day fighting and the night eating, drinking and dancing under the moon."

There were other similar tribes, and chief among them were the

Carthaginians
.

Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia

Roman
-built structures in the country.

Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC. The Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies. During the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula was annexed to the Roman Republic.

The Roman conquest of what is now part of Portugal took almost two hundred years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of those who were sentenced to a certain death in the slave mines when not sold as slaves to other parts of the empire. It suffered a severe setback in 155 BC, when a rebellion began in the north. The Lusitanians and other native tribes, under the leadership of Viriathus,[50][51] wrested control of all of western Iberia.

Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail – the Lusitanians kept conquering territory. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus's allies to kill him. In 139 BC, Viriathus was assassinated and Tautalus became leader of the Lusitanians.

Rome installed a colonial regime. The complete Romanization of Lusitania only took place in the

Visigothic
era.

In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara Augusta, today's Braga.[52] There are still many ruins of castros (

hill forts) throughout modern Portugal and remains of the Castro culture
. Some urban remains are quite large, like
National Monument. Conímbriga lies 16 kilometres (10 miles) from Coimbra, which in turn was the ancient Aeminium
. The site also has a museum that displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations.

Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theatres and laymen's homes are preserved throughout the country. Coins, some coined in Lusitanian land, as well as numerous pieces of ceramics, were also found. Contemporary historians include

Paulus Orosius (c. 375–418)[53] and Hydatius (c. 400–469), bishop of Aquae Flaviae, who reported on the final years of the Roman rule and arrival of the Germanic tribes
.

Germanic kingdoms: Suebi and Visigoths

Visigothic kingdom
in Iberia c. 560

In the early 5th century,

Alenquer (from old Germanic Alan kerk, temple of the Alans), Coimbra and Lisbon.[56]

About 410 and during the 6th century it became a formally declared Kingdom of the Suebi,[55][54] where king Hermeric made a peace treaty with the Gallaecians before passing his domains to Rechila, his son. In 448 Rechila died, leaving the state in expansion to Rechiar. After the defeat against the Visigoths, the Suebian kingdom was divided, with Frantan and Aguiulfo ruling simultaneously. Both reigned from 456 to 457, the year in which Maldras (457–459) reunified the kingdom. He was assassinated after a failed Roman-Visigothic conspiracy. Although the conspiracy did not achieve its true purposes, the Suebian Kingdom was again divided between two kings: Frumar (Frumario 459–463) and Remismund (Remismundo, son of Maldras) (459–469) who would re-reunify his father's kingdom in 463. He would be forced to adopt Arianism in 465 due to the Visigoth influence. By 500, the Visigothic Kingdom had been installed in Iberia, it was based in Toledo and advancing westwards. They became a threat to the Suebian rule. After the death of Remismund in 469 a dark period set in, where virtually all written texts and accounts disappear. This period lasted until 550. The only thing known about this period is that Theodemund (Teodemundo) most probably ruled the Suebians. The dark period ended with the reign of Karriarico (550–559) who reinstalled Catholic Christianity in 550. He was succeeded by Theodemar (559–570) during whose reign the 1st Council of Braga (561) was held.

Illustrated depiction of the First Council of Braga
of 561 CE

The councils represented an advance in the organization of the territory (paroeciam suevorum (Suebian parish) and the

Saint Martin of Braga (São Martinho de Braga).[57]

After the death of Teodomiro, Miro (570–583) was his successor. During his reign, the 2nd Council of Braga (572) was held. The Visigothic civil war began in 577. Miro intervened. Later in 583 he also organized an unsuccessful expedition to reconquer Seville. During the return from this failed operation Miro died.

In the Suebian Kingdom many internal struggles continued to take place.

Andeca (Audeca 584–585), who failed to prevent the Visigothic invasion led by Leovigildo. The Visigothic invasion, completed in 585, turned the once rich and fertile kingdom of the Suebi into the sixth province of the Gothic kingdom.[58]
Leovigild was crowned King of Gallaecia, Hispania and Gallia Narbonensis
.

For the next 300 years and by the year 700, the entire Iberian Peninsula was ruled by the Visigoths.[59][60][61][62][63] Under the Visigoths, Gallaecia was a well-defined space governed by a doge of its own. Doges at this time were related to the monarchy and acted as princes in all matters. Both 'governors' Wamba and Wittiza (Vitiza) acted as doge (they would later become kings in Toledo). These two became known as the 'vitizians', who headquartered in the northwest and called on the Arab invaders from the South to be their allies in the struggle for power in 711. King Roderic (Rodrigo) was killed while opposing this invasion, thus becoming the last Visigothic king of Iberia. From the various Germanic groups who settled in western Iberia, the Suebi left the strongest lasting cultural legacy in what is today Portugal, Galicia and western fringes of Asturias.[64][65][66] According to Dan Stanislawski, the Portuguese way of living in regions North of the Tagus is mostly inherited from the Suebi, in which small farms prevail, distinct from the large properties of Southern Portugal. Bracara Augusta, the modern city of

Orosius, at that time resident in Hispania, shows a rather pacific initial settlement, the newcomers working their lands[68] or serving as bodyguards of the locals.[69]
Another Germanic group that accompanied the Suebi and settled in Gallaecia were the
Buri. They settled in the region between the rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as Terras de Bouro (Lands of the Buri).[70]

Islamic period and the Reconquista

Today's continental Portugal, along with most of modern Spain, was part of al-Andalus between 726 and 1249, following the Umayyad Caliphate conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. This rule lasted from some decades in the North to five centuries in the South.[71]

After defeating the

Abd-ar-Rahman I with the establishment of the Emirate of Córdoba. After almost two centuries, the Emirate became the Caliphate of Córdoba in 929, until its dissolution a century later in 1031 into no less than 23 small kingdoms, called Taifa kingdoms.[71]

The governors of the taifas each proclaimed themselves

Almohads, also from Marrakesh.[72]
Al-Andaluz was divided into different districts called Kura.
Silves, Alcácer do Sal, Santarém and Lisbon
. The Muslim population of the region consisted mainly of native Iberian converts to
Atlas mountains region of North Africa and were nomads.[71]

County of Portugal

A statue of Count Vímara Peres, first Count of Portugal

An Asturian Visigothic noble named

Visigoth nobles. Pelagius called for the remnant of the Christian Visigothic armies to rebel against the Moors and regroup in the unconquered northern Asturian highlands, better known today as the Cantabrian Mountains, in what is today the small mountain region in north-western Spain, adjacent to the Bay of Biscay.[75]

Pelagius' plan was to use the Cantabrian mountains as a place of refuge and protection from the invading Moors. He then aimed to regroup the Iberian Peninsula's Christian armies and use the Cantabrian mountains as a springboard from which to regain their lands. In the process, after defeating the Moors in the Battle of Covadonga in 722, Pelagius was proclaimed king, thus founding the Christian Kingdom of Asturias and starting the war of Christian reconquest known in Portuguese as the Reconquista Cristã.[75]

At the end of the 9th century, the region of Portugal, between the rivers Minho and Douro, was reconquered from the Moors by the nobleman and knight Vímara Peres on the orders of King Alfonso III of Asturias. Finding that the region had previously had two major cities – Portus Cale in the coast and Braga in the interior, with many towns that were now deserted – he decided to repopulate and rebuild them with Portuguese and Galician refugees and other Christians.[76] Apart from the Arabs from the South, the coastal regions in the North were also attacked by

Olaf II Haraldsson
in 1014 against the Galician nobility who also stopped further advances into the County of Portugal.

Alfonso VI of León investing Henry, Count of Portugal
, in 1093